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Gender and War

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Gender in Oil, Gas and Mining: An Overview of the Global State-of-Play


Perks, Rachel, and Katrin Schulz. 2020. “Gender in Oil, Gas and Mining: An Overview of the Global State-of-Play.” The Extractive Industries and Society 7 (2): 380–88.

Authors: Rachel Perks, Katrin Schulz


This special section of the Extractive Industries and Society brings together a collection of papers on gender and the extractive industries. These papers were developed from presentations delivered at the international conference, Gender in Oil, Gas and Mining: New Frontiers of Progress, Challenges and Solutions, held at World Bank headquarters in Washington DC, June 2018. The section presents work which seeks to address gender gaps in oil, gas and mining. It includes papers that examine gender in the context of the Extractives Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI); traceability schemes for tin, tantalum and tungsten (otherwise known as the “3Ts”) and gold; and national policies on extractives.

Keywords: gender gaps, extractives, SGBV, artisanal mining, gender equality

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas Countries: United States of America

Year: 2020

Women’s Organizing against Extractivism: Towards a Decolonial Multi-Sited Analysis


Caretta, Martina Angela, Sofia Zaragocin, Bethani Turley, and Kamila Torres Orellana. 2020. “Women’s Organizing against Extractivism: Towards a Decolonial Multi-Sited Analysis.” Human Geography 13 (1): 49–59.

Authors: Martina Angela Caretta, Sofia Zaragocin, Bethani Turley, Kamila Torres Orellana


In Anglophone geography, proposals have called for the decolonization of geographical knowledge production to be focused on tangible and material manifestations of how dialogue is initiated and mediated among different ontologies and epistemologies. We strive to respond to this call by empirically cutting across the American continent to highlight the embodied and transnational dimensions of natural resource extraction. Across the Americas, extractive industries’ water usage often brings corporations into prolonged conflicts with local communities, who mobilize to resist the initiation and/or expansion of extractive activities that they view as threatening to their health, way of life, and their families and communities’ territories. Through two case studies from West Virginia (WV), USA, and Cuenca, Ecuador, we propose an analytical framework capturing how women organize against the extractive industry as a result of embodied water pollution. We do this with the aim of decolonizing geographical knowledge production, as we propose a decolonial, multi-sited analytical approach, which serves to rethink the scale of effects of extractive industry. By showing how resource extraction affects women’s bodies and water while also effectively allowing us to compare and contrast embodied water relations in WV and Ecuador, we better understand how extractivism works across scales—the body, the environment, and transnationally. We contend that a multi-sited approach disrupts the North–South geographical discursive divide and furthers a decolonial geographical approach in making apparent the embodied production and lived experience of territory across various scales. In this piece, we promote debates on decoloniality within Anglophone geography by proposing that we must not only consider epistemologies and spatial ontologies outside the western canon, but engage with practices and theories occurring in different parts of the globe in a simultaneous fashion as well. We call on fellow geographers to do the same.

En la geografía anglófona, las propuestas han pedido que la descolonización de la producción de conocimiento geográfico se centre en manifestaciones tangibles y materiales de cómo se inicia y media el diálogo entre las diferentes ontologías y epistemologías. Nos esforzamos por responder a este llamado cortando empíricamente a través del continente americano para resaltar las dimensiones encarnadas y transnacionales de la extracción de recursos naturales. En todo el continente americano, el uso del agua de las industrias extractivas a menudo lleva a las empresas a conflictos prolongados con las comunidades locales, que se movilizan para resistir el inicio y / o la expansión de actividades extractivas que consideran amenazadoras para su salud, formas de vida y sus familias y los territorios de sus comunidades. A través de dos estudios de caso de West Virginia (WV), EE. UU. y Cuenca, Ecuador, proponemos un marco analítico que muestra cómo las mujeres se organizan contra la industria extractiva como resultado de la contaminación del agua. Hacemos esto con el objetivo de descolonizar la producción de conocimiento geográfico, ya que proponemos un enfoque analítico descolonial y de múltiples ubicaciones, que sirve para repensar la escala de efectos de la industria extractiva. Al mostrar cómo la extracción de recursos afecta los cuerpos y el agua de las mujeres y, al mismo tiempo, comparar y contrastar de manera efectiva las relaciones hídricas incorporadas en VM y Ecuador, comprendemos mejor cómo funciona el extractivismo en diferentes escalas: el cuerpo, el medio ambiente y transnacionalmente. Sostenemos que un enfoque de múltiples ubicaciones interrumpe la división discursiva geográfica Norte-Sur y promueve un enfoque geográfico descolonial al hacer evidente la producción encarnada y la experiencia vivida del territorio a varias escalas. En este artículo, promovemos debates sobre la descolonialidad dentro de la geografía anglófona al proponer que no solo debemos considerar las epistemologías y las ontologías espaciales fuera del canon occidental, sino también involucrarnos en prácticas y teorías que ocurren en diferentes partes del mundo de manera simultánea. Hacemos un llamado a otros geógrafos para que hagan lo mismo.

Keywords: Ecuador, extractivism, decoloniality, West Virginia, women, extractivismo, Mujeres, descolonialidad, Virginia Occidental

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Americas, North America, South America Countries: Ecuador, United States of America

Year: 2020

Ecology Is a Sistah’s Issue Too: The Politics of Emergent Afrocentric Ecowomanism


Riley, Shamara Shantu. 2003. “Ecology Is a Sistah’s Issue Too: The Politics of Emergent Afrocentric Ecowomanism.” In This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment, edited by Roger S. Gottlieb, 368–81. Abingdon: Routledge. 

Author: Shamara Shantu Riley


“The extinction of species on our ancestral continent, the “mortality of wealth,” and hazardous-waste contamination in our backyards ought to be reasons enough for Black womanists to consider the environment as a central issue of our political agendas. However, there are other reasons the environment should be central to our struggles for social justice. The global environmental crisis is related to the sociopolitical systems of fear and hatred of all that is natural, nonwhite, and female that has pervaded dominant Western thought for centuries. I contend that the social constructions of race, gender, class and nonhuman nature in mainstream Western thought are interconnected by an ideology of domination. Specific instances of the emergent Afrocentric ecowomanist activism in Africa and the United States, as well as West African spiritual principles that propose a method of overcoming dualism, will be discussed in this paper" (Shantu 2003, 369).

Topics: Class, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Race Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2003

Ecofeminism and Forest Defense in Cascadia: Gender, Theory and Radical Activism


Mallory, Chaone. 2006. “Ecofeminism and Forest Defense in Cascadia: Gender, Theory and Radical Activism.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 17 (1): 32–49.

Author: Chaone Mallory


"[T]he intent of this essay is to report on the radical activism that began in the summer of 2003 and has continued through the present (fall of 2005) by women in the Pacific Northwest. I look at how such activisms represent an explicit and direct integration of feminism with environmentalism that should encourage and inspire ecoliberatory theorists such as ecofeminists, ecosocialists, green anarchists, and deep ecologists. I also consider how such activism exemplifies the kind of intersection of theory and praxis long sought by ecofeminist, ecosocialist, and other scholars concerned with liberation. I explore these questions using the analytic tools developed through the academic discourse of ecofeminism to examine how both gender identity and movement-generated understandings of the intersection of oppressions affects, informs, and produces environmental activisms. Such an analysis, done in the context of women’s direct action forest defense in the Pacific Northwest, reveals interesting and important knowledges about the character of the interrelation between ideas and action, a subject of long-standing interest to those engaged in the practice of environmental theory. Such an analysis also advances the liberatory goals of ecotheorists and ecoactivists by contributing to the development of a robust, efficacious ecofeminist political theory that does not reinscribe a theory/activism dualism." (Mallory 2006, 34-5).


Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada, United States of America

Year: 2006

Ecofeminist Cosmology in Practice: Genesis Farm and the Embodiment of Sustainable Solutions


Godfrey, Phoebe C. 2008. “Ecofeminist Cosmology in Practice: Genesis Farm and the Embodiment of Sustainable Solutions.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 19 (2): 96–114.

Author: Phoebe C. Godfrey


“Heather Eaton's article, “Feminist or Functional Cosmology? Ecofeminist Musings on Thomas Berry's Functional Cosmology,” explores Berry's notion of a functional cosmology and questions some of its implications from an ecofeminist perspective. She concludes that functional cosmology and ecofeminism are “incomplete” alone, but that “[t]ogether these could be powerful allies in transforming the world, respecting the Earth, and honoring the holy.” Thus, my objective here is to support Eaton's assertion that Berry's functional cosmology and ecofeminism need each other. Further, I will propose that Genesis Farm, a 140-acre farm and Learning Center for the Earth in northern New Jersey founded by Dominican Sisters, is an example of “ecofeminist cosmology” in practice. As such, I want to show how through their holistic solutions to the growing ecological crisis of global capitalism, the Green Sisters at Genesis Farm, like others around the world, are embodying Eaton's notion of an ecofeminist cosmology, demonstrating that not only could it play a part in “transforming the world, respecting the Earth and honoring the holy,” but that it already is doing this in a locally based, yet globally focused way” (Godfrey 2008).

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Religion Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2008

Ecofeminism in Two Worlds


Hawthorne, Susan. 2005. “Ecofeminism in Two Worlds.” Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 16 (4): 145–47.

Author: Susan Hawthorne


"These 2005 conferences suggest a growing engagement with ecofeminist concerns among feminist theorists. My hope is that alongside this theory, there is also a growing engagement with intersections between the inbuilt violence of globalization, free trade, war, fundamentalism and anti-feminism. That is, ecofeminism must remain trenchantly political if it is to be relevant. But it seems that feminist conferences these days do not end up even attempting to outline a forward position. Have we lost the skill and political will to do that?" (Hawthrone 2005, 147).

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Globalization Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea, United States of America

Year: 2005

Transmobilities: Mobility, Harassment, and Violence Experienced by Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Public Transit Riders in Portland, Oregon


Lubitow, Amy, JaDee Carathers, Maura Kelly, and Miriam Abelson. 2017. “Transmobilities: Mobility, Harassment, and Violence Experienced by Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Public Transit Riders in Portland, Oregon.” Gender, Place & Culture 24 (10): 1398–418.

Authors: Amy Lubitow, JaDee Carathers, Maura Kelly, Miriam Abelson


This research endeavours to fill a conceptual gap in the social science literature on gender, public space, and urban mobilities by exploring how transgender and gender nonconforming individuals experience public transit. Although previous research has surveyed gender minorities about harassment and discrimination in a range of environments, little is known about the quality or content of these experiences. Drawing from 25 interviews with transgender and gender nonconforming individuals in Portland, Oregon, this article finds that gender minorities experience frequent harassment while engaging with the public transit system. We articulate the concept of transmobilites to describe the ways that transgender and gender nonconforming individuals experience a form of mobility that is altered, shaped, and informed by a broader cultural system that normalizes violence and harassment towards gender minorities. We conclude that gender minorities have unequal access to safe and accessible public transportation when harassment is widespread, normalized, and when policies prohibiting discrimination remain unenforced on urban public transit.

Keywords: gender minorities, harassment and discrimination, non-hegemonic mobilities, public transportation, transmobilities, urban mobility

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, LGBTQ, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017


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