Ten-Country Overview Report: Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda


Budlender, Debbie. 2009. Ten-Country Overview Report: Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda. New York: The United Nations Development Fund for Women.

Author: Debbie Budlender


The following research reports (1 composite report and 10 country reports) have been generated as part of the UNIFEM programme,  "Integrating gender responsive budgeting into the aid effectiveness agenda”. The three-year programme funded by the European Commission (EC) was launched in 2008 and consists of research and programmatic technical assistance.

The programme seeks to demonstrate how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies contribute to enhancing a positive impact on gender equality of aid provided in the form of General Budget Support (GBS).

The first aspect of the programme involved research in ten developing countries to deepen the understanding of national partners and European Union (EU) decision makers of the opportunities for using GRB to enhance accountability to gender equality in the context of the aid effectiveness agenda. Concerned countries were Ethiopia, Peru, Tanzania, Uganda, Morocco, Nepal, India, Rwanda, Mozambique and Cameroon.

The second aspect of the programme will involve the selection of five countries in which targeted and tailored technical support will be provided in 2009 and 2010 to improve country capacity to further institutionalise GRB. (Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2009

Fiscal Policy, Accountability and Voice: The Example of Gender Responsive Budget Initiatives


Bakker, Isabella. 2002. Fiscal Policy, Accountability and Voice: The Example of Gender Responsive Budget Initiatives. New York: UNDP. 

Author: Isabella Bakker


The central argument of this chapter is that participatory budgeting and analysis - whether it is pro-poor, environment-sensitive or gender responsive - offers a new potentially innovative means for ensuring government accountability to international and national commitments as well as a more balanced distribution of public resources.

With this argument in mind, the chapter begins with a consideration of the relationship of accountability to fiscal policy. Accountability is explored in terms of its legal, institutional and market dimensions. This is followed by an analysis of budgets and accountability as they relate to four aspects that are of importance. These are: a. comprehensiveness; b. institutional responsiveness; c. transparency; and, d. credibility of commitments. Our next section outlines some justifications for one form of applied participatory budgeting-gender responsive budgeting. This is a preamble to explaining what gender responsive budgets are, and how such budgets relate to the four aspects of accountability sketched earlier. Our elements of accountability are then related to cases that might contribute to an inventory of best practice. These examples are drawn from a variety of countries such as India, Mauritius, Tanzania and Mexico. Also important are initiatives taken by multilateral institutions such as the Commonwealth Secretariat and entities within the UN system such as UNIFEM. The chapter ends with conclusions about lessons learned from these gender budget initiatives, how they might be applied to other participatory exercises and points to next steps. 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Mauritius, Mexico, Tanzania

Year: 2002

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study


Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London


There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

A Qualitative Assessment of Gender and Irrigation Technology in Kenya and Tanzania


Njuki, Jemimah et al. 2014. “A Qualitative Assessment of Gender and Irrigation Technology in Kenya and Tanzania.” Gender, Technology and Development 18 (3): 303–40. 

Authors: Jemimah Njuki, Elizabeth Waithanji, Beatrice Sakwa, Juliet Kariuki, Elizabeth Mukewa, John Ngige


Rural household economies dependent on rain-fed agriculture are turning to irrigation technology solutions to counter weather variability, and guard against low crop yields. Organizations are using market-based approaches to disseminate technologies to smallholder farmers, and although women are among their target group, little is known of the extent to which these approaches are reaching and benefiting them. There is also scant evidence about the implications for crop choice and income management if these new irrigation technologies are used and controlled by women. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study undertaken in Tanzania and Kenya to examine women’s access to and ownership of irrigation pumps, and the implications on their ability to make major decisions on crop choices and use of income from irrigated crops. Results from sales monitoring data showed that less than 10 percent of the pumps are being purchased by women, and most of the major decisions on crop choices and income use continue to be made by men. These findings vary from type of crop, with men making major decisions concerning high-income crops such as tomatoes, and women commanding relatively more autonomy over crops such as leafy vegetables. The study recommends further research to find out whether market-based approaches on their own can guarantee women access to and ownership of technologies, and the specific measures that need to be taken by businesses to achieve the goal of reaching and benefiting women.


Keywords: Gender, irrigation, technology, household decision making, income management, market approaches


The article discuses the various rural household irrigation technologies available for communities to gain access to water for household and agricultural consumption. It speaks heavily of the KickStart program implemented in Kenya and Tanzania, with particular attention paid to women and pump management. The differentiated roles of men and women are discussed with themes such as decision-making, intra-household crop choices, and income usage. The study demonstrates that women’s ownership of pumps is not the main determinant of whether she makes decisions regarding crop irrigation and income distribution. Increasing technological innovations in rural villages brings both positive and negative effects to gender relations and women’s empowerment. Training field experts on gender, ensuring a gendered balance in the program’s team, and forming a greater understanding of the constraints facing women are important recommendations argued by the author. Further research should also be conducted to determine ownership of the pumps and resource allocation, as the study determined that women and men have joint decision-making abilities


Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Households Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya, Tanzania

Year: 2014

"Once Intrepid Warriors": Modernity and the Production of Maasai Masculinities


Hodgeson, Dorothy. 1999. ""Once Intrepid Warriors": Modernity and the Production of Maasai Masculinities." Ethnology 38 (2): 121-50.

Author: Dororthy Hodgeson

Keywords: Tanzania, maasai, masculinity, Gender, modernity

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Masculinism Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 1999

The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences


Ballington, Julie, ed. 2004. The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences. Stockholm: The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.

Author: Julie Ballington


This report examines women’s political representation on the African continent, and shows how quotas have contributed to increasing women’s access to political power. Gender quotas are now increasingly viewed as an important policy measure for boosting women’s access to decision-making bodies throughout the world. Experience from Africa is very encouraging: over 20 countries on the continent either have legislated quotas or political parties that have adopted them voluntarily. This report illustrates the different quota types that are being implemented in different political contexts.

The report includes 17 regional and country case studies. The country case studies include Egypt, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. (IDEA)

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Quotas, Political Participation Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2004

Women’s Land Rights in Tanzania and South Africa: A Human Rights Based Perspective on Formalisation


Kaarhus, Randi, Tor A. Benjaminsen, Anne Hellum, and Ingunn Ikdahl. 2005. “Women’s Land Rights in Tanzania and South Africa: A Human Rights Based Perspective on Formalisation.” Forum for Development Studies 32 (2): 443–82.

Authors: Randi Kaarhus, Tor A. Benjaminsen, Anne Hellum, Ingunn Ikdahl


One of the critical issues in current debates on land policies in Africa is how to balance equity considerations with the quest for potentially more effective and productive uses of land. In this article, we explore the strengths and weaknesses of a human rights based approach (HRBA) to development in securing women's land rights--sing Tanzania and South Africa as examples. We analyse the relationship between gender-neutral laws and policies aiming to provide secure tenure through titling and registration and the highly gendered land uses and productive activities on the ground. An overall theme is how women may be effectively protected against the direct and indirect discrimination that is often a consequence of gender-insensitive land laws and policies. We conclude that HBRA offers a critical corrective and counterbalance to the neoliberal approaches that tend to dominate current policy formulation. It applies in contestations over formalisation of land rights. And as a policy tool it offers a set of binding standards that require the taking of measures preventing discrimination in relation to access and control of land and ensuring women's participation in registration processes. The article calls for a closer scrutiny of current formalisation programmes and initiatives in the light of human rights standards.

Topics: Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land Tenure, Political Economies, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa, Tanzania

Year: 2005

Women’s Land Rights & Privatization in Eastern Africa


Daley, Elizabeth, and Brigit Englert, eds. 2008. Women’s Land Rights & Privatization in Eastern Africa. Oxford, UK: James Currey.

Authors: Birgit Englert , Elizabeth Daley



This volume focuses on the impact on women's land rights from the contemporary drive towards the formulation and implementation of land tenure reforms which aim primarily at the private registration of land. It is solidly grounded in the findings from seven case studies, all based on in-depth qualitative research, from various regions of Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda. The detailed, local level research in this volume not only challenges the status quo, but demonstrates that another world is possible and documents the many ways women in Eastern Africa are finding to ensure their rights to land. Birgit Englert is Assistant Professor in the Department of African Studies at the University of Vienna, Austria; Elizabeth Daley is an independent land consultant.

Table of Contents:

1. Breathing Life into Dead: Theories about Property Rights in Rural Africa Lessons from Kenya

Celestine Nyamu-Musembi

2. ‘Go Home & Clear the Conflict’: Human Rights Perspectives On Gender & Land In Tanzania

Ingunn Ikdahl

3. Gender, Uenyeji, Wealth, Confidence & Land in Kinyanambo: The Impact of Commoditization, Rural–Urban Change & Land Registration in Mufundi District, Tanzania

Elizabeth Daley

4. Changing Land Rights & Gendered Discourses: Examples from the Uluguru Mountains Tanzania

Birgit Englert

5. Falling Between Two Stools: How Women’s Land Rights Are Lost Between State & Customary Law in Apac District, Northern Uganda

Judy Adoko and Simon Levine

6. Struggling with In-Laws & Corruption in Kombewa Division, Kenya: The Impact of HIV/AIDS On Widows’ & Orphans’ Land Rights

Samwel Ong’wen Okuro

7. Women & Land Arrangements in Rwanda: A Gender-Based Analysis of Access To Natural Resources

An Ansoms and Nathalie Holvoet


Topics: Gender, Women, Land Tenure, Privatization, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2008

Transportation for Maternal Emergencies in Tanzania: Empowering Communities through Participatory Problem Solving


Schmid, Thomas, Omari Kanenda, Indu Ahluwalia, and Michelle Kouletio. 2001. “Transportation for Maternal Emergencies in Tanzania: Empowering Communities through Participatory Problem Solving.” American Journal of Public Health 91 (10): 1589–90.

Authors: Thomas Schmid, Omari Kanenda, Indu Ahluwalia, Michelle Kouletio.


Inadequate health care and long delays in obtaining care during obstetric emergencies are major contributors to high maternal death rates in Tanzania. Formative research conducted in the Mwanza region identified several transportation-related reasons for delays in receiving assistance. In 1996, the Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began an effort to build community capacity for problem-solving through participatory development of community-based plans for emergency transportation in 50 villages. An April 2001 assessment showed that 19 villages had begun collecting funds for transportation systems; of 13 villages with systems available, 10 had used the system within the last 3 months. Increased support for village health workers and greater participation of women in decision making were also observed.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2001

Unequal Burden: Water Privatisation and Women’s Human Rights in Tanzania


Brown, Rebecca. 2010. “Unequal Burden: Water Privatisation and Women’s Human Rights in Tanzania.” Gender & Development 18 (1): 59–67. doi:10.1080/13552071003600042.

Author: Rebecca Brown


Access to water is a critical component in advancing the human rights of women. Although privatisation of water services continues to be pushed by donors such as The World Bank, the available information shows that privatisations are not increasing access to water for poor women. This paper examines the human right to water and why this right is critical for women and girls. It then discusses privatisation, and the tension between contractual obligations and respect for human rights. Finally, it explores some strategies and successes from women’s involvement in the struggle against water privatisation in Tanzania.


In her article, Brown argues that the privatization of water is inherently at odds with the increasing international recognition of safe, accessible, and affordable water as a fundamental human right. A study of water privatization in Tanzania, the country with the lowest percentages of water access in the East African sub-region, demonstrates that when water is made into a commodity (often at the behest of international monetary institutions), those socially disadvantaged by their gender or their class suffer the most. According to Brown, supporting women to become active contributors in the implementation of human rights by incorporating them in the design, implementation, and monitoring of water service delivery can bring about lasting societal change. 
“Despite the fact that women are disproportionately affected by water sector reforms, reports show little or no consultation with women during the design and implementation of the privatisation scheme in Dar Es Salaam. Analysis of the ‘pro-poor’ water reform policies under this scheme failed to integrate an understanding of how impacts of reform can be gender-specific and, therefore, did not ensure equitable access and distribution for women and girls.” (64)
“The design and implementation of a national water strategy much ensure that the policy is formulated on the basis of equality. Every phase of the strategy must not only ensure that these women are a part of the process, but also that they are facilitated to participate as actively as possible.” (66)

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, International Financial Institutions, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2010


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