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Uganda

Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa

Citation:

Camlin, Carol S., Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, and Edwin Charlebois. and Charlebois. 2019. "Gendered Dimensions of Population Mobility Associated with HIV Across Three Epidemics in Rural Eastern Africa." Health & Place 57: 339-51.

Authors: Carol S. Camlin, Adam Akullian, Torsten B. Neilands, Monica Getahun, Anna Bershteyn, Sarah Ssali, Elvin Geng, Monica Gandhi, Craig R. Cohen, Irene Maeri, Patrick Eyul, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Edwin D. Charlebois

Abstract:

Mobility in sub-Saharan Africa links geographically-separate HIV epidemics, intensifies transmission by enabling higher-risk sexual behavior, and disrupts care. This population-based observational cohort study measured complex dimensions of mobility in rural Uganda and Kenya. Survey data were collected every 6 months beginning in 2016 from a random sample of 2308 adults in 12 communities across three regions, stratified by intervention arm, baseline residential stability and HIV status. Analyses were survey-weighted and stratified by sex, region, and HIV status. In this study, there were large differences in the forms and magnitude of mobility across regions, between men and women, and by HIV status. We found that adult migration varied widely by region, higher proportions of men than women migrated within the past one and five years, and men predominated across all but the most localized scales of migration: a higher proportion of women than men migrated within county of origin. Labor-related mobility was more common among men than women, while women were more likely to travel for non-labor reasons. Labor-related mobility was associated with HIV positive status for both men and women, adjusting for age and region, but the association was especially pronounced in women. The forms, drivers, and correlates of mobility in eastern Africa are complex and highly gendered. An in-depth understanding of mobility may help improve implementation and address gaps in the HIV prevention and care continua.

Keywords: HIV, mobility, migration, gender, Kenya, Uganda, population-based

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya, Uganda

Year: 2019

Beyond Masculinity: Gender, Conflict and Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Northern Uganda

Citation:

Esuruku, Robert Senath. 2011. "Beyond Masculinity: Gender, Conflict and Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Northern Uganda." Journal of Science & Sustainable Development 4: 25-40.

Author: Robert Senath Esuruku

Abstract:

Masculinity and femininity debates of armed conflict in Africa have always regarded men as fighters and women as passive victims of war. The exclusion of women from the armed forces in most traditional societies originated from the assumption that women are a weaker sex and therefore cannot manage military life. Nevertheless, women in Uganda have voluntarily joined the armed forces, while some of them have been abducted and forcefully recruited into the rebel forces. Notwithstanding the central role women have played in the armed conflict in Northern Uganda, they have been side-lined in the processes of peace negotiation and post conflict reconstruction of the region. This paper looks at how masculinity is manipulated in conflict and the role women have played in the conflict, peace process and post conflict reconstruction in Northern Uganda. 

Keywords: gender, post-conflict reconstruction, transitional justice

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2011

“Without Land You Are Nobody”: Critical Dimensions of Women‟s Access to Land and Relations in Tenure in East Africa

Citation:

Verma, Ritu. 2007. Without Land You Are Nobody': Critical Dimensions of Women‟s Access to Land and Relations in Tenure in East Africa. International Development Research Centre. 

Author: Ritu Verma

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. Dedication & Acknowledgements
2. List of Acronyms 
3. Introduction 
4. Conceptual and Methodological Points of Departure 
        Conceptual Framework
        Gender-Based Methodology 
5. Common Themes and Issues Across Country Contexts
        Symbolic and Cultural Meanings
        Struggles over Land in a Situation of Legal Pluralism
        The Relationship between Land and Labour and other Productive Resources
        Lack of Implimentation and Political Will
6. Country Specific Issues and Differences 
        Ethiopia: Gender and Evolving Complex Notions of Rights to Land
        Kenya: The Marginalization of the Marginalized and the Re-Entrenchment of Patriarchal Discourses and Practices 
        Rwanda: Emerging Gender and Land Rights Issues & „the Great Disappearing Act
in a Post-Conflict Era
        Uganda: Gender and Eroding Political Gains & Micro-Political Struggles 
        Other East African Dynamics: Gender, Caste & the Power of Ancestors 
7. Conclusions: Identifying Gaps, Gender-Positive Action & the Way Forward 
        Identifying Gaps in Research and Capacity 
        Gender-Positive Action, Support and Agency 
        Making a Difference at the Grassroots is the Only Way Forward
8. Bibliography
Appendix A – Gender and Land Tenure References & Related Literature 53
Appendix B – Key Researchers and Organizations Working on Gender and Land Issues 71
Appendix C – Key Internet Web Sites & Web Links 85
End Notes

Topics: Caste, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Land Tenure, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda

Year: 2007

Buried in the Heart: Women, Complex Victimhood and the War in Northern Uganda

Citation:

Baines, Erin. 2018. Buried in the Heart: Women, Complex Victimhood and the War in Northern Uganda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Author: Erin Baines

Annotation:

"In Buried in the Heart, Erin Baines explores the political agency of women abducted as children by the Lord's Resistance Army in northern Uganda, forced to marry its commanders, and to bear their children. Introducing the concept of complex victimhood, she argues that abducted women were not passive victims, but navigated complex social and political worlds that were life inside the violent armed group. Exploring the life stories of thirty women, Baines considers the possibilities of storytelling to reclaim one's sense of self and relations to others, and to generate political judgement after mass violence. Buried in the Heart moves beyond victim and perpetrator frameworks prevalent in the field of transitional justice, shifting the attention to stories of living through mass violence and the possibilities of remaking communities after it. The book contributes to an overlooked aspect of international justice: women's political agency during wartime." (Summary from Cambridge University Press)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Justice, Transitional Justice, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

'To Me, Justice Means to Be in a Group’: Survivors’ Groups as a Pathway to Justice in Northern Uganda

Citation:

Schulz, Philipp. 2019. "'To Me, Justice Means to Be in a Group’: Survivors’ Groups as a Pathway to Justice in Northern Uganda." Journal of Human Rights Practice 11 (1): 171-89.

Author: Philipp Schulz

Abstract:

How do male survivors of sexual violence conceptualize justice in a post-conflict and transitional context? Centralizing male survivors’ voices and perspectives, this article seeks to address this under-explored question in the growing literature on gender and transitional justice. Even though recent years have witnessed increasing consideration for redressing crimes of wartime sexual and gender-based violence against women and girls, specific attention to justice for conflict-related sexual violence against men remains remarkably absent. Utilizing novel empirical data from northern Uganda, in this article I show that justice for male survivors of sexual violence means to be in a group with other survivors. Drawing on survivors’ perspectives, I argue that groups make it possible for male survivors to attain a sense of justice on the micro level and in a participatory capacity in four fundamental ways: (1) by enabling survivors to re-negotiate their gender identities; (2) by mitigating isolation through (re-)building relationships; (3) by offering safe spaces for storytelling as a culturally-resonating contribution to justice, enabling survivors to exercise agency; and (4) by initiating a process of recognizing male survivors’ experiences, contributing to justice through recognition. By addressing male sexual and gendered harms in a myriad of ways, survivors’ groups thereby constitute a pathway through which justice can be achieved among survivors themselves on the micro level. In northern Uganda, where formalized transitional justice processes are irresponsive to male sexual violations, survivors’ groups thus constitute community-driven and participatory alternative redress mechanisms for harms that remain unrecognized and unaddressed by standardized transitional justice processes.

Keywords: activism, gender, masculinity, survivors' groups, sexual violence, Uganda

Topics: Gender, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, SV against men Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019

Women and Peacebuilding in Uganda

Citation:

Ball, Jennifer. 2019. “Women and Peacebuilding in Uganda.” In Women, Development and Peacebuilding in Africa: Stories from Uganda, 3–29. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Jennifer Ball

Abstract:

Peacebuilding is typically viewed in international arenas as processes and activities engaged in during periods of post-conflict reconstruction, following on the heels of peacemaking and peacekeeping. The peacebuilders are often outsiders, and usually Westerners. This chapter upends those traditional notions, offering a more holistic view of peacebuilding, and one in which local women are key players. The focus is not merely on reconstruction, but also on the prevention and resolution of violence and conflict, by ensuring the socioeconomic and political conditions in which people’s rights and basic human needs can be met. This chapter looks at the roles of women in peacebuilding, and then at women peacebuilders in the Ugandan context. It notes ways in which Ugandan women at the grassroots have played and continue to play significant and often unheralded roles in fraught situations.

Keywords: peacebuilding, Ugandan women, Mazurana, violent conflict, grassroots

Topics: Class, Conflict, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019

Armed Conflict, Alcohol Misuse, Decision-Making, and Intimate Partner Violence among Women in Northeastern Uganda: A Population Level Study

Citation:

Mootz, Jennifer J., Florence Kyoheirwe Muhanguzi, Pavel Panko, Patrick Onyango Mangen, Milton L. Wainberg, Ilana Pinsky, and Kaveh Khoshnood. 2018. "Armed Conflict, Alcohol Misuse, Decision-Making, and Intimate Partner Violence among Women in Northeastern Uganda: A Population Level Study." Conflict and Health 12: 1-11.

Authors: Jennifer J. Mootz, Florence Kyoheirwe Muhanguzi, Pavel Panko, Patrick Onyango Mangen, Milton L. Wainberg, Ilana Pinsky, Kaveh Khoshnood

Abstract:

Background: Relations among and interactions between exposure to armed conflict, alcohol misuse, low socioeconomic status, gender (in)equitable decision-making, and intimate partner violence (IPV) represent serious global health concerns. Our objective was to determine extent of exposure to these variables and test pathways between these indicators of interest.

Methods: We surveyed 605 women aged 13 to 49 who were randomly selected via multistage sampling across three districts in Northeastern Uganda in 2016. We used Mplus 7.4 to estimate a moderated structural equation model of indirect pathways between armed conflict and intimate partner violence for currently partnered women (n = 558) to evaluate the strength of the relationships between the latent factors and determine the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model with the population data.

Results: Most respondents (88.8%) experienced conflict-related violence. The lifetime/ past 12 month prevalence of experiencing intimate partner violence was 65.3%/ 50.9% (psychological) and 59.9%/ 43.8% (physical). One-third (30.7%) of women’s partners reportedly consumed alcohol daily. The relative fit of the structural model was superior (CFI = 0.989; TLI = 0.989). The absolute fit (RMSEA = 0.029) closely matched the population data. The partner and joint decision-making groups significantly differed on the indirect effect through partner alcohol use (a1b1 = 0.209 [0.017: 0.467]).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that male partner alcohol misuse is associated with exposure to armed conflict and intimate partner violence—a relationship moderated by healthcare decision-making. These findings encourage the extension of integrated alcohol misuse and intimate partner violence policy and emergency humanitarian programming to include exposure to armed conflict and gendered decision-making practices.

Keywords: armed conflict, Uganda, alcohol use, domestic violence, Decision-making

Topics: Armed Conflict, Domestic Violence, Economies, Poverty, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

Incidence and Impact of Land Conflict in Uganda

Citation:

Deininger, Klaus, and Raffaella Castagnini. 2006. "Incidence and Impact of Land Conflict in Uganda." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 60 (3): 321-45.

Authors: Klaus Deininger, Raffaella Castagnini

Abstract:

While there is a large, though inconclusive, literature on the impact of land titles in Africa, little attention has been devoted to the study of land conflict, despite evidence on increasing incidence of such conflicts. We use data from Uganda to explore who is affected by land conflicts, whether recent legal changes have helped to reduce their incidence, and to assess their impact on productivity. Results indicate that female-headed households and widows are particularly affected and that the passage of the 1998 Land Act has failed to reduce the number of pending land conflicts. We also find evidence of a significant and quantitatively large productivity-reducing impact of land conflicts. This suggests that, especially in Africa, attention to land-related conflicts and exploration of ways to prevent and speedily resolve them would be an important area for policy as well as research. 

Keywords: conflict, land, sustainable land use, agriculture, productivity, gender, nonparametrics

Topics: Economies, Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2006

Displacement from Gendered Personhood: Sexual Violence and Masculinities in Northern Uganda

Citation:

Schulz, Phillip. 2018. "Displacement from Gendered Personhood: Sexual Violence and Masculinities in Northern Uganda." International Affairs 94 (5): 1101-19. 

Author: Phillip Schulz

Abstract:

This article empirically deconstructs the gendered effects of sexual violence on male survivors' masculinities in northern Uganda. Throughout the growing literature on the topic, the effects of wartime gender-based violence against men are widely seen as compromising male survivors' masculine identities, commonly framed as ‘emasculation’ by way of ‘feminization’ and/or ‘homo-sexualization’. Yet exactly how such processes unfold from survivors' perspectives remains insufficiently explored, nor has existing scholarship critically engaged with the dominant analytical categories and their associated terminologies. This article seeks to engage with both of these gaps. First, I identify normative and analytical shortcomings of the ‘emasculation’/‘feminization’ paradigm. Drawing on Edström, Dolan and colleagues, I propose an alternative reading to analyse the effects of sexual violence on gender identities. Second, I argue that the impact of sexual violence on masculinities is a layered process, compounded through numerous sexual and gendered harms and perpetuated over time. In northern Uganda, this process is composed of intersecting gendered harms that subordinate male survivors along gendered hierarchies, and that signify survivors' perceived inabilities to provide, protect and procreate—as expected of them by local constructions of hegemonic masculinity. I therefore emphasize that sexual violence against men strikes at multiple levels of what it means to be a man, which is important to understanding and addressing these layered gendered harms in the aftermath of the violations.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against men Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

'Luk pe Coo,' or Compensation as Dowry? Gendered Reflections on Reparations for Conflict-Related Sexual Violence against Men

Citation:

Schulz, Philipp. 2018. "'Luk pe Coo,' or Compensation as Dowry? Gendered Reflections on Reparations for Conflict-Related Sexual Violence against Men." The International Journal of Transitional Justice 12 (3): 537-48.

Author: Schulz, Philipp

Abstract:

This Note explores a divergent viewpoint on reparations represented by a small group of male survivors of conflict-related sexual violence in Northern Uganda. According to this perspective, reparative justice measures equal the payment of dowry, locally conceptualized as luk. In this reading, reparations, if regarded as dowry, further cement survivors’ perceived inferior subject positioning in a gendered manifestation and as previously initiated through the sexual violations. If viewed as dowry, reparations can thus entrench further gendered harms, rather than redressing suffering and vulnerabilities. These findings stand in contrast to how the relationships between reparations, victimhood and gender are commonly theorized, thus implying novel empirical and conceptual implications for gender-sensitive reparations in response to conflict-related sexual violence. Based upon these findings, I emphasize that reparations are value-loaded and inevitably depend on local gendered, cultural and societal contexts.

Keywords: reparations, gender, sexual violence / rape, masculinities, Northern Uganda

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Justice, Reparations, Sexual Violence, SV against men Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

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