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Price of Peace: Financing for Gender Equality in Post Conflict Reconstruction


Budlender, Debbie. 2010. ‘Price of Peace: Financing for Gender Equality in Post Conflict Reconstruction’. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Author: Debbie Budlender


Questions of the gender-responsiveness of post-conflict funding are important beyond the economic sphere. While budgets and financing are economic tools, the monies that they govern are used to finance activities that extend into all areas of govern- ment activity. In post-conflict situations, donor funds are used not only to rebuild the economy and to (re-)establish administrative systems and law and order, but also to fund social services such as education and health. Decisions as to which sectors will be funded and what will be funded within them are therefore of clear impor- tance in determining prospects for advancing gender equality in the recipient country. In an attempt to get more detailed information, the Gender Team of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) commissioned case studies in Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Southern Sudan and Timor-Leste. The case studies examine whether and how resources were allocated and used in post-conflict reconstruction initiatives to promote gender equality and address women’s needs.The studies examined whether gender issues were addressed through separate projects or through addressing gender issues in mainstream projects and programmes.They also examined how funding of post-conflict reconstruction related to their own budgets with respect to gender equality and women’s empowerment. The research covered the full post-conflict reconstruction period, including early recovery and peace-building assistance as well as later assistance as the recipient countries attempted to move towards a more ‘normal’ situation. The precise time period varied from one case study to the next and these are detailed in each individual case study. Movement towards the normal situation is reflected by a shift in instruments used, with countries over time increasingly being assisted through standard instruments and processes used in non-conflict countries. For future and current interventions, this synthesis report draws on the lessons that intervening actors as well as actors in the beneficiary countries can learn from these four case studies. 


Keywords: United Nations Development Programme, gender equality, gender and finance, post-conflict

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Budgeting, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Kosovo, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Timor-Leste

Year: 2010

Integrating Gender in Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform


Bastick, Megan. 2008. ‘Integrating Gender in Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform’. In SIPRI Yearbook. DCAF.

Author: Megan Bastick


The importance of security sector reform (SSR) has increasingly been empha- sized in international engagement with post-conflict countries. In February 2007 the United Nations Security Council stressed that ‘reforming the security sector in post-conflict environments is critical to the consolidation of peace and stability, promoting poverty reduction, rule of law and good governance, extending legitimate state authority, and preventing countries from relapsing into conflict’. National governments also identify SSR as a key tool in con- solidating their authority and healing divisions of the past. This chapter explores the case and methods for addressing gender issues in post-conflict SSR processes, drawing upon experiences in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Liberia, Peru, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste, and potential models from Serbia and South Africa. Section II further defines the concepts of SSR and gender, as well as their relationship to each other. The rationale for and experiences of gender mainstreaming in SSR and promoting the full and equal participation of men and women in SSR processes are discussed in section III, with practical examples from post-conflict settings. Section IV focuses on promoting women’s participation in post-conflict security services. Section V examines some challenges for key post-conflict SSR and SSR- related activities, including gender dimensions in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) processes, transitional justice and justice reform. Section VI summarizes the case for integrating gender into future SSR program- ming and policymaking and outlines the key opportunities and challenges. 


Keywords: gender, security sector reform, post-conflict, gender mainstreaming


Security sector reform (SSR) is essential to post-conflict peacebuilding in order to prevent the reoccurrence of conflict, to enhance public security, and to create the conditions for reconstruction and development. The importance of women’s participation and gender equality in peacebuilding and security is recognized by many governments and United Nations and donor agencies. However, efforts to promote these goals are often planned and implemented independently of each other, with the result that SSR fails to include women and to address the security needs of the entire population—including women, girls and boys.

Post-conflict SSR processes have used various approaches to address gender issues.

  • In Afghanistan, Kosovo and Liberia SSR measures to recruit and
    retain women, and to make security institutions more responsive to
    gender issues presented challenges but also yielded positive results.
  • In Peru, Sierra Leone and Timor- Leste truth and reconciliation commissions included mechanisms to address the experiences and justice needs of women.
  • Rwandan women parliamentarians made distinctive contributions to SSR by uniting across party and ethnic lines to address issues of women’s security.
  • In Liberia and Sierra Leone disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes contributed to developing operational procedures to ensure that women and girls are not excluded, and that the needs of men and boys are also addressed.
  • In Liberia and South Africa women’s civil society organizations were important partners in linking SSR with local security and justice concerns.

Gender mainstreaming—assessing the impact of SSR policies andactivities on women, men, boys and girls at every stage of the process—is a key strategy. It must be accompanied by steps to ensure that both men and women participate and are represented in SSRprocesses.

Participation of women in post-conflict security services is crucial to creating structures that are representative, trusted and legitimate,and are able to meet the security needs of both men and women.

‘Transitional justice’ and justice reform processes have madeadvances in responding to gender issues. Ad hoc criminal tribunals have prioritized prosecution of sexual violence.

Successful integration of gender in SSR shares the broader challenges of SSR. External actors can encourage and support, but initiatives must be led by local stakeholders. SSR has much to gain byintegrating gender.


Megan Bastick (Australia/United Kingdom) is Deputy Head of the Special Programmes Division at the 

Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Afghanistan, Kosovo, Liberia, Peru, Rwanda, Serbia, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Timor-Leste

Year: 2008

'Cowboy' Policing versus 'the Softer Stuff;' Masculinities and Policekeeping


Bevan, Marianne and Megan H. MacKenzie. 2012. "'Cowboy' Policing versus 'the Softer Stuff;' Masculinities and Policekeeping." International Feminist Journal of Politics 14 (4): 508-528.

Authors: Marianne Bevan, Megan H. MacKenzie


This article examines masculinities in relation to the New Zealand police force Community Policing Pilot Program in Timor-Leste (East Timor). We find that despite calls for less militarized, more community-centered approaches to security sector reform, various forms of militarized masculinities persisted within the culture of the New Zealand Police during its international mission. In doing so, we not only complicate singular representations of militarized masculinity, but also challenge accounts that see masculinity as a monolithic negative, violent construct that is engaged with in only problematic ways.

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Security Sector Reform, Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: New Zealand, Timor-Leste

Year: 2012

O papel das mulheres no desenvolvimento rural: uma leitura para Timor-Leste


Narciso, Vanda and Pedro Damião de Sousa Henriques. 2008. "O papel das mulheres no desenvolvimento rural: uma leitura para Timor-Leste." CEFAGE-UE Working Paper, Universidade de Évora, Évora.

Authors: Vanda Narciso, Pedro Damião de Sousa Henriques



O caminho percorrido para que as questões do género e do desenvolvimento e em especial a sua interligação sejam assuntos importantes e alvo de atenção tanto académica como política, foi longo. Várias áreas do conhecimento, como a sociologia, a antropologia e a economia, contribuem para a construção do conhecimento neste domínio, a par de outras mais recentes como os estudos feministas e os estudos pós-coloniais. Como resultado, as teorias e os conceitos sobre a relação das mulheres com o desenvolvimento e os efeitos deste sobre as mulheres têm sido vários. O objectivo deste trabalho foi em primeiro lugar pôr em relevo o papel que as mulheres desempenham no desenvolvimento rural, identificando as suas funções, as principais abordagens utilizadas e a sua situação perante o enquadramento jurídico internacional. Em segundo lugar fazemos uma aplicação à situação das mulheres em Timor-Leste, abarcando os aspectos sociais, nomeadamente os papéis de género, da família, e o acesso aos recursos naturais, com saliência para a terra. Faz-se igualmente uma leitura da situação das mulheres perante o direito positivo e o sistema costumeiro. A análise recorreu essencialmente a informação documental e a observações feitas no local em 2000 e 2003. Os contributos que as mulheres de Timor-Leste poderão dar ao desenvolvimento do seu país
está bastante condicionado pelas desigualdades de género presentes no direito consuetudinário, no qual destacamos o desigual acesso aos recursos naturais, com relevo para a terra. A HRBA parece ser a abordagem que melhor se adapta a uma integração plena das mulheres no processo de desenvolvimento, ao defender a igualdade e a não discriminação das mulheres em qualquer circunstância, e ao apelar à formação e ao empoderamento das mulheres para o exercício dos seus direitos.
It has been a long way, until both gender and development were recognized as important issues in academic and political arena. Several fields of science, such as sociology, anthropology, and economy contributed to the knowledge in this area, in addition to recent developments in feminist and pos-colonial studies. As a result, there are different gender approaches to development. The first objective of this paper is to stress the role of women in rural development, identifying their roles, the main gender approaches to development and women status under international law framework. The second aim is to analyze the position of women in East Timor with respect to social aspects, namely the gender roles, the family, access to natural resources and women status under the legal system and the traditional law. This analysis used documental sources of information and observations made in East Timor in 2000 and 2003. The contribution of East Timorese women to the development is heavy constrained by the gender inequality present in traditional/customary law, in which unequal access to natural resources, in special land access, is relevant. The HRBA seems to be the best approach to a full integration of women in the development process, once it vindicates the right to equality and non discrimination and advocates training and empowerment as means to make women exercise their rights.


Keywords: gênero, direitos à terra, desenvolvimento rural, Timor-Leste, gender, land rights, rural development, East Timor

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2008

Women Acting for Women: Gender-Responsive Budgeting in Timor-Leste


Costa, Monica, Marian Sawer, and Rhonda Sharp. 2013. “Women Acting for Women: Gender-Responsive Budgeting in Timor-Leste.” International Feminist Journal Of Politics 15 (3): 333-52.


Authors: Monica Costa, Marian Sawer, Rhonda Sharp


In the new country of Timor-Leste, women constituted in 2011 32 per cent of the parliament, a relatively high figure in the world and in the region. But to what extent has the presence of women in parliament contributed to progress towards gender equality? In this article we argue that the passage of a parliamentary resolution on gender-responsive budgeting in Timor-Leste was an act of substantive representation, and we draw on a range of data to examine what made it possible. We find that while ‘newness’, international norms, women’s movement unity, women’s machinery in government and parliament and networks linking them were important, it was the development of a cross-party parliamentary women’s caucus that was crucial to success. The role of gender-focused parliamentary institutions in supporting critical actors has rarely been examined in the literature on substantive representation. This is in contrast to the rich literature on institutions such as women’s policy agencies. Our study suggests that more focus on parliamentary institutions is needed to discover what enables women parliamentarians to become critical actors.



Keywords: gender-responsive budgeting, substantive representation, Timor-Leste, women's parliamentary caucus

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2013

Expenditure Incidence Analysis: A Gender-Responsive Budgeting Tool for Educational Expenditure in Timor-Leste?


Austen, Siobhan, Monica Costa, Rhonda Sharp, and Diane Elson. 2013. “Expenditure Incidence Analysis: A Gender-Responsive Budgeting Tool for Educational Expenditure in Timor-Leste?" Feminist Economics 19 (4): 1-24.

Authors: Siobhan Austen, Monica Costa, Rhonda Sharp, Diane Elson


Gender-disaggregated expenditure incidence analysis (EIA) is a tool for assessing the gender responsiveness of budgets and policies. However, to date there has been a limited take-up of gender-disaggregated EIA in policy and budget decision making. Using data from the 2007 Timor-Leste Living Standards Survey (TLLSS) and interviews and discussions with stakeholders, this paper conducts an EIA of expenditures on public schools and discusses the effectiveness of this analysis as an input into budget decision making. While gender-disaggregated EIA can assist in identifying gender gaps, its potential can only be fulfilled when combined with additional gender analysis and supported by a deep understanding of budget decision-making processes and the actors involved. The gender-disaggregated EIA of Timor- Leste’s educational spending confirmed its usefulness as an indicator of inequalities in educational expenditure. However, a range of political, cultural, and technical barriers constrains the use of gender-disaggregated EIA in policy and budget decision making.

Keywords: expenditure incidence analysis, gender-responsive budgeting, Timor-Leste, gender

Topics: Education, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Budgeting Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2013

Conflict and Development: Challenges in Responding to Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Timor-Leste


Wayte, Kayli, Anthony B. Zwi, Suzanne Belton, Joao Martins, Nelson Martins, Anna Whelan, and Paul M. Kelly. 2008. “Conflict and Development: Challenges in Responding to Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Timor-Leste.” Reproductive Health Matters 16 (31): 83-92.

Authors: Kayli Wayte, Anthony B. Zwi, Suzanne Belton, Joao Martins, Nelson Martins, Anna Whelan, Paul M. Kelly


In April and May 2006, internal conflict in Timor-Leste led to the displacement of approximately 150,000 people, around 15% of the population. The violence was most intense in Dili, the capital, where many residents were displaced into camps in the city or to the districts. Research utilising in-depth qualitative interviews, service statistics and document review was conducted from September 2006 to February 2007 to assess the health sector's response to reproductive health needs during the crisis. The study revealed an emphasis on antenatal care and a maternity waiting camp for pregnant women, but the relative neglect of other areas of reproductive health. There remains a need for improved coordination, increased dialogue and advocacy around sensitive reproductive health issues as well as greater participation of the health sector in response to gender-based violence. Strengthening neglected areas and including all components of sexual and reproductive health in coordination structures will provide a stronger foundation through which to respond to any future crises in Timor-Leste.

Keywords: conflict and crisis settings, forced migration, reproductive health, maternity waiting camp, East Timor

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Reproductive Health, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2008

Masculinities, Violence and Power in Timor Leste


Myrttinen, Henri. 2005. “Masculinities, Violence and Power in Timor Leste.” Lusotopie 12 (1-2): 233–44.

Author: Henri Myrttinen


This article sketches some of the manifestations of violent masculinities which were visible in the Timor Leste conflict from 1975 to 1999. While concentrating on Timorese actors, it points out that this does not in any way mean that Timorese men are inherently more violent than others. In fact, the vast majority of the acts of violence during the conflict were committed by members of the occupying Indonesian security forces. After a brief thematic and historical introduction, the article examines manifestations of violent masculinities within the pro-independence Falintil guerrilla, the pro-Indonesian militias and the civilian population. As the end of the conflict has not meant an end to, but a "domestication" of violence with extremely high rates of domestic and gender-based sexual violence, the article further examines the impact of the post-conflict situation on violent manifestations of masculinity.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Domestic Violence, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2005

Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste


Myrttinen, Henri. 2010. Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste. 31. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). 

Author: Henri Myrttinen


Gender analysis of actual SSR processes is sorely lacking in the SSR literature. In ‘Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste’ Henri Myrttinen breaks new ground in examining the gender dimensions of the DDR and SSR processes in Timor-Leste, with a focus on the establishment of the police and armed forces. The paper explores issues such as: how men’s roles relate to gang violence and relationships of patronage that undermine the security services, how women have been incorporated into the new security services and how the security services are addressing gender-based violence. It shows how a gender perspective can add to our understanding of many of the social processes at work in Timor-Leste and help to find solutions to some of the main security issues in the country, making recommendations for Timor-Leste’s ongoing SSR processes. (The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF)).

Topics: DDR, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Security Sector Reform Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2010

Land Policy in Post-Conflict Circumstances: Some Lessons from East Timor


Fitzpatrick, Daniel. 2012. “Land Policy in Post-Conflict Circumstances: Some Lessons from East Timor.” Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, Forthcoming, online

Author: Daniel Fitzpatrick


In the wake of adverse assessments of UN peace-building missions in Kosovo and Sierra Leone, the Report of the Panel on UN Peace Operations ("the Brahimi Report") was commissioned to consider UN peacekeeping and related field operations. Its recommendations range widely from the structure and role of various UN agencies, including the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, to the importance of "clear, credible and achievable" mandates. Most relevantly, for our purposes, the Brahimi Report recommends development of "peace-building strategies" (para. 2 (c)), including pre-selecting collegiate "rule of law" teams consisting inter alia of judicial and human rights specialists (para. 10).

Although little further detail is given, the assumption underlying these last recommendations is that, despite the variety of circumstances in which there will be UN peace-building missions, it is possible to develop in advance certain strategies, and pre-select specialist rule of law teams, so that future peace-building efforts may be facilitated. This article considers this assumption in relation to land policy in post-conflict circumstances. It does so by analysing UNTAET’s land policy in the immediate aftermath of the conflict in East Timor; and it argues, in particular, that lessons from the successes and failures of this policy may be applied to generate certain recommendations for template land strategies in other peace-building and post-conflict environments.

Keywords: land, title, East Timor, post-conflict, land policy

Topics: Development, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2012


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