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The War on Drugs and the Incarceration of Mothers

Citation:

Bush-Baskette, Stephanie. 2000. "The War on Drugs and the Incarceration of Mothers." Journal of Drug Issues 30 (4): 919.

Author: Stephanie Bush-Baskette

Abstract:

At the end of 1999, the number of women held in State and Federal prisons had risen to 90,668, an incarceration rate of almost 60 per 100,000. More than 10 percent of the female prison population had been sentenced to Federal institutions, and most women incarcerated in the Federal system were there for drug offenses. The majority of these women had little or no prior criminal record and were directly involved in dealing or possessing only a relatively small amount of drugs. More than 80 percent were sentenced under mandatory minimum sentencing laws provided by the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988. Approximately 70 percent of these women were mothers of one or more children under the age of 18. Because crime and incarceration are primarily a male phenomena, research to date has focused mainly on the effects that incarceration of males has on their families and communities. Given the greater rate of increase in the incarceration of women than men in recent years, driven almost exclusively by the "War on Drugs," this focus should be widened to include the effects of incarcerating females, with special attention to the displacement of their dependent children. The costs of incarcerating a woman who has children extend beyond the disruption of her life and the expenditure of public funds required to imprison her. These costs include the effect her incarceration has on her children and on those who become the guardians, as well as the financial costs related to the supervision of her children while she is incarcerated. It seems clear that the imprisonment of mothers has immediate, as well as long-term effects that are very destructive. These harms must be considered and investigated whenever social policies are being developed that may lead to the incarceration of large numbers of women.

Keywords: criminal justice, war on drugs

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Justice Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2000

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Functioning and Quality of Life Outcomes in Female Vietnam Veterans

Citation:

Zatzick, Douglas F., Daniel S. Weiss, Charles R. Marmar, Thomas J. Metzler, Kenneth Wells, Jacqueline M. Golding, Anita Stewart, William E. Schlenger, and Warren S. Browner. 1997. "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Functioning and Quality of Life Outcomes in Female Vietnam Veterans." Military Medicine 162 (10): 661-65.

Authors: Douglas F. Zatzick, Daniel S. Weiss, Charles R. Marmar, Thomas J. Metzler, Kenneth Wells, Jacqueline M. Golding, Anita Stewart, William E. Schlenger, Warren S. Browner

Abstract:

Assessed whether current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with impaired daily functioning and quality of life in a nationally representative sample of 432 female Vietnam veterans by performing a secondary analysis of data collected in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (R. A. Kulka et at, 1990). A subsample of 87 Ss were diagnosed with PTSD. Logistic models were used to determine the association between PTSD and outcome while adjusting for demographic characteristics and medical and psychiatric co-morbidities. Results show PTSD was associated with significantly elevated odds of poorer functioning in 5 of the 6 outcome domains; only the association between perpetration of violence in the past year and PTSD did not achieve statistical significance. After adjusting for demographics and medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, PTSD remained associated with significantly elevated odds of bed days, poorer physical health, and unemployment. The significantly increased odds of impaired functioning and diminished quality of life suggest that PTSD may be the core problem of the set of problems afflicting female Vietnam veterans. (PsycINFO Database 2012)

Keywords: mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1997

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Functioning and Quality of Life Outcomes in a Nationally Representative Sample of Male Vietnam Veterans

Citation:

Zatzick, Douglas F., Charles R. Marmar, Daniel S. Weiss, Warren S. Browner, Thomas J. Metzler, Jacqueline M. Golding, Anita Stewart, William E. Schlenger, and Kenneth B. Wells. 1997. "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Functioning and Quality of Life Outcomes in a Nationally Representative Sample of Male Vietnam Veterans." American Journal of Psychiatry 154 (12): 1690-1695.

Authors: Douglas F. Zatzick, Charles R. Marmar, Daniel S. Weiss, Warren S. Browner, Thomas J. Metzler, Jacqueline M. Golding, Anita Stewart, William E. Schlenger, Kenneth B. Wells

Abstract:

Objective: Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent and often chronic condition, the relationship between PTSD and functioning and quality of life remains incompletely understood. 

Method: The authors undertook an archival analysis of data from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. The study subjects consisted of the nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans who participated in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. The authors estimated PTSD at the time of the interview with the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. They examined the following outcomes: diminished well-being, physical limitations, bed day in the past 2 weeks, compromised physical health status, currently not working, and perpetration of violence. Logistic models were used to determine the association between PTSD and outcome; adjustment was made for demographic characteristics and comorbid psychiatric and other medical conditions.

Results: The risks of poorer outcome were significantly higher in subjects with PTSD than in subjects without PTSD in five of the six domains. For the outcome domains of physical limitations, not working, compromised physical health, and diminished wellbeing, these significantly higher risks persisted even in the most conservative logistic models that removed the shared effects of comorbid psychiatric and other medical disorders. 

Conclusions: The suffering associated with combat related-PTSD extends beyond the signs and symptoms of the disorder to broader areas of functional and social morbidity. The significantly higher risk of impaired functioning and diminished quality of life uniquely attributable to PTSD suggests that PTSD may well be the core problem in this group of difficult to treat and multiply afflicted patients.

Keywords: male veterans, posttraumatic stress disorder, mental health

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1997

Symptom Responses of Female Vietnam Veterans to Operation Desert Storm

Citation:

Wolfe, Jessica, Pamela J. Brown, and Maria L. Bucsela. 1992. "Symptom Responses of Female Vietnam Veterans to Operation Desert Storm." The American Journal of Psychiatry 149 (5): 676-79.

Authors: Jessica Wolfe, Pamela J. Brown, Maria L. Bucsela

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the status of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a cohort of women after the onset of Operation Desert Storm.

METHOD: Seventy-six non-treatment-seeking Vietnam veterans were obtained from lists of those who recently had participated in other research projects conducted at the National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Before the onset of Operation Desert Storm, subjects had completed a set of psychometrically valid instruments measuring general psychological symptoms and PTSD symptoms (e.g., SCL-90-R, Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder). On the basis of the latter scale, subjects were divided into groups with and without PTSD symptoms. At the height of the military conflict, subjects were recontacted and asked to complete the SCL-90-R and the Veterans Update Form, a measure assessing changes in PTSD symptoms.

RESULTS: Multivariate analyses indicated that while most female Vietnam veterans experienced some intensification of stress-related symptoms during Operation Desert Storm, those who had previously reported high levels of PTSD were significantly more susceptible to greater distress.

CONCLUSIONS: Results of this survey indicate that female Vietnam veterans with prior wartime exposure are an at-risk population for the intensification of stress symptoms after the recurrence of a military conflict.

Keywords: mental health, female veterans, posttraumatic stress disorder

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 1992

Mental Health Care Needs of Female Veterans

Citation:

Willer, Janet K., and Linda S. Grossman. 1995. "Mental Health Care Needs of Female Veterans." Psychiatric Services 46 (9): 938-940.

Authors: Janet K. Willer, Linda S. Grossman

Abstract:

Examined gender differences in diagnosis, demographic and family characteristics, and trauma histories with 97 psychiatric outpatients (51 women) at a VA clinic. More women had affective disorders and schizoaffective disorder; more men had anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders. Although women had sharply higher rates than men of every type of trauma except combat trauma, more men received a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Men were 4 times more likely to be married. Women were more likely than men to be the sole caretakers of minor children. Treatment and policy implications are considered. (PsycINFO Database 2012)

Keywords: mental health, female veterans, posttraumatic stress disorder, trauma, substance abuse

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1995

Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Primary Care Patients after the World Trade Center Attack of Sept 11, 2001

Citation:

Weissman, Myrna M., Yuval Neria, Amar Das Adriana Feder, Carlos Blanco, Rafael Lantigua, Shea Steven, Raz Gross, Marc J. Gameroff, Daniel Pilowsky, and Mark Olfson. 2005. "Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Primary Care Patients after the World Trade Center Attack of September 11, 2001." Gender Medicine 2 (2): 76-87.

Authors: Myrna M. Weissman, Yuval Neria, Amar Das Adriana Feder, Carlos Blanco, Rafael Lantigua, Shea Steven, Raz Gross, Marc J. Gameroff, Daniel Pilowsky, Mark Olfson

Abstract:

Background: Debate surrounds the nature of gender differences in rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Objective: The goal of this study was to quantify and explore the reasons for gender differences in rates of PTSD in low income, primary care patients after the World Trade Center (WTC) attack of September 11, 2001.

Methods: A survey was conducted at a large primary care practice in New York City 7 to 16 months after the WTC attack. The study involved a systematic sample of primary care patients aged 18 to 70 years. The main outcome measures were the Life Events Checklist, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire, all administered by a bilingual research staff.

Results: A total of 3807 patients were approached at the primary care clinic. Of the 1347 who meteligibility criteria, 1157 (85.9%) consented to participate. After the addition of the WTC/PTSD supplement to the study, the total number of patients was 992, of whom 982 (99.0%) completed the survey. Both sexes had high rates of direct exposure to the WTC attack and high rates of lifetime exposure to stressful life events. Overall, females had lower rates of exposure to the attack compared with males (P < 0.05). Hispanic females had the highest rate of PTSD in the full sample. Gender differences in rates of PTSD were largely accounted for by differences in marital status and education. The rate of current major depressive disorder (MDD) was higher in females than in males (P < 0.001), and the reverse was true for substance abuse (P < 0.001). Gender differences for MDD and substance abuse persisted even after adjustments for demographic differences between the sexes.

Conclusions: The increased rate of PTSD in women attending a primary care clinic was mediatedby their social and economic circumstances, such as living alone without a permanent relationship and with little education or income. The increased rate of MDD in women appeared to be less dependent on these circumstances. These findings have implications for the treatment of women with PTSD in primary care and for research on gender differences in rates of psychiatric disorders.

Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, terrorism, depression, substance abuse, mental health

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Terrorism Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2005

Deployment Stressors, Gender, and Mental Health Outcomes among Gulf War I Veterans

Citation:

Vogt, Dawne S., Anica P. Pless, Lynda A. King, and Daniel W. King. 2005. "Deployment Stressors, Gender, and Mental Health Outcomes among Gulf War I Veterans." Journal of Traumatic Stress 18 (2): 115-127.

Authors: Dawne S. Vogt, Anica P. Pless, Lynda A. King, Daniel W. King

Abstract:

Findings indicate that war-zone exposure has negative implications for the postdeployment adjustment of veterans; however, most studies have relied on limited conceptualizations of war-zone exposure and focused on male samples. In this study, an array of deployment stressors that were content valid for both female and male Gulf War I military personnel was examined to elucidate gender differences in war-zone exposure and identify gender-based differential associations between stressors and mental health outcomes. While women and men were exposed to both mission-related and interpersonal stressors and both stressor categories were associated with mental health outcomes, women reported more interpersonal stressors and these stressors generally had a stronger impact on women's than on men's mental health. Exceptions are described, and implications are discussed. 

Keywords: mental health, female veterans, male veterans

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2005

Gender Differences in Combat-Related Stressors and Their Associations with Postdeployment Mental Health in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. OEF/OIF Veterans

Citation:

Vogt, Dawne, Rachel Vaughn, Mark E. Glickman, Mark Schultz, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Rani Elwy, and Susan Eisen. 2011. "Gender Differences in Combat-related Stressors and Their Association with Postdeployment Mental Health in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. OEF/OIF Veterans." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 120 (4): 797-806.

Authors: Dawne Vogt, Rachel Vaughn, Mark E. Glickman, Mark Schultz, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Rani Elwy, Susan Eisen

Abstract:

Though the broader literature suggests that women may be more vulnerable to the effects of trauma exposure, most available studies on combat trauma have relied on samples in which women's combat exposure is limited and analyses that do not directly address gender differences in associations between combat exposure and postdeployment mental health. Female service members' increased exposure to combat in Afghanistan and Iraq provides a unique opportunity to evaluate gender differences in different dimensions of combat-related stress and associated consequence for postdeployment mental health. The current study addressed these research questions in a representative sample of female and male U.S. veterans who had returned from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq within the previous year. As expected, women reported slightly less exposure than men to most combat-related stressors, but higher exposure to other stressors (i.e., prior life stress, deployment sexual harassment). No gender differences were observed in reports of perceived threat in the war zone. Though it was hypothesized that combat-related stressors would demonstrate stronger negative associations with postdeployment mental health for women, only one of 16 stressor x gender interactions achieved statistical significance and an evaluation of the clinical significance of these interactions revealed that effects were trivial. Results suggest that female Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom service members may be as resilient to combat-related stress as men. Future research is needed to evaluate gender differences in the longer-term effects of combat exposure.

Keywords: female veterans, male veterans, trauma, mental health

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2011

Work-Family Conflicts of Women in the Air Force: Their Influence on Mental Health and Functioning

Citation:

Vinokur, Amiram D., Penny F. Pierce, Catherine L. Buck. 1999. "Work-Family Conflicts of Women in the Air Force: Their Influence on Mental Health and Functioning." Journal of Organizational Behavior 20 (6): 865-78.

Authors: Amiram D. Vinokur, Penny F. Pierce, Catherine L. Buck

Abstract:

This paper examined the effects of work and family stressors and conflicts on Air Force women's mental health and functioning. We analyzed data from a 1993 survey of representative stratified samples of 525 Air Force women from the active duty reserve and guard forces. The analyses of the data are guided by the comprehensive model of work-family conflict that has been tested by Frone, Russell, and Cooper (1992) using a large representative community sample. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the work-family conflict model. The analyses also provided support for an extension of the model, which included the separate effects of marital and parental roles on mental health. The extended model demonstrated that job and parental stresses had direct effects on work-family conflicts and that job and marital distress and family-work conflict had an independent adverse effect on mental health. Whereas job and parental involvement had a beneficial effect on distress, they had an adverse effect on work-family conflicts.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1999

Recent Sexual Abuse, Physical Abuse, and Suicide Attempts among Male Veterans Seeking Psychiatric Treatment

Citation:

Tiet, Quyen Q., John W. Finney, and Rudolf H. Moos. 2006. "Recent Sexual Abuse, Physical Abuse, and Suicide Attempts among Male Veterans Seeking Psychiatric Treatment."  Psychiatric Services 57 (1): 107-113.

Authors: Quyen Q. Tiet, John W. Finney, Rudolf H. Moos

Abstract:

Objectives: This study examined the rates of sexual and physical abuse and suicide attempts among male and female patients and focused on the associations between sexual and physical abuse and recent suicide attempts among men.

Methods: Data were examined for a cohort of patients aged 19 years and older who were seeking treatment for substance use disorders, other psychiatric disorders, or both from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between July 1997 and September 1997. Almost all the patients in the sample (more than 99 percent) had a substance use disorder. Patients were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index about lifetime and recent (past 30 days) sexual and physical abuse and recent suicide attempts. Because of the low prevalence of suicide attempts in the past 30 days and limited representation of female patients in this sample, the data for female patients were used only to conduct descriptive analyses to compare the prevalence of sexual and physical abuse and suicide attempts between genders.

Results: The sample comprised 34,245 patients (33,236 males and 1,009 females). Compared with male patients, female patients were ten times as likely to have been sexually abused in the past 30 days and four times as likely to have been physically abused. Among male patients, bivariate analyses showed that those who had been recently sexually or physically abused were more likely than those who had not experienced such abuse to have attempted suicide recently (odds ratios of 4.8 and 3.0, respectively). After controlling for demographic and diagnostic factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that recent sexual abuse, recent physical abuse, and lifetime sexual abuse were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of a recent suicide attempt among male patients.

Conclusions: Female patients were more likely than their male counterparts to experience sexual and physical abuse. Recent and lifetime history of sexual abuse and recent physical abuse were independent risk factors for recent suicide attempts among men who were seeking treatment. The results suggest that clinicians who identify suicide attempts and suicidal tendencies among male patients should routinely assess for sexual or physical abuse.

Keywords: suicide, male veterans, female veterans, mental health, substance abuse, sexual abuse

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2006

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