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Thailand

Exploring Barriers to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations: The Case of Burmese Refugees in Thailand

Citation:

Zeus, Barbara. 2011. “Exploring Barriers to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations: The Case of Burmese Refugees in Thailand.” Journal of Refugee Studies 24 (2): 256–76.

Author: Barbara Zeus

Abstract:

Millions of refugees today are trapped in protracted encampment where they are dependent on external support for basic necessities. Growing up in a refugee camp, many young people are eager to attain Higher Education but lack the opportunities and freedoms their non-refugee peers enjoy as they transition into adulthood and look for meaningful ways to support themselves. This article explores three main assumptions surrounding barriers to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations both theoretically as well as in relation to the particular case of Burmese refugees in Thailand. Following a rights-based approach and adopting post-structural theories, this literature-based article demonstrates how dominant educational discourse emphasizes externalities and thereby neglects the practical realization of the individual's right to Higher Education, while powerful narratives of refugees as dependent victims have shaped reality in justifying mechanisms for international protection and incapacitating refugees. The article concludes that Higher Education could be both a means to refugee empowerment and a form of empowerment. We must not believe the many, who say that free persons only ought to be educated, but we should rather believe the philosophers, who say that the educated only are free (Epictetus, 55-135 AD).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Education, Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar, Thailand

Year: 2011

Overt Employment Discrimination in MNC Affiliates: Home-country Cultural and Institutional Effects

Citation:

Wu, C., J. J. Lawler and X. Yi. 2008. “Overt Employment Discrimination in MNC Affiliates: Home-country Cultural and Institutional Effects.” Journal of International Business Studies 39 (5): 772-794.

Authors: C. Wu, J. J. Lawler, X. Yi

Abstract:

Using job announcements posted by MNC subsidiaries in Taiwan and Thailand, we investigated the effects of MNC home-country cultural and institutional forces on the use of employment gender and age discriminatory criteria in host countries where anti-discrimination legislation was absent. We examined the cultural effects with composite measures taken from the work of Hofstede and Schwartz. The effects of the existence of anti-age and anti-gender discrimination employment legislation in an MNC home country were also assessed to control for institutional factors. Logit analysis shows that MNC home-country culture and institutional environment can have a strong impact on the use of discriminatory criteria by MNCs in host countries, at least those lacking protective legislation. Specifically, MNCs based in countries that have existing and effective age and gender discrimination laws, and have more individualist and less masculine cultures, are less likely to engage in at least overt gender-based and age-based discrimination.
Keywords: MNC; employment discrimination; age; gender; national culture; institutional forces

Annotation:

Analyzed recruitment ads in Thailand and Taiwan (no regulations in either country at the time of the study), overt gender and age discrimination; Asian-Pacific, North American and European-based companies

Existence of a home-country cultural impact on the likelihood of these types of discrimination by MNC subsidiaries even after controlling for key home-country institutional influences

Topics: Age, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Governance, Multi-National Corporations Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Taiwan, Thailand

Year: 2008

Identity Diversification among Transgender Sex Workers in Thailand’s Sex Tourism Industry

Citation:

Ocha, W., and B. Earth. 2013. “Identity Diversification among Transgender Sex Workers in Thailand’s Sex Tourism Industry.” Sexualities 16 (1-2): 195–216. doi:10.1177/1363460712471117.

Authors: W. Ocha, B. Earth

Abstract:

This article looks at identity diversification among Thai (MTF) transgender sex workers who are in a semi-reassigned physical state; working in two famous sex tourism hot spots in Thailand. Locating the informants in their own gender system, then drawing on western queer and transgender theories, we examine the negotiation of gender and identity in this unique cultural, historical and political context. The research shows that the sex industry facilitates the emergence of new third-gender identities among MTF sex workers. The research finds that core gender identity, embodiment and preferred sexual practices are mutable but vary together. The research reinforces the centrality of the body in transgender studies, but highlights problems of cross-cultural differences in gender concepts.

Topics: Gender, LGBTQ, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Sexuality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2013

Combating Human Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks between Thailand and the United States

Citation:

Bertone, Andrea. 2008. “Combating Human Trafficking: Transnational Advocacy Networks between Thailand and the United States.” Paper presented at 49th Annual International Studies Association Convention, San Francisco, March 24 – March 28.

Author: Andrea Bertone

Topics: Gender, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand, United States of America

Year: 2008

Transborder Migration, Social Reproduction and Economic Development: A Case Study of Burmese Women Workers in Thailand

Citation:

Kusakabe, Kyoko, and Ruth Pearson. 2010. “Transborder Migration, Social Reproduction and Economic Development: A Case Study of Burmese Women Workers in Thailand.” International Migration 48 (6): 13–43. 

Authors: Kyoko Kusakabe, Ruth Pearson

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar, Thailand

Year: 2010

Shan women and girls and the sex industry in South Asia; political causes and human rights implications

Citation:

Beyrer, Chris. 2001. “Shan women and girls and the sex industry in South Asia; political causes and human rights implications.” Social Science & Medicine 53, 543-50.

Author: Chris Beyrer

Abstract:

The human rights abuses which occur during civil conflicts pose special threats to the health and lives of women. These can include rape, sexual violence, increased vulnerability to trafficking into prostitution, and exposure to HIV infection. The long-standing civil conflict in the Shan States of Burma is investigated as a contributing cause to the trafficking of ethnic Shan women and girls into the Southeast Asian sex industry, and to the subsequent high rates of HIV infection found among these women. The context of chronic human rights abuses in the Shan states is explored, as well as the effects of recent forced population transfers on the part of the Burmese Military Regime. Rights abuses specific to trafficked women may further increase their vulnerability to HIV and other STD. The need for a political resolution to the crisis in Burma is discussed, as are approaches aimed at preventing trafficking, empowering women already in the sex industry, and reducing the risks of HIV and other STD among these women and girls.

Keywords: Shan, Burma, Trafficking, human rights, HIV/AIDS, sex industry

Annotation:

Quotes:

“Given the chronic state of poverty, uncertainty, and threats to life and well-being, it should not be surprising that so many Shans have fled the Shan States, as refugees and as migrant or contracted workers to Thailand. Nor should it be surprising that trafficking networks have developed to move these workers from Shan areas into Thailand and onward to work sites throughout the country. (Beyrer, 1998?) The Thai government’s bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that 375,000 Burmese, at least 2/3 of whom are Shans, were working illegally in Thailand in 1997. The Thai government and NGOs all agree however, that the actual figures are much higher, and typical estimates ranged from 900,000 to 1.2 million in 1997. During Thailand’s long economic “boom” period, these workers were tacitly welcomed, and did a significant portion of Thailand’s manual labor, on construction crews, road building, as agricultural and forest workers, and for women, as domestics and in the sex industry. In all of these industries, including sex work, Shan workers are illegal, vulnerable to exploitation, and subject to harassment and arrest by the Thai authorities.” (544-545)

“Although abduction happens, as does outright sale of daughters among the poorest of the poor, the trafficking road usually starts with a job offer. A girl is offered work as a waitress, a domestic, or in manual labor. Her family usually gets some money as an advance payment charged against future labor…This payment is the start of the debt-bondage. There are a limited number of trafficking routes into Thailand and all require bribes along the way. The three principal trafficking routes have been established through interviews with trafficked women. They include the Kengtung-Tachilek-Mae Sai-Chiang Rai route, a river route from eastern Shan State on the Kok river, to Mai Ai at the northern end of Chiang Mai Province, and down to Fang, and a route slightly further south, which crosses from the Shan hills to the Thai Province of Mae Hong Sorn. The bribes required to cross these borders are added to the women’s debt.” (546) 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Women, Girls, Health, HIV/AIDS, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar, Thailand

Year: 2001

Violence Against Women, Sex Industry and The Business of United Nations Peace Operations

Citation:

Punyarut, Nunlada. 2006. “Violence Against Women, Sex Industry and The Business of United Nations Peace Operations.” Thai Journal of Public Administration 4 (1–2549): 81–99.

Author: Nunlada Punyarut

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, SV against Women, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2006

Education, Diversity, and Inclusion in Burmese Refugee Camps in Thailand

Citation:

Oh, Su-Ann, and Marc van der Stouwe. 2008. “Education, Diversity, and Inclusion in Burmese Refugee Camps in Thailand.” Comparative Education Review 52 (4): 589–617.

Authors: Su-Ann Oh, Marc van der Stouwe

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Women, Nationalism, NGOs Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar, Thailand

Year: 2008

War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia

Citation:

Beyrer, Chris. 1998. War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia. London: Zed Books.

Author: Chris Beyrer

Abstract:

This engaging and vivid book investigates the course of the HIV epidemic in seven countries of South East Asia: Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Vietnam and China’s Yunnan Province. Emphasising the impact of the cultural and political landscapes of these countries on the progress of the disease, the book is the product of both working and travelling in the area. Not merely a commentary on obfuscating government statistics, the author draws upon his encounters with people dealing with the effects of the epidemic and opponents of the regimes of the countries he describes. The epidemic is seen as being vitally linked to the general condition of human rights in the societies.

In the first part of the book the author travels to each country in turn chronicling the different approaches adopted to the epidemic. The second part covers issues involving specific groups at risk - among other topics, women and contraception, prostitution and the traffic in women, HIV and the US military, the Heroin trade, gay sex workers, prisoners, and the work of local activists. The third part of the book looks at policy and the general effect of culture on public health care, stressing the need for local empowerment of populations, and in particular women, to effect social changes that would go hand in hand with improvements in the handling of the HIV epidemic. Both passionate and well-informed, this book is a labour of love that discusses the HIV epidemic while giving an intimate, and ultimately celebratory account of South East Asia and asserting the real possiblity for affirmative action. (Amazon)

Topics: Governance, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Human Rights, Sexuality, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 1998

Gender Mainstreaming in Government Offices in Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos: Perspectives from Below

Citation:

Kusakabe, Kyoko. 2005. “Gender Mainstreaming in Government Offices in Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos: Perspectives from below.” Gender & Development 13 (2): 46–56.

Author: Kyoko Kusakabe

Abstract:

In this article, I aim to examine the ways in which gender concerns have been 'mainstreamed' into government activities. I focus on three countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region: Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. While gender mainstreaming policies are in place at the national level in these countries, the 'evaporation' (Longwe 1995) of such policies at the lower levels has been a problem. The article concentrates on challenges of implementation which exist at provincial/commune and department levels. Drawing on the experience of middle and low-level government officers, I argue here that policy evaporation occurs partly because of lack of political commitment to gender mainstreaming at different levels. Another problem is that the concept of gender mainstreaming itself remains vague, and is thus difficult to translate into action.

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand

Year: 2005

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