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Women, Violence and Nonviolent Resistance in East Timor


Mason, Christine. 2005. “Women, Violence and Nonviolent Resistance in East Timor.” Journal of Peace Research 42 (6): 737–49.

Author: Christine Mason


A growing literature in peace and conflict studies assesses the relationship between women and nonviolence. Numerous national liberation fronts and academic critiques assess how women participate in nonviolent resistance from Tibet and West Papua to Palestine and Eritrea. However, many liberation struggles that include female nonviolent resistance remain undocumented, and this article aims to delve into one case study in particular. The article examines the nonviolent roles adopted by women in the East Timorese liberation struggle, a national liberation movement in which the participation of female combatants was low but nonviolent participation by women in the resistance movement overall was high. However, the consequences for such women was, and remains, shaped by the overarching patriarchal structures of both the Indonesian occupiers and East Timorese society itself. Female nonviolent resistance was met with highly violent responses from Indonesian troops, especially in the form of rape and sexual exploitation. Yet, this study also found that women acting under religious auspices faced less violent responses overall. Interviews with East Timorese women are used to reveal some of the sexual dynamics of nonviolent action and reprisal. This material is placed in the context of theoretical work on gender, violence and nonviolence.

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Nonviolence, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2005

Internalising the Culture of Human Rights: Securing Women’s Rights in Post-Conflict East Timor


Alldén, Susanne. 2007. “Internalising the Culture of Human Rights: Securing Women’s Rights in Post-Conflict East Timor.” Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights & the Law 8 (1): 1–23.

Author: Susanne Alldén

Topics: Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2007

If Not Now, When? Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Refugee, Internally Displaced, and Post-Conflict Settings: A Global Overview


Ward, Jeanne. 2002. If Not Now, When? Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Refugee, Internally Displaced, and Post-Conflict Settings: A Global Overview. New York: The Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium.  

Author: Jeanne Ward

Keywords: gender violence, refugee, displacement, post-conflict, human trafficking


This report addresses gender-based violence (GBV) in refugee, internally displaced, and post-conflict settings through twelve country profiles: three each for Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America. The profiles include background information, GBV issues, GBV-related programming, and recommendations. The report focuses almost exclusively on violence against women and girls, and human trafficking is one of the main issues discussed. 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Reproductive Health, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, SV against Women, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, South Caucasus, Oceania Countries: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Colombia, Congo-Brazzaville, Guatemala, Kosovo, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Thailand, Timor-Leste

Year: 2002

Pacific Women Exploring Nonviolence

"Pacific Women Exploring Nonviolence begins with an explanation of the East Timorese struggle for independence and the current post-conflict situation. Under Indonesian military occupation almost a third of the population died. Some 85 [percent] of the country's infrastructure was destroyed when Indonesian forces withdrew after a referendum on autonomy. The killings left many women as widows.

Children of the Crocodile


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