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United States of America

Abu Ghraib: Arguing Against Exceptionalism

Citation:

Puar, Jasbir K. 2004. "Abu Ghraib: Arguing Against Exceptionalism." Feminist Studies 30 (2): 522-34.

Author: Jasbir K. Puar

Topics: Gender, Men, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Men, Sexual Torture Regions: Africa, MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2004

Gender Violence at the US-Mexico Border: Media Representation and Public Response

Citation:

Ruvalcaba, Héctor Domínguez, and Ignacio Corona. 2010.  Gender Violence at the U.S.–Mexico Border: Media Representation and Public Response . Tuscon: University of Arizona Press.

Authors: Héctor Domínguez-Ruvalcaba, Ignacio Corona

Abstract:

The U.S.–Mexico border is frequently presented by contemporary media as a violent and dangerous place. But that is not a new perception. For decades the border has been constructed as a topographic metaphor for all forms of illegality, in which an ineffable link between space and violence is somehow assumed. The sociological and cultural implications of violence have recently emerged at the forefront of academic discussions about the border. And yet few studies have been devoted to one of its most disturbing manifestations: gender violence. This book analyzes this pervasive phenomenon, including the femicides in Ciudad Juárez that have come to exemplify, at least for the media, its most extreme manifestation.

Contributors to this volume propose that the study of gender-motivated violence requires interpretive and analytical strategies that draw on methods reaching across the divide between the social sciences and the humanities. Through such an interdisciplinary conversation, the book examines how such violence is (re)presented in oral narratives, newspaper reports, films and documentaries, novels, TV series, and legal discourse. It also examines the role that the media have played in this process, as well as the legal initiatives that might address this pressing social problem.

Together these essays offer a new perspective on the implications of, and connections between, gendered forms of violence and topics such as mechanisms of social violence, the micro-social effects of economic models, the asymmetries of power in local, national, and transnational configurations, and the particular rhetoric, aesthetics, and ethics of discourses that represent violence. (WorldCat)

Keywords: gender violence, media representation

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Media, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico, United States of America

Year: 2010

Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots

Citation:

Puar, Jasbir K., and Amit Rai. 2002. "Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots." Social Text 20 (3): 117-48.

Authors: Jasbir K. Puar, Amit Rai

Keywords: war on terror, terrorism, heterosexuality, patriotism

Topics: Gender, Patriarchy, Masculinism, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nationalism, Security, Sexuality, Terrorism Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2002

Modern-Day Comfort Women: The U.S. Military, Transnational Crime, and the Trafficking of Women

Citation:

Hughes, Donna M., Katherine Y. Chon, and Derek P. Ellerman. 2007. "Modern-Day Comfort Women: The U.S. Military, Transnational Crime, and the Trafficking of Women." Violence Against Women 13 (9): 901-22.

Authors: Donna M. Hughes, Katherine Y. Chon, Derek P. Ellerman

Abstract:

The trafficking of women has been a lucrative moneymaker for transnational organized crime networks, ranking third, behind drugs and arms, in criminal earnings. The U.S. military bases in South Korea were found to form a hub for the transnational trafficking of women from the Asia Pacific and Eurasia to South Korea and the United States.
This study, conducted in 2002, examined three types of trafficking that were connected to U.S. military bases in South Korea: domestic trafficking of Korean women to clubs around the military bases in South Korea, transnational trafficking of women to clubs around military bases in South Korea, and transnational trafficking of women from South Korea to massage parlors in the United States. 

Keywords: military sexual assault, sex trafficking, organized crime, US military bases

Topics: Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea, United States of America

Year: 2007

Transnational Desires: Trafficked Filipinas in US Military Camp Towns in South Korea

Citation:

Cheng, Sea-Ling. 2002. Transnational Desires: Trafficked Filipinas in US Military Camp Towns in South Korea. PhD diss., University of Oxford.

Author: Sea-Ling Cheng

Topics: Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines, South Korea, United States of America

Year: 2002

Male-to-Female Transgender Veterans and VA Health Care Utilization

Citation:

Shipherd, Jillian C., Lauren Mizock, Shira Maguen, and Kelly E. Green. 2012. "Male-to-Female Transgender Veterans and VA Health Care Utilization." International Journal of Sexual Health 24 (1): 78-87.

Authors: Jillian C. Shipherd, Lauren Mizock, Shira Maguen, Kelly E. Green

Abstract:

This study examined rates of military veteran status in an American male-to-female transgender community sample (n = 141). Thirty percent were veterans (n = 43), a rate that is triple the proportion of veteran status noted in the general population (10.1%). Among the veteran subsample, we examined health care utilization, including Veterans Health Administration (VA), health, and barriers to care. Use of VA services was higher among transgender veterans (transvets) than published rates of VA use in the general population of veterans (annual 6.2% to 15.8%), with 16.3% of all transvets seeking some VA care in the past 6- months. The most common physical health problems treated at the VA in the past year were high cholesterol, blood pressure, and vision problems. Irrespective of VA use, the majority of transvets reported getting routine health care (88.4%), and their physical health ratings were commensurate with population norms. Mental health services (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and gender identity counseling) were also utilized (9.3% VA, 25.6% non-VA) at levels consistent with the relatively low mental health functioning scores in this sample (SF-12 = 32.6, SD = 8.3). Barriers to care were endorsed more for medical than mental health treatment. In particular, transvets were concerned about medical providers’ reactions to their gender identity or sexual orientation. Given elevated rates of transvets in this community sample and reported barriers to care, culturally sensitive treatment is a priority for transvets in both VA and non-VA health care systems.

Keywords: depression, veterans

Topics: Combatants, Gender, Health, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2012

Strategic Transformation: Cultural and Gender Identity Negotiation in First-Generation Vietnamese Youth

Citation:

Stritikus, Tom, and Diem Nguyen. 2007. "Strategic Transformation: Cultural and Gender Identity Negotiation in First-Generation Vietnamese Youth." American Educational Research Journal 44 (4): 853-95.

Authors: Tom Stritikus, Diem Nguyen

Abstract:

This article explores the various ways in which recent Vietnamese immigrant students form cultural and gender identities as they transition to U.S. schooling. Using data from a 2-year qualitative study that tracked the social and academic adjustment processes of recent Vietnamese immigrant youth, this article examines the tensions that students struggle with as they bring their own values and practices into the school site. The findings suggest that gender functions as a complex social category for recent immigrants that shifts across social contexts. The authors argue that accounting for a full picture of gender identity more accurately captures the manner in which recent immigrant students adapt to U.S. schooling.

Keywords: immigration, gender identity

Topics: Age, Youth, Education, Gender Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 2007

Victims and Vamps, Madonnas and Whores: The Construction of Female Drug Couriers and the Practices of the US Security State

Citation:

Schemenauer, Ellie. 2012. "Victims and Vamps, Madonnas and Whores: The Construction of Female Drug Couriers and the Practices of the US Security State." International Feminist Journal of Politics 14 (1): 83-102.

Author: Ellie Schemenauer

Abstract:

This article explores how the US "war on drugs" depends on certain notions of femininity and womanhood. In particular, I examine how female couriers from the Americas are constructed at US border sites of international airports in the 1990s. I find that female drug couriers are described in terms of victims and vamps - a take off of the madonna/whore dichotomy. The victim and vamp discourses, I argue, are the performative enactments of a security state that operates according to a racialized logic of masculinist protection. I hold in tension the circulation of the victim/vamp discourses with the story of Paula, a Colombian woman who was caught trafficking heroin in hidden compartments of her suitcase. I use Paula's story to call attention to the political work in dismissing women as agents in the international drug trade.

Keywords: war on drugs, feminist perspectives, race, masculinity

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Security, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2012

Educating Students About the War on Drugs: Criminal and Civil Consequences of a Felony Drug Conviction

Citation:

Reynolds, Marylee. 2004. "Educating Students about the War on Drugs: Criminal and Civil Consequences of a Felony Drug Conviction." Women's Studies Quarterly 32 (3-4): 246-60.

Author: Marylee Reynolds

Abstract:

American society is a patriarchal one, where the needs, issues, and concerns of women are largely ignored. It should not be surprising then, that when legislators enact crime control policies. Especially drug policies, the social and economic impact of such policies on women is rarely considered. Here, Reynolds examines the criminal and civil consequences of a felony conviction for women, including how legislative policies penalize women, particularly women of color.

Keywords: public administration, intersectionality, criminal justice, war on drugs

Topics: Economies, Gender, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2004

Exporting Gender Injustice: The Impact of the U.S. War on Drugs on Ecuadorian Women

Citation:

Norton-Hawk, Maureen. 2010. "Exporting Gender Injustice: The Impact of the U.S. War on Drugs on Ecuadorian Women." Critical Criminology 18 (2): 133.

Author: Maureen Norton-Hawk

Abstract:

Numerous researchers have documented the gendered impact of the United States’ domestic war against drugs. Women incarcerated for non-violent drug offenses are the fastest growing segment of America’s prison population because of the harsh penalties for using, selling and transporting illegal substances. The impact of U.S. drug policy on women in other countries, in contrast, has been overlooked. This paper argues that the greatly increased imprisonment of women in Ecuador for drug-related offenses is collateral damage of the U.S. war on drugs. The impact of the expansion of women’s imprisonment in Ecuador appears to be particularly damaging to the inmate’s children who frequently join their mother in prison. U.S. policy should not be exported to other countries before having a clear picture of the unintended negative consequences.

Keywords: globalization, war on drugs, collateral damage, criminal justice

Topics: Gender, Women, Justice, Rights, Women's Rights, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America, South America Countries: Ecuador, United States of America

Year: 2010

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