Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version


Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas


Witvorapong, Nopphol, Raya Muttarak, and Wiraporn Pothisiri. 2015. “Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas.” PLoS ONE 10 (7): 1–20.

Authors: Nopphol Witvorapong, Raya Muttarak, Wiraporn Pothisiri


This paper examines the relationships between social participation and disaster risk reduction actions. A survey of 557 households in tsunami prone areas in Phang Nga, Thailand was conducted following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. We use a multivariate probit model to jointly estimate the likelihood of undertaking three responses to earthquake and tsunami hazards (namely, (1) following disaster-related news closely, (2) preparing emergency kits and/or having a family emergency plan, and (3) having an intention to migrate) and community participation. We find that those who experienced losses from the 2004 tsunami are more likely to participate in community activities and respond to earthquake hazards. Compared to men, women are more likely to prepare emergency kits and/or have an emergency plan and have a greater intention to migrate. Living in a community with a higher proportion of women with tertiary education increases the probability of engaging in community activities and carrying out disaster risk reduction measures. Individuals who participate in village-based activities are 5.2% more likely to undertake all three risk reduction actions compared to those not engaging in community activities. This implies that encouraging participation in community activities can have positive externalities in disaster mitigation.

Topics: Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Analysis Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2015

Gender and the Management of Climate-Related Risks in Northern Thailand


Lebel, Louis, Phimphakan Lebel, and Boripat Lebel. 2014. “Gender and the Management of Climate-Related Risks in Northern Thailand.” International Social Science Journal 65 (217/218): 147–58. doi:10.1111/issj.12090.

Authors: Louis Lebel, Phimphakan Lebel, Boripat Lebel


In much past research on the sustainability of natural resource management, gender was either ignored or women were essentialised as care-takers or victims. Recent programmes on disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change seem to be retracing these myths. There is a need for more critical research on how gender influences the experience and management of climate-related risks. This paper draws on a set of earlier studies to explore the influences of gender on climate risk management by farming households in northern Thailand. We find that women fish farmers perceived greater climate-related risks to profits, and this corresponded with attaching greater importance to risk management practices at the farm and community levels. Women and men crop farmers had very similar perceptions of changing drought risks. Research on the roles of women in community-level water management, and gendered social norms suggest that it will be more difficult for women to reduce risks to their farms at the larger, collective, scales than it is for men. This study shows that gender can influence risk-taking and decision-making and therefore should be taken into account when strengthening climate risk management practices or designing adaptation interventions. (Abstract from Wiley Online Library)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2014

Suicide Ideation and Victimization Among Refugee Women Along the Thai–Burma Borde


Falb, Kathryn L., Marie C. McCormick, David Hemenway, Katherine Anfinson, and Jay G. Silverman. 2013. “Suicide Ideation and Victimization Among Refugee Women Along the Thai–Burma Border.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 26 (5): 631–35. doi:10.1002/jts.21846.

Authors: Katherine Anfinson, Kathryn L. Falb, David Hemenway, Marie C. McCormick, Jay G. Silverman


Refugee women may experience multiple forms of victimization. The hypotheses underlying the present analyses were that experiences of victimization during conflict and intimate partner violence (IPV) would be associated with heightened odds of suicide ideation among refugee women living in 3 camps along the Thai–Burma border. Descriptive statistics were generated to describe the prevalence of conflict victimization, past-year IPV victimization, past-month suicide ideation, and covariates among partnered women with complete data (N = 848) from a cross-sectional survey conducted in early 2008. Logistic generalized estimating equations were used to assess the crude and adjusted relationships between variables. The mean age of women was 32.12 years, 91.0% were married, and 78.8% were of Karen ethnicity. Overall, 7.4% of women reported past-month suicide ideation. Of those women who did not experience any victimization or conflict victimization only, 5.1% and 5.2% reported suicide ideation, respectively. By contrast 26.7% of women who experienced only IPV victimization reported suicide ideation, and 50.0% of women who experienced both forms of victimization reported suicide ideation. Understanding each form of violence victimization and their relationships to suicide ideation may be important for targeting psychosocial services and violence prevention programs within protracted refugee settings.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, Households Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar, Thailand

Year: 2013

"Shades of Grey": Spaces In and Beyond Trafficking for Thai Women Involved in Commercial Sexual Labour in Sydney and Singapore


Yea, Sallie. 2012. “‘Shades of Grey’: Spaces In and Beyond Trafficking for Thai Women Involved in Commercial Sexual Labour in Sydney and Singapore.” Gender, Place & Culture 19 (1): 42–60. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2011.617906.

Author: Sallie Yea


In this article I explore the migration trajectories of some Thai women trafficked internationally for commercial sexual exploitation, suggesting that many figuratively ‘cross the border’ between coerced and consensual existence in volatile migrant sex industries during the course of their migration experiences, thus complicating debates around the notion of choice in ‘sex’ trafficking. In exploring these women's transitions I seek to understand why women who had either never previously been sex workers or who were sex workers operating without duress, but who were then trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation remain in, or re-enter volatile forms of migrant sex work at a later point under voluntary arrangements. In answering this question I focus on the temporal and spatial aspects of individual women's experiences in migrant sex industries drawing in detail on the narratives of two Thai women trafficked to Sydney, Australia and Singapore. I make some suggestions about methodologies used in trafficking research that can assist in bringing to light some of these complex time–space dimensions of women's experiences through their shifting positions in commercial sexual labour. The article also reflects on the implications of these women's trajectories for the ‘prostitution debate’ as it relates to trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation by suggesting that many trafficked women occupy ambiguous or in-between positions in migrant sex industries, neither easily distinguishable by the label of victim of trafficking or migrant sex worker.

Keywords: sex trafficking, commercial sexual labour, methodologies, migration trajectories, Thailand

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Political Economies, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2012

Gendered Casualties: Memoirs in Activism and the Problem of Representing Violence


Musikawong, Sudarat. 2011. “Gendered Casualties: Memoirs in Activism and the Problem of Representing Violence.” Meridians 11 (2): 174–204. doi:10.2979/meridians.11.2.174.

Author: Sudarat Musikawong


Masculinity and nationalisms in Thailand during the 1970s served to enable gendered violence against activist women. Archival research and fieldwork reveal how feminist epistemologies and methods for studying memory are always gendered. Both conservative and leftist memories about the turbulent 1970s are rooted in a masculine notion of nationalism. Marginalizing the women's movement during the 1970s and forgetting the gendered violence against female activists during the October 6, 1976 massacre enables masculine nationalism.

Topics: Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Nationalism, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2011

It’s Not Just the Alcohol: Gender, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mae La Refugee Camp, Thailand, 2009


Ezard, Nadine. 2014. “It’s Not Just the Alcohol: Gender, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mae La Refugee Camp, Thailand, 2009.” Substance Use & Misuse 49 (6): 684–93

Author: Nadine Ezard


Alcohol use is common in many conflict-displaced populations; population perspectives of alcohol use have not been well studied. Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 97 people (September–December 2009) in Mae La, a longstanding refugee camp on the Thai-Burma border, and analyzed thematically. Intimate partner violence (IPV) emerged as a prominent theme, with four subthemes: alcohol use is subject to strongly gendered social controls; alcohol use is changing under the pressures of displacement; IPV is an emergent alcohol-related harm; the relationship between IPV and alcohol is complex. The study’s limitations are noted, and future practice and research directions are discussed.

Keywords: Intimate partner violence, refugee, displaced populations, alcohol, conflict, Violence against women, Thailand-Burma border, substance use, qualitative research, gender

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Domestic Violence, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2014

Gender and Water in Northeast Thailand: Inequalities and Women’s Realities


Andajani-Sutjahjo, Sari, Siriporn Chirawatkul, & Erico Saito. 2015. “Gender and Water in Northeast Thailand: Inequalities and Women’s Realities.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 16 (2): 200–212.


Authors: Sari Andajani-Sutjahjo, Siriporn Chirawatkul, Erico Saito


The water world is socially constructed, reflecting continuous global gender inequalities and discrimination by those who hold dominant perspectives on water. While there is a strong global acknowledgement of the roles of women in water management by the United Nations International Water for Life Decade 2005-2015, discourses on gender mainstreaming in water management are still marginalised and under-theorised. The Millennium Development Goal-7 on environmental sustainability, addressing the need of more than one billion people for a significant improvement to accessing safe drinking water and basic sanitation, stagnated without a strong political will to include gender ideology in mainstream water perspectives. This qualitative study was conducted in a sub-urban community of Northeast Thailand in 2011, exploring the gendered roles, responsibilities, and inequalities of access to and control over village water resources. Results of this study illuminate the importance of taking into account the complexity of power and negotiation in local water structures within women’s social realities.


Keywords: gender, water, Inequalities, Water Tensions, Northeast Thailand

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2015

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study


Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London


There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?


Anderson, Bridget, and Julia O’Connell Davidson. 2003. Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?. 15. IOM Migration Research Series. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Bridget Anderson, Julia O’Connell Davidson


The 2001 ASEM Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children stressed the need to encourage research on the demand for the most common forms of exploitation of trafficked women and children, in particular for commercial sex services, and recommended a multi-country study into the demand side of trafficking as one of its follow-up actions.

In response to this recommendation, the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, SLDA and Save the Children Sweden, commissioned this pilot research study on the demand underlying two sectors where labour/services of trafficked persons are known to be subject to exploitation: prostitution and domestic work. This report sets out some of the findings of the pilot study and ongoing research concerning employer demand for domestic workers in private households, and consumer demand for commercial sexual services in selected European and Asian countries.

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Households, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: India, Italy, Sweden, Thailand

Year: 2003

Exploring Barriers to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations: The Case of Burmese Refugees in Thailand


Zeus, Barbara. 2011. “Exploring Barriers to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations: The Case of Burmese Refugees in Thailand.” Journal of Refugee Studies 24 (2): 256–76.

Author: Barbara Zeus


Millions of refugees today are trapped in protracted encampment where they are dependent on external support for basic necessities. Growing up in a refugee camp, many young people are eager to attain Higher Education but lack the opportunities and freedoms their non-refugee peers enjoy as they transition into adulthood and look for meaningful ways to support themselves. This article explores three main assumptions surrounding barriers to Higher Education in Protracted Refugee Situations both theoretically as well as in relation to the particular case of Burmese refugees in Thailand. Following a rights-based approach and adopting post-structural theories, this literature-based article demonstrates how dominant educational discourse emphasizes externalities and thereby neglects the practical realization of the individual's right to Higher Education, while powerful narratives of refugees as dependent victims have shaped reality in justifying mechanisms for international protection and incapacitating refugees. The article concludes that Higher Education could be both a means to refugee empowerment and a form of empowerment. We must not believe the many, who say that free persons only ought to be educated, but we should rather believe the philosophers, who say that the educated only are free (Epictetus, 55-135 AD).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Education, Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar, Thailand

Year: 2011


© 2020 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - Thailand