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Ecowomanism and Ecological Reparations

Citation:

Harris, Melanie L. 2017. “Ecowomanism and Ecological Reparations.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Religion and Ecology, edited by John Hart, 195–202. New York; UK: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

Author: Melanie L. Harris

Abstract:

This chapter examines the contributions that can be made to ecological justice from the templates of social justice that have emerged from the BlackLivesMatter movement. Specifically, an ecowomanist perspective is employed to explore anti-racist reparations paradigms that can be translated into ecological reparations work. 

Keywords: climate change, ecological reparation, ecowomanism, racial justice, white privilege, womanist religious thought

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Ecowomanism: Black Women, Religion, and the Environment

Citation:

Harris, Melanie L. 2016. “Ecowomanism: Black Women, Religion, and the Environment.” The Black Scholar 46 (3): 27–39

Author: Melanie L. Harris

Annotation:

Summary:
“This essay is an introduction to ecowomanism, an interdisciplinary discourse in womanist thought that reflects upon black women’s religious orientations and connections with the earth. It serves as an overview and provides a survey of ecowomanist discourse. Ecowomanism centers the religious, theological, and spiritual perspectives of black women and women of color as they confront multilayered oppressions such as racism, classism, sexism, and environmental injustice. In the essay I explicate the theoretical foundations for ecowomanism, namely the womanist writings of Alice Walker, the environmental justice movement, and its relation to eco-feminism. I also describe the important roots of African American religious thought for an ecowomanist approach. In addition, I provide a brief survey of four important sources for ecowomanist research from the theological perspectives of Karen Baker Fletcher, Delores S. Williams, the ecological perspective of Shamara Shantu Riley, and the scholarly insights and personal reflection of African theologian, Mercy Amba Oduyoye" (Harris 2016, 27).

Topics: Class, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Race, Religion Regions: Africa, Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2016

Women, Ecology and Health: Rebuilding Connections

Citation:

Hamrell, Sven, and Olle Nordberg, eds. 1993. Women, Ecology and Health: Rebuilding Connections. Uppsala, Sweden: The Dag Hammarskjöld Centre and Kali for Women.

Authors: Sven Hamrell, Olle Nordberg

Annotation:

Summary:
The seminar on 'Women, Ecology and Health: Rebuilding Connections', which has provided the basis for the material presented in this issue of Development Dialogue, was held in Bangalore in southern India from July 17 to 22, 1991. It was jointly organised by the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resource Policy, Dehra Dun, India, and moderated by the Director of the latter foundation, Vandana Shiva. It brought together 25 participants from seven South Asian and Southeast Asian countries and one participant from the United States. Both foundations are grateful to the participants for their valuable contributions to the seminar discussions and to the authors for the pains they have taken in thoroughly revising and updating their papers.The basic idea behind the organisation of the Bangalore seminar was the conviction that, twenty years after 'the Environment' was placed on the international agenda, the time was ripe to take stock, from a women's perspective, of two decades of development in the environmental field. Furthermore, an important factor was the growing recognition that across the world women are rebuilding connections with nature and renewing the insight that what people do to nature directly affects them, too; that there is, in fact, no insular divide between the environment and their own bodies and health (Summary from original source).

Table of Contents:

  1. Women, Ecology and Health: An Introduction
    Vandana Shiva
  2. After the Forest: AIDS as Ecological Collapse in Thailand
    Ann Danaiya Usher
  3. Killing Legally with Toxic Waste: Women and the Environment in the United States
    Penny Newman
  4. Environmental Degradation and Subversion of Health
    Mira Shiva
  5. Using Technology, Choosing Sex the Campaign Against Sex Determination and the Question of Choice
    FASDSP Group
  6. Legal Rights… and Wrongs: Internationalising Bhopal
    Indira Jaising, C. Sathyamala
  7. ‘Green Earth, Women’s Power, Human Liberation’: Women in Peasant Movements in India
    Gail Omvedt
  8. Filipino Peasant Women in Defence of Life
    Loreta B. Ayupan, Teresita G. Oliveros
  9. Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Its Ecological and Political Consequences
    Rita Sebastian
  10. The Seed and the Earth: Biotechnology and the Colonisation of Regeneration
    Vandana Shiva

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Health Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: India, Thailand, United States of America

Year: 1993

Diane Wilson vs. Union Carbide: Ecofeminism and the Elitist Charge of "Essentialism"

Citation:

Godfrey, Phoebe. 2005. "Diane Wilson vs. Union Carbide: Ecofeminism and the Elitist Charge of 'Essentialism.'" Capitalism Nature Socialism 16 (4): 37-56. 

Author: Phoebe Godfrey

Annotation:

Summary:
“I am especially interested in whether the academic charge that ecofeminism is essentialist and contaminated by capitalist patriarchal ideology can withstand political scrutiny. I argue that the ultimate test of a theory is its outcomes, because all theory is a form of practice, and all practice incorporates a form of theory. It is when the connection remains unarticulated and a process of privileging one side over the other emerges that constructive critique becomes counterproductive. So, with an over literal emphasis on discursive practices and a corresponding lack of conceptual tools for discussing material objects and relations, constructionist academics are made uneasy by feminist, environmentalist, or ecofeminist activists, who situate their politics in the material experiences and language of everyday life” (Godfrey 2005, 37-8).

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women Regions: Americas, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, United States of America

Year: 2005

Ecofeminism: Toward Global Justice and Planetary Health

Citation:

Gaard, Greta, and Lori Gruen. 1993. "Ecofeminism: Toward Global Justice and Planetary Health." Society and Nature 2 (1): 1-35.

Authors: Greta Gaard, Lori Gruen

Annotation:

Summary:
“This confluence of writers, scholars, and activists has answered four questions in developing a theory of ecofeminism: what are the problems that ecofeminism has addressed; how did these problems arise; why should these problems concern feminists; and why might ecofeminism offer the best framework for analyzing them? In this essay, we will explore ways that ecofeminists have answered each of these questions” (Gaard and Gruen 1993, 234).

Topics: Feminisms, Ecofeminism Regions: Americas Countries: United States of America

Year: 1993

New Directions for Ecofeminism: Toward a More Feminist Ecocriticism

Citation:

Gaard, Greta. 2010. “New Directions for Ecofeminism: Toward a More Feminist Ecocriticism.” ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 17 (4): 643-65.

Author: Greta Gaard

Annotation:

Summary:
"In both Simon Estok’s provocative essay, “Theorizing in a Space of Ambivalent Openness: Ecocriticism and Ecophobia” (2009), as well as Joni Adamson and Scott Slovic’s “The Shoulders We Stand On: An Introduction to Ethnicity and Ecocriticism” (2009), we are offered two readings of ecocritical history, suggesting real or desired relations among various ecocritical perspectives. In these discussions, feminism is variously referenced—sometimes it is implied or addressed, other times it is backgrounded, omitted, or even distorted. Similarly, in the two book-length introductions to ecocriticism to date, Lawrence Buell’s The Future of Environmental Criticism (2005) and Greg Garrard’s Ecocriticism (2004), the retelling of ecocritical roots and developments marginalizes both feminist and ecofeminist literary perspectives. Such presentations (and misrepresentations) of feminist scholarship by collegial ecocritics warn of a larger potential for misreading or omission by broader audiences, hence the importance of both correcting the historical record and actively contributing to the future of ecocriticism. In this essay, I would like to suggest at least seven new directions, or continued developments, for ecofeminist and feminist ecocritics" (Gaard 2010, 643).

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Women, Race Regions: Americas Countries: United States of America

Year: 2010

Toward a Queer Ecofeminism

Citation:

Gaard, Greta. 1997. “Toward a Queer Ecofeminism.” Hypatia 12 (1): 114-37.

Author: Greta Gaard

Abstract:

Although many ecofeminists acknowledge heterosexism as a problem, a systematic exploration of the potential intersections of ecofeminist and queer theories has yet to be made. By interrogating social constructions of the "natural," the various uses of Christianity as a logic of domination, and the rhetoric of colonialism, this essay finds those theoretical intersections and argues for the importance of developing a queer ecofeminism.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, LGBTQ, Sexuality Regions: Americas Countries: United States of America

Year: 1997

Ecofeminism

Citation:

Gaard, Greta, ed. 1993. Ecofeminism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press

Author: Greta Gaard

Annotation:

Summary:
Drawing on the insights of ecology, feminism, and socialism, ecofeminism's basic premise is that the ideology that authorizes oppression based on race, class, gender, sexuality, physical abilities, and species is the same ideology that sanctions the oppression of nature. In this collection of essays, feminist scholars and activists discuss the relationships among human begins, the natural environment, and nonhuman animals. They reject the nature/culture dualism of patriarchal thought and locate animals and humans within nature. The goal of these twelve articles is to contribute to the evolving dialogue among feminists, ecofeminists, animal liberationists, deep ecologists, and social ecologists in an effort to create a sustainable lifestyle for all inhabitants of the earth. Among the issues addressed are the conflicts between Green politics and ecofeminism, various applications of ecofeminist theory, the relationship of animal liberation to ecofeminism, harmful implications of the romanticized woman-nature association in Western culture, and cultural limitations of ecofeminism. (Summary from Temple University Press)

Table of Contents:

  1. Living Interconnections with Animals and Nature
    Greta Gaard
  2. Ecofeminism: Linking Theory and Practice
    Janis Birkeland
  3. Dismantling Oppression: An Analysis of the Connection Between Women and Animals
    Lori Gruen
  4. Roots: Rejoining Natural and Social History
    Stephanie Lahar
  5. Ecofeminism and the Politics of Reality
    Linda Vance
  6. Questioning Sour Grapes: Ecofeminism and the United Farm Workers Grape Boycott
    Ellen O'Loughlin
  7. Animal Rights and Feminist Theory
    Josephine Donovan
  8. The Feminist Traffic in Animals
    Carol J. Adams
  9. For the Lover of Nature: Ecology and the Culture of the Romantic
    Chaia Heller
  10. From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge
    Marti Kheel
  11. A Cross-Cultural Critique of Ecofeminism
    Huey-li Li
  12. Ecofeminism and Native American Cultures – Pushing the Limits of Cultural Imperialism?
    Greta Gaard

Topics: Class, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Indigenous, Race, Rights Regions: Americas Countries: United States of America

Year: 1993

Marxist-Feminist Theories and Struggles Today: Essential Writings on Intersectionality, Labour and Ecofeminism

Citation:

Fakier, Khayaat, Diana Mulinari, and Nora Räthzel, eds. 2020. Marxist-Feminist Theories and Struggles Today: Essential Writings on Intersectionality, Labour and Ecofeminism. London: Zed Books.

Authors: Khayaat Fakier , Diana Mulinari, Nora Räthzel

Annotation:

Summary:

This vital new collection presents new Marxist-Feminist analyses of Capitalism as a gendered, racialized social formation that shapes and is shaped by specific nature-labour relationships. Leaving behind former overtly structuralist thinking, Marxist-Feminist Theories and Struggles Today interweaves strands of ecofeminism and intersectional analyses to develop an understanding of the relations of production and the production of nature through the interdependencies of gender, class, race and colonial relations. With contributions and analyses from scholars and theorists in both the global North and South, this volume offers a truly international lens that reveals the the vitality of contemporary global Marxist-Feminist thinking, as well as its continued relevance to feminist struggles across the globe (Summary from Zed Books).

Table of Contents:

Introduction
Khayaat Fakier, Diana Mulinari, Nora Räthzel

Part I – Conceptualising

1. Standpoint Theory
Cynthia Cockburn

2. Outside in the Funding Machine
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

3. Contradictions in Marxist Feminism
Frigga Haug

4. Ecofeminism as (Marxist) Sociology
Ariel Salleh

5. The ‘Flat Ontology’ of Neoliberal Feminism
Jennifer Cotter

6. The Byzantine Eunuch: Pre-capitalist Gender Category, ‘Tributary’ Modal Contradiction, and a Test for Materialist Feminism
Jules Gleeson

7. Reading Marx against the Grain: Rethinking the Exploitation of Care Work Beyond Profit-Seeking
Tine Haubner

Part II – Production

8. Marx and Social Reproduction Theory: Three Different Historical Strands
Ankica Čakardić

9. The Best Thing I Have Done Is to Give Birth; The Second Is to Strike
Paula Mulinari

10. Women in Small Scale Fishing in South Africa: An Ecofeminist Engagement with the ‘Blue Economy’
Natasha Solari and Khayaat Fakier

11. The ‘Crisis of Care’ and the Neoliberal Restructuring of the Public Sector – a Feminist Polanyian Analysis
Rebecca Selberg

12. Gender Regimes and Women’s Labour: Volvo Factories in Sweden, Mexico, and South Africa
Nora Räthzel, Diana Mulinari, Aina Tollefsen

Part III – Religions and Politics

13. Religious Resistance: A Flower on the Chain or a Tunnel towards Liberation?
Gabriele Dietrich

14. A Marxist-Feminist Perspective: From Former Yugoslavia to Turbo Fascism to Neoliberal Postmodern Fascist Europe
Marina Gržinić

15. Feminism, Antisemitism and the Question of Palestine/Israel
Nira Yuval Davis

Part IV – Solidarities

16. Women in Brazilian's Trade Union Movement
Patricia Vieira Trópia

17. Argentinean Feminist Movements: Debates from Praxis
Ana Isabel González Montes

18. Marxist Feminism for a Global Women’s Movement against Capitalism
Ligaya Lindio McGovern

19. Marxist/Socialist Feminist Theory and Practice in the USA Today
Nancy Holmstrom 

20. Solidarity in Troubled Times: Social Movements in the Face of Climate Change
Kathryn Russell

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Care Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Intersectionality, Race, Religion Regions: Africa, MENA, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, South America, Europe, Balkans, Nordic states Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Israel, Mexico, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, South Africa, Sweden, United States of America

Year: 2020

Ecofeminism and Grassroots Environmentalism in the United States

Citation:

Epstein, Barbara. 1993. “Ecofeminism and Grassroots Environmentalism in the United States.” In Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice edited by Richard Hofrichter, 144-52. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers.

Author: Barbara Epstein

Annotation:

Summary:

"Toxic Struggles forcefully documents this fast-growing environmental justice movement led by the very people who suffer most from corporate ecological devastation—people of color, women, and low-income, working class populations. The essays in Toxic Struggles reflect the diversity of this new alliance by addressing such issues as environmental racism, ecofeminism, occupational health and safety, and the exploitation of Third World peoples" (Summary from Google Books).

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1993

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