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United States of America

Educating Students About the War on Drugs: Criminal and Civil Consequences of a Felony Drug Conviction

Citation:

Reynolds, Marylee. 2004. "Educating Students about the War on Drugs: Criminal and Civil Consequences of a Felony Drug Conviction." Women's Studies Quarterly 32 (3-4): 246-60.

Author: Marylee Reynolds

Abstract:

American society is a patriarchal one, where the needs, issues, and concerns of women are largely ignored. It should not be surprising then, that when legislators enact crime control policies. Especially drug policies, the social and economic impact of such policies on women is rarely considered. Here, Reynolds examines the criminal and civil consequences of a felony conviction for women, including how legislative policies penalize women, particularly women of color.

Keywords: public administration, intersectionality, criminal justice, war on drugs

Topics: Economies, Gender, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2004

Exporting Gender Injustice: The Impact of the U.S. War on Drugs on Ecuadorian Women

Citation:

Norton-Hawk, Maureen. 2010. "Exporting Gender Injustice: The Impact of the U.S. War on Drugs on Ecuadorian Women." Critical Criminology 18 (2): 133.

Author: Maureen Norton-Hawk

Abstract:

Numerous researchers have documented the gendered impact of the United States’ domestic war against drugs. Women incarcerated for non-violent drug offenses are the fastest growing segment of America’s prison population because of the harsh penalties for using, selling and transporting illegal substances. The impact of U.S. drug policy on women in other countries, in contrast, has been overlooked. This paper argues that the greatly increased imprisonment of women in Ecuador for drug-related offenses is collateral damage of the U.S. war on drugs. The impact of the expansion of women’s imprisonment in Ecuador appears to be particularly damaging to the inmate’s children who frequently join their mother in prison. U.S. policy should not be exported to other countries before having a clear picture of the unintended negative consequences.

Keywords: globalization, war on drugs, collateral damage, criminal justice

Topics: Gender, Women, Justice, Rights, Women's Rights, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America, South America Countries: Ecuador, United States of America

Year: 2010

The War on Drugs and the Gender Gap in Arrests: A Critical Perspective

Citation:

Merolla, David. 2008. "The War on Drugs and the Gender Gap in Arrests: A Critical Perspective." Critical Sociology 34 (2): 255.

Author: David Merolla

Abstract:

Many theories of offending have been advanced in an effort to explain the increasing number of women arrested in recent years. In this article, I move away from individual level explanations of offending and attempt to explain this trend with a structural approach. Specifically, I argue that the 'war on drugs' has made females more vulnerable to arrest in recent years, regardless of offending behavior. I argue that two arms of the war on drugs, representing direct and ideological aspects of social control, work together to make women more likely to be arrested. This article contributes to the literature in two ways. First, it shows that scholars interested in the gender gap cannot ignore the war on drugs. Second, it shows the utility of a focus on the criminal justice system, and potentially other systems of social control, rather than individual level offending to explain trends in arrests. 

Keywords: criminal justice, war on drugs, vulnerability

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2008

Gender-Responsive Treatment and the Need to Examine Female Inmates' Lives in Prison and Prior to Prison

Citation:

McDonald, Danielle. 2008. "Gender-Responsive Treatment and the Need to Examine Female Inmates' Lives in Prison and Prior to Prison." Corrections Compendium 33 (6): 7-8,10-12,29-30.

Author: Danielle McDonald

Abstract:

This study found that drug-/alcohol-addicted female inmates often began using and eventually abusing substances due to traumatic events in their lives such as abuse, neglect, or the loss of a child. Currently, the main reason for female recidivism is drug relapse. It is important for treatment practitioners to be aware of these past incidents, so the root of the addiction problem can be explored and worked through with an outcome of reduced recidivism. Women in the study also reported the importance of relationships with their significant other and children even after their incarceration. These relationships can be examined during treatment to help the women sustain relationships that are positive forces in their lives. For women, substance abuse is one outlet to deny or avoid problems in their lives, such as victimization. By delving into women’s pre-prison lives, the root of their substance abuse can be identified for later treatment needs. It is important also to examine the problems women face once in prison so treatment can address these issues as well. In an attempt to provide a better understanding of women’s lives prior to prison and the challenges they faced once incarcerated, interviews were conducted with women in the therapeutic community at a medium security prison located in rural Pennsylvania the houses approximately 2,000 women.

Keywords: prisons, Drug Abuse

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Justice Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2008

The Wrong Race, Committing Crime, Doing Drugs, and Maladjusted for Motherhood: The Nation's Fury over "Crack Babies"

Citation:

Logan, Enid. 1999. "The Wrong Race, Committing Crime, Doing Drugs, and Maladjusted for Motherhood: The Nation's Fury over 'Crack Babies.'" Social Justice 26 (1): 115-38.

Author: Enid Logan

Abstract:

Women who use illegal drugs during pregnancy attracted intense public scrutiny and social condemnation during the 1990s. These women targeted by the courts and media are generally black, poor and addicted to crack cocaine. It is argued that the phenomenon of crack babies or children of crack cocaine-using women came about not because of a simple tragic interaction between illicit substances and a growing fetus but because of a broader conjunction of practices and ideologies linked with race, gender and class oppression, including the war on drugs and the debate on fetal rights.

Keywords: war on drugs, abortion rights, race, class oppression

Topics: Class, Gender, Women, Governance, Health, Reproductive Health, Race, Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1999

Rape as a Weapon of War: Advancing Human Rights for Women at the U.S.-Mexico Border

Citation:

Falcón, Sylvanna. 2001. "Rape as a Weapon of War: Advancing Human Rights for Women at the U.S.-Mexico Border." Social Justice 28 (2): 31-50.

Author: Sylvanna Falcon

Abstract:

Falcón examines the gendered effects of militarization on women at the U.S.- Mexico border, particularly in the form of "militarized border rape" and sexual assault. For Falcón, militarization ideology is embedded with issues of hyper-masculinity, patriarchy, and threats to national security. She maintains that violence against women has escalated to the serial, multiple, and mass murders of Mexican women (e.g., in the border city of Ciudad Juárez).

Keywords: war on drugs, militarization, rape, national security

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico, United States of America

Year: 2001

Gender, Race and Sentencing

Citation:

Daly, Kathleen, and Michael Tonry. 1997. "Gender, Race, and Sentencing." Crime and Justice 22: 201-252.

Authors: Kathleen Daly, Michael Tonry

Abstract:

Race and gender pose empirical and policy problems that are both similar and different for the U. S. criminal justice system. They are similar in that blacks and women occupy subordinate social and economic positions in American life, and their interests are less likely to be represented in the justice system than are those of white men. They are different in that blacks are overrepresented in arrest statistics and jail and prison populations while women are underrepresented. If over- (or under-) representation is assumed to result from similar effects of bias and subordination, the two patterns are hard to explain. The empirical literature on criminal courts reveals policy dilemmas in achieving "just" sentencing practices. Blacks (and especially black men) may be more likely than white men or women to benefit from tightly limited discretion and limited individualization of sentencing whereas women (both black and white) may be more likely to benefit from broader discretion and greater individualization. Future policies will need to confront the competing demands of justice that race and gender pose in the official response to crime.

Keywords: criminal justice, intersectionality, race, incarceration

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Justice, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1997

Female Drug Smugglers on the U.S.-Mexico Border: Gender, Crime, and Empowerment

Citation:

Campbell, Howard. 2008. "Female Drug Smugglers on the U-S.-Mexico Border: Gender, Crime, and Empowerment." Anthropological Quarterly 81 (1): 233-67.

Author: Howard Campbell

Abstract:

Women's involvement in drug trafficking in recent years has expanded dramatically. Yet there are few studies of female drug smugglers, the causes of female involvement in smuggling, and the impact of smuggling on women's lives specifically. In this article, I provide in-depth ethnographic interviews and observations of a broad spectrum of female drug smugglers on the U.S. Mexico border. Moving beyond stereotypes, I examine how drug trafficking affects women's relationships with men and their position in society. Economic and cultural factors strongly shape women's involvement in drug smuggling and the effects of smuggling on their lives, but these factors and effects vary significantly, depending on women's social class position and place within drug organizations. High-level female drug smugglers may be attracted to the power and mystique of drug trafficking and may achieve a relative independence from male dominance. Middle-level women in smuggling organizations obtain less freedom vis-á-vis men but may manipulate gender stereotypes to their advantage in the smuggling world. Low-level mules also perform (or subvert) traditional gender roles as a smuggling strategy, but receive less economic benefit and less power, though in some cases some independence from male domestic control. A fourth category of women do not smuggle drugs but are negatively impacted by the male smugglers with whom they are associated. I argue that drug smuggling frequently leads to female victimization, especially at the lowest and middle levels of drug trafficking organizations. However, it is also, in the case of high-level and some low-level and middle-level smugglers, a vehicle for female empowerment.

Keywords: war on drugs, patriarchy, shadow economies

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico, United States of America

Year: 2008

The War on Drugs and the Incarceration of Mothers

Citation:

Bush-Baskette, Stephanie. 2000. "The War on Drugs and the Incarceration of Mothers." Journal of Drug Issues 30 (4): 919.

Author: Stephanie Bush-Baskette

Abstract:

At the end of 1999, the number of women held in State and Federal prisons had risen to 90,668, an incarceration rate of almost 60 per 100,000. More than 10 percent of the female prison population had been sentenced to Federal institutions, and most women incarcerated in the Federal system were there for drug offenses. The majority of these women had little or no prior criminal record and were directly involved in dealing or possessing only a relatively small amount of drugs. More than 80 percent were sentenced under mandatory minimum sentencing laws provided by the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988. Approximately 70 percent of these women were mothers of one or more children under the age of 18. Because crime and incarceration are primarily a male phenomena, research to date has focused mainly on the effects that incarceration of males has on their families and communities. Given the greater rate of increase in the incarceration of women than men in recent years, driven almost exclusively by the "War on Drugs," this focus should be widened to include the effects of incarcerating females, with special attention to the displacement of their dependent children. The costs of incarcerating a woman who has children extend beyond the disruption of her life and the expenditure of public funds required to imprison her. These costs include the effect her incarceration has on her children and on those who become the guardians, as well as the financial costs related to the supervision of her children while she is incarcerated. It seems clear that the imprisonment of mothers has immediate, as well as long-term effects that are very destructive. These harms must be considered and investigated whenever social policies are being developed that may lead to the incarceration of large numbers of women.

Keywords: criminal justice, war on drugs

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Justice Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2000

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Functioning and Quality of Life Outcomes in Female Vietnam Veterans

Citation:

Zatzick, Douglas F., Daniel S. Weiss, Charles R. Marmar, Thomas J. Metzler, Kenneth Wells, Jacqueline M. Golding, Anita Stewart, William E. Schlenger, and Warren S. Browner. 1997. "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Functioning and Quality of Life Outcomes in Female Vietnam Veterans." Military Medicine 162 (10): 661-65.

Authors: Douglas F. Zatzick, Daniel S. Weiss, Charles R. Marmar, Thomas J. Metzler, Kenneth Wells, Jacqueline M. Golding, Anita Stewart, William E. Schlenger, Warren S. Browner

Abstract:

Assessed whether current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with impaired daily functioning and quality of life in a nationally representative sample of 432 female Vietnam veterans by performing a secondary analysis of data collected in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (R. A. Kulka et at, 1990). A subsample of 87 Ss were diagnosed with PTSD. Logistic models were used to determine the association between PTSD and outcome while adjusting for demographic characteristics and medical and psychiatric co-morbidities. Results show PTSD was associated with significantly elevated odds of poorer functioning in 5 of the 6 outcome domains; only the association between perpetration of violence in the past year and PTSD did not achieve statistical significance. After adjusting for demographics and medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, PTSD remained associated with significantly elevated odds of bed days, poorer physical health, and unemployment. The significantly increased odds of impaired functioning and diminished quality of life suggest that PTSD may be the core problem of the set of problems afflicting female Vietnam veterans. (PsycINFO Database 2012)

Keywords: mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1997

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