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Do Welfare State Taxes and Transfers Reduce Gender Income Inequality? Evidence from Eight European Countries

Citation:

Avraam, Silvia and Daria Popova. 2020. “Do Welfare State Taxes and Transfers Reduce Gender Income Inequality? Evidence from Eight European Countries.” Working Paper EM 09/20, EuroMod at the Institute for Social and Economic Research, Essex.

Authors: Silvia Avraam, Daria Popova

Abstract:

We complement the institutional literature on gender and the welfare state by examining how taxes and transfers affect the incomes of men and women. Using microsimulation and intra-household income splitting rules, we measure the differences in the level and composition of individual disposable incomes of men and women in eight European countries covering various welfare regime types. We quantify the extent to which taxes and transfers are able to close the gender gap in earnings, as well as which policy instruments contribute most to reducing the gap. We find that with the exception of old- age pensions, taxes and transfers – both contributory and means-tested – significantly reduce gender income inequality but cannot compensate for high gender earnings gaps. The equalizing effect of benefits is higher than that of taxes but varies significantly not only across countries but also across groups with different demographic characteristics. 

Keywords: gender inequality, income distribution, welfare state, social policy, Europe

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom

Year: 2020

Literary Testimonies of War and Conflict of Twentieth-Century British and Pakistani Women Writers

Citation:

Ashraf, Ana. 2020. "Literary Testimonies of War and Conflict of Twentieth-Century British and Pakistani Women Writers." PhD diss., KU Leuven.

Author: Ana Ashraf

Annotation:

Summary:
In this research project, I propose to focus on the literary representation of War in the fiction of modern and contemporary women writers referring mostly to three historic conflicts (WWI, WWII & War on Terror) with the help of textual analysis of their works under the theoretical frameworks of feminist criticism and testimony. This dissertation, through close textual study of selected primary texts, aims a thorough examination of literary responses of women writers writing about three different historic conflicts, namely; WWI, WWII, and War on Terror. At one level, the objective is to show how women writers as diverse as Virginia Woolf, Vera Brittain, Rebbeca West, Olivia Manning, Stevie Smith, Elizabeth Taylor, Doris Lessing, Fatima Bhutto, and Sara Suleri have their own individual take on war. At another level, this dissertation aims to trace the common patterns underlying these diverse responses to war; to investigate whether a female tradition of war testimonies can be discovered. It intends to emphasize the significance of developing a feminist approach to war literature. It attempts to understand what Barbara Bellow Watson while analyzing the complex response of Elizabeth Bowen's War novel The Heat of the Day refers to as 'literature of Silence' and to locate in that silence a testimonial quality of an actively observant female artist rather than a helplessly passive woman who lacks authentic experience to talk about war. My claim is that no comprehensive attempt has been made previously to connect, combine and unify the female artistic testimony in fiction to war especially with reference to their current relevance under the discourse of feminism and testimony. (Summary from KU Leuven Lirias)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Terrorism Regions: Asia, South Asia, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Pakistan, United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Gender and Drone Warfare: A Hauntological Perspective

Citation:

Clark, Lindsay C. 2019. Gender and Drone Warfare: A Hauntological Perspective. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Lindsay C. Clark

Annotation:

Summary:
This book investigates how drone warfare is deeply gendered and how this can be explored through the methodological framework of ‘Haunting’.
 
Utilising original interview data from British Reaper drone crews, the book analyses the way killing by drones complicates traditional understandings of masculinity and femininity in warfare. As their role does not include physical risk, drone crews have been critiqued for failing to meet the masculine requirements necessary to be considered ‘warriors’ and have been derided for feminising war. However, this book argues that drone warfare, and the experiences of the crews, exceeds the traditional masculine/feminine binary and suggests a new approach to explore this issue. The framework of Haunting presented here draws on the insights of Jacques Derrida, Avery Gordon, and others to highlight four key themes – complex personhood, in/(hyper)visibility, disturbed temporality and power – as frames through which the intersection of gender and drone warfare can be examined. This book argues that Haunting provides a framework for both revealing and destabilising gendered binaries of use for feminist security studies and International Relations scholars, as well as shedding light on British drone warfare.
 
This book will be of interest to students of gender studies, sociology, war studies, and critical security studies. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Theorising Military Technologies
 
2. Haunting
 
3. H(a)unting the Warrior
 
4. Grim Reapers - Narratives of Masculinity and Killing
 
5. The Spectral Screwdriver - On Watching and Being Watched
 
6. Eroded Souls - Operational Challenges to Masculinity
 
Conclusion

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Security, Weapons /Arms Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Scottish Soldier-Heroes and Patriotic War Heroines: The Gendered Politics of World War I Commemoration

Citation:

Danilova, Nataliya, and Emma Dolan. 2020. "Scottish Soldier-Heroes and Patriotic War Heroines: The Gendered Politics of World War I Commemoration." Gender, Place & Culture 27 (2): 239-60.

Authors: Nataliya Danilova, Emma Dolan

Abstract:

This paper explores the (re)production of embodied gendered and racialised identities as part of commemorations devised by the Scottish government to mark the Centenary of WWI, 2014–18. In particular, we demonstrate how the Centenary has re-established Scotland’s key contribution to British military power instead of providing a platform for a broader discussion of British wars and Scotland’s role therein. Our analysis posits that this reframing was achieved through the (re)production of a gendered polarisation between white ‘dead’ soldier-heroes, ‘local lads’ and bearers of a ‘proud Scottish military tradition’; and women as embodiments of patriotic motherhood. We further explore the deployment of specific discursive and performative means to transform Dr Elsie Inglis, the only woman whose contribution was singled out by WW100 Scotland, into a patriotic war heroine. This was achieved by the militarisation of her work; the obscuring of identity, class- and race-based hierarchies within women’s war-work; and, finally, through the subversion of feminist ideas and practices in Inglis’ work for the Scottish Women’s Hospitals. Lastly, we reflect on the gendered legacy of the Centenary, emphasising the necessity for critical engagement with Britain’s wars and Scotland’s role therein.
 

Keywords: Britain, commemoration, gender, militarisation, performance

Topics: Class, Feminisms, Gender, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Race Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2020

Gender and Politics in Northern Ireland and Kosovo

Citation:

Potter, Michael. 2020. "Gender and Politics in Northern Ireland and Kosovo." In Inclusion in Post-Conflict Legislatures, 99-126. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Author: Michael Potter

Abstract:

This chapter explores the dimensions of gender and politics in Kosovo and Northern Ireland. The dynamics of the two conflicts and their transitions are explored in the context of how they impact on women’s empowerment, particularly in the political sphere. The concept of ‘gender’ as an analytical category is discussed and the literature of women and conflict explored. The roles of women and men in the conflicts of Northern Ireland and Kosovo are then analysed, highlighting differences and similarities, for example, the more overt use of sexual violence in Kosovo and the presence of women combatants in Northern Ireland. The gendered nature of the transition from conflict and post-conflict representation is then discussed.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Conflict, Gender, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Kosovo, United Kingdom

Year: 2020

Women, Gender Equality, and Post-Conflict Transformation: Lessons Learned, Implications for the Future

Citation:

Kaufman, Joyce P., and Kristen P. Williams, eds. 2019. Women, Gender Equality, and Post-Conflict Transformation: Lessons Learned, Implications for the Future. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Joyce P. Kaufman, Kristen P. Williams

Abstract:

Summary:
The end of formal hostilities in any given conflict provides an opportunity to transform society in order to secure a stable peace. This book builds on the existing feminist international relations literature as well as lessons of past cases that reinforce the importance of including women in the post-conflict transition process, and are important to our general understanding of gender relations in the conflict and post-conflict periods. Post-conflict transformation processes, including disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programs, transitional justice mechanisms, reconciliation measures, and legal and political reforms, which emerge after the formal hostilities end demonstrate that war and peace impact, and are impacted by, women and men differently. By drawing on a strong theoretical framework and a number of cases, this volume provides important insight into questions pertaining to the end of conflict and the challenges inherent in the post-conflict transition period that are relevant to students and practitioners alike. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Women Living in a Gendered World
Laura Sjoberg
 
2. The Aftermath of War: Considering Gender in the Process of Disarmament, Demilitarization and Reintegration
Fionnuala Ni Aolain
 
3. Imagined Peace, Gender Relations and Post-Conflict Transformation: Anti-Colonial and Post-Cold War Conflicts
Jane L. Parpart
 
4. The Gender Politics of Negotiating and Renegotiating the Peace in Northern Ireland
Fidelma Ashe and Carmel Roulston
 
5. Bosnia, Women, and Gender in a Post-Dayton World
Kristen P. Williams
 
6. Perpetuating a Gendered Peace? Exploring Gender Mainstreaming in Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration (DDRR) in Liberia
Helen S. A. Basini
 
7. Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration and the Poetics of Slavery in Sierra Leone
Megan H. MacKenzie
 
8. Women, Apartheid and the TRC: The Impact of Apartheid on Women in South Africa, Plus 20 Years
Joyrce P. Kaufman
 
9. Engendering Peace: Divergent Post-Conflict Processes for Women in Guatemala and El Salvador
Kara Ellerby
 
10. Conclusions
Joyce P. Kaufman and Kristen P. Williams

Topics: DDR, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Race, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, El Salvador, Guatemala, Liberia, Sierra Leone, South Africa, United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Exposing the Lack of Gender in Climate Change Campaigns: Evidence from the UK and Turkey

Citation:

Külcür, Rakibe, Susan Buckingham, and Nicola Ansell. 2019. "Exposing the Lack of Gender in Climate Change Campaigns: Evidence from the UK and Turkey." Dokuz Eylul University The Journal of Graduate School of Social Sciences 21 (3): 923-42.

Authors: Rakibe Külcür, Susan Buckingham, Nicola Ansell

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
While the implications of climate change on women have been documented in the Global South, gender differentiated impacts of climate change in the Global North and in Turkey are relatively ignored on the political agenda. Here it is argued that this is partly due to invisibility of gender in Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations (ENGOs) and their failure to acknowledge the importance of gender sensitivity in their policies. ENGOs’ role in shaping environmental policies have been recognised. This article reports on the research conducted on ENGOs in the United Kingdom and Turkey. Comparative case study research, applying qualitative methods were adopted to collect information. This paper aims to explore the gendered nature of ENGOs’ campaigns and discuss the reasons of the invisibility of differential impacts of climate change on women and men by the ENGOs.
 
TURKISH ABSTRACT:
İklim değişikliğinin cinsiyet bağlamındaki farklı etkileri az gelişmiş ülkeler (Küresel Güney) için yeterince araştırılmıştır, fakat bu konu, Türkiye ve gelişmiş ülkelerdeki siyasi gündemde büyük ölçüde gözardı edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada, bu durumun nedenleri arasında, çevre alanında faaliyet gösteren sivil toplum kuruluşlarının (ÇSTK) çevre politikalarında, cinsiyet faktörünün önemini gözardı etmelerinden kaynaklandığı savunulmaktadır. ÇSTKlar, siyasi ajandayı etkileyen baskı grupları arasındadır. Bu nedenle de toplumları etkilemede önemli görevleri bulunmaktadır. Bu makale İngiltere ve Türkiye’de ÇSTKlar üzerine karşılaştırmalı kalitatif araştırma yöntemi kullanılarak yapılan bir araştırmaya dayanmaktadır. Makale, ÇSTKların iklim değişikliği ile ilgili çevre kampanyalarını inceleyerek, iklim değişikliğinin kadınlar ve erkekler üzerindeki farklı etkilerinin ÇSTKlarca gözardı edilmesinin nedenleri üzerinde düşünmeyi amaçlamaktadır.

Keywords: climate change, environmental non-government organizations (ENGOs), feminist research, UK, Turkey, gender, İklim Değişikliği, Çevre Sivil Toplum Kuruluşları (ÇSTK), Feminist Araştırma, İngiltere, Türkiye, Toplumsal Cinsiyet

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, NGOs Regions: MENA, Asia, Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Turkey, United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action

Citation:

Cohen, Marjorie Griffin. 2017. Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Marjorie Griffin Cohen

Annotation:

Summary:
Climate change is at the forefront of ideas about public policy, the economy and labour issues. However, the gendered dimensions of climate change and the public policy issues associated with it in wealthy nations are much less understood.
 
Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries covers a wide range of issues dealing with work and working life. The book demonstrates the gendered distinctions in both experiences of climate change and the ways that public policy deals with it. The book draws on case studies from the UK, Sweden, Australia, Canada, Spain and the US to address key issues such as: how gendered distinctions affect the most vulnerable; paid and unpaid work; and activism on climate change. It is argued that including gender as part of the analysis will lead to more equitable and stronger societies as solutions to climate change advance.
 
This volume will be of great relevance to students, scholars, trade unionists and international organisations with an interest in climate change, gender, public policy and environmental studies. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
 
Part One: Context and Overview
 
1. Introduction: Why Gender Matters when Dealing with Climate Change Marjorie Griffin Cohen
 
2. Masculinities of Global Climate Change: Exploring Ecomodern, Industrial and Ecological Masculinity Martin Hultman & Jonas Anshelm
 
3. It’s Not Just the Numbers: Challenging Masculinist Working Practices in Climate Change Decision-Making in UK Government and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations Susan Buckingham & Rakibe Kulcur
 
Part Two: Challenges for Paid and Unpaid Work
 
4. Women and Low Energy Construction in Europe: A New Opportunity? Linda Clarke
 
5. Renewable Inequity? Women’s Employment in Clean Energy in Industrialized, Emerging and Developing Economies Bipasha Baruah
 
6. UK Environmental and Trade Union Groups’ Struggles to Integrate Gender Issues into Climate Change Analysis and Activism Carl Mandy
 
7. Transporting Difference at Work: Taking Gendered Intersectionality Seriously in Climate Change Agendas Leonora Angeles
 
8. The US Example of Integrating Gender and Climate Change in Training: Response to the 2008–09 Recession Marjorie Griffin Cohen
 
Part Three: Vulnerability, Insecurity and Work
 
9. Gendered Outcomes in Post-Disaster Sites: Public Policy and Resource Distribution Margaret Alston
 
10. Climate Change, Traditional Roles, and Work– Interactions in the Inuit Nunangat Mike Kim
 
11. Towards Humane Jobs: Recognizing Gendered, Multispecies Intersections and Possibilities Kendra Coulter
 
Part Four: Rural and Resource Communities
 
12. Maybe Tomorrow Will Be Better: Gender and Farm Work in a Changing Climate Amber Fletcher
 
13. Understanding the Gender Labours of Adaptation to Climate Change in Forest-Based Communities Through Different Models of Analysis Maureen G. Reed
 
14. The Complex Impacts of Intensive Resource Extraction on Women, Children and Aboriginal Peoples: Towards Contextually-Informed Approaches to Climate Change and Health Maya K Gislason, Chris Buse, Shayna Dolan, Margot W Parkes, Jemma Tosh, Bob Woollard
 
Part Five: Public Policy and Activism
 
15. How a Gendered Understanding of Climate Change Can Help Shape Canadian Climate Policy Nathalie Chalifour
 
16. The Integration of Gender in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Québec: Silos and Possibilities Annie Rochette
 
17. A Gendered Analysis of Housing Policies in the Context of Climate Change: A Comparison of Canada and Spain Penny Gurstein & Sara Ortiz Escalante
 
18. Canadian Indigenous Female Leadership and Political Agency on Climate Change Patricia E. Perkins
 
19. Using Information about Gender and Climate Change to Inform Green Economic Policies Marjorie Griffin Cohen

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2017

Anger and Sadness: Gendered Emotional Responses to Climate Threats in Four Island Nations

Citation:

Du Bray, Margaret, Amber Wutich, Kelli L. Larson, Dave D. White, and Alexandra Brewis. 2019. "Anger and Sadness: Gendered Emotional Responses to Climate Threats in Four Island Nations." Cross-Cultural Research 53 (1): 58-86.

Authors: Margaret du Bray, Amber Wutich, Kelli L. Larson, Dave D. White, Alexandra Brewis

Abstract:

Climate change presents an important threat to community livelihoods and well-being around the world. Biophysical vulnerability to the effects of climate change, such as sea level rise, coastal erosion, changing flora and fauna, and changing precipitation patterns are predicted to affect island nations in particular. Emotional geographies offers a theoretical entry point to understand how changing landscapes, which are often imbued with emotion and personal significance, may result in heightened emotional states and result in different outcomes depending on the severity of these changes and the biophysical vulnerability that produces them. Historically, emotion and gender have been closely linked; we use biophysical vulnerability to climate change, along with emotion and gender, to argue for a differentiated perspective on how men and women in different places may experience different emotional responses to climate change. Using a cross-cultural analysis of qualitative data from four island countries (Fiji, Cyprus, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom; total N = 272), this article explores how different sensitivities to climate change may produce differentiated emotional responses among men versus women across these four sites. Our results indicate that gender does affect the emotional response of respondents in these sites, but that local sensitivity plays an important role in differentiating these emotional responses, and their causes, between the four sites.

Keywords: climate change, gender, emotion, island nations

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Oceania Countries: Cyprus, Fiji, New Zealand, United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Ecofeminism in Dialogue

Citation:

Vacoch, Douglas A, and Sam Mickey, eds. 2017. Ecofeminism in Dialogue. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Authors: Douglas A. Vacoch, Sam Mickey

Annotation:

Summary:
There are countless ways of thinking, feeling, and acting like an ecofeminist. Ecofeminism includes a plurality of perspectives, thriving in dialogue between diverse theories and practices involving ecological and feminist matters of concern. Deepening the dialogue, the contributors in this anthology explore critical and complementary interactions between ecofeminism and other areas of inquiry, including ecocriticism, postcolonialism, geography, environmental law, religion, geoengineering, systems thinking, family therapy, and more. This volume aims to further the cultural and literary theories of ecofeminism by situating them in conversation with other interpretations and analyses of intersections between environment, gender, and culture. This anthology is a unique combination of contemporary, interdisciplinary, and global perspectives in dialogue with ecofeminism, supporting academic and activist efforts to resist oppression and domination and cultivate care and justice (Summary from Amazon). 

Table of Contents:

1. Ecofeminist, Post-Colonial, and Anti-Capitalist Possibilities in Nalo Hopkinson’s Brown Girl in the Ring

Anna Bedford

2. “I Learnt All the Words and Broke Them Up / To Make a Single Word: Homeland”: An Eco-Postcolonial Perspective of Resistance in Palestinian’s Women’s Literature

Benay Blend

3. Pylons, Playgrounds, and Power Situations: Ecofeminism and Landscape in Women’s Short Fiction from Wales

Michelle Deininger

4. Angela Carter’s Postmodern Wolf Tales

5. “If Only I had Petals, my Situations Would be Different”: The Curious Case of Nature Reserves and Shelters for Battered Women

Edna Gorney

6. Leaning into the Light: Toward an Ecofeminist Model of Family Therapy

Gail Grossman Freyne

7. Technofeminism and Ecofeminism: An Analysis of Geoengineering Research

Tina Sikka

8. Weaving Ecofeminisms and Spiritualities: Reflections from Latin American Women

Ann Hidalgo

9. Women, Water, and Ecofeminism: A Method to Respond to the Commodification of Water

Rachel Hart Winter

10. Hope Over Powerlessness: McFague’s Meditation on the World as God’s Body

Rebecca Meier-Rao

11. Dilemmas and Possibilities of Online Activism in a Gendered Space

Jessica McLean

12. Mapping and Misrecognition: Ecofeminist Insights into Chicana Feminist Aesthetics

Christina Holmes

13. Ecofeminist Potentials for International Environmental Law

Kate Wilkinson Cross

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Domestic Violence, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, International Law, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Justice Regions: MENA, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, United Kingdom

Year: 2018

Pages

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