Tanzania

The Power of Small-Scale Solar: Gender, Energy Poverty, and Entrepreneurship in Tanzania

Citation:

Gray, Leslie, Alaina Boyle, Erika Francks, and Victoria Yu. 2019. “The Power of Small-Scale Solar: Gender, Energy Poverty, and Entrepreneurship in Tanzania.” Development in Practice 29 (1): 26–39.

Authors: Leslie Gray, Alaina Boyle, Erika Francks, Victoria Yu

Abstract:

Energy poverty is a major challenge in the developing world, with an estimated 1.2 billion people lacking household electricity. Although energy poverty affects both men and women, the burden of household energy supply disproportionately affects women in low-income countries in the developing world. This article examines the impact of a women-oriented solar lighting social enterprise, Solar Sister, in Tanzania for both solar entrepreneurs and customers, demonstrating that solar lanterns positively impact household savings, health, education and women’s economic productivity and empowerment. Our study argues that Solar Sister’s approach is successful because of its explicit gender lens. Providing energy access to women translates to a pro-woman, pro-child, and pro-family development intervention.

Keywords: labour and livelihoods - poverty reduction, Sub-Saharan Africa, gender and diversity

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2019

Exploring the Linkages between Energy, Gender, and Enterprise: Evidence from Tanzania

Citation:

Pueyo, Ana, Marco Carreras, and Gisela Ngoo. 2020. “Exploring the Linkages between Energy, Gender, and Enterprise: Evidence from Tanzania.” World Development 128 (April): 104840.

Authors: Ana Pueyo, Marco Carreras, Gisela Ngoo

Abstract:

The productive use of electricity is essential for poverty reduction in newly electrified rural communities as well as for the financial sustainability of electricity suppliers. Because men and women assume different roles in the rural economy, the inclusion of gender concerns in interventions to promote productive uses of energy could improve development outcomes. Using a multi-methods approach, this study provides new evidence about how men and women use energy in rural micro-enterprises in Tanzania, and which benefits they obtain from it. In our research region, most businesses are owned by men and men-owned enterprises use electricity more frequently and intensely than women owned enterprises. The latter dominate the productive use of cooking fuels like charcoal and firewood. Electricity use is consistently associated with better business performance, but women entrepreneurs do not use it as much as men. There are multiple reasons for this gender imbalance. First, women enjoy less favourable starting conditions for enterprise creation due to poor access to finance, education, and other resources. Furthermore, women are required to balance care responsibilities with paid work and are subject to social norms that determine the acceptability of certain productive activities. Typically, female activities are less profitable and less mechanised than men’s. Consequently, in the absence of gender interventions, male entrepreneurs are more likely to benefit from the promotion of productive uses of electricity. The paper discusses several approaches to improve the gender equity of PUE interventions.

Keywords: energy, Gender, enterprise, Africa, Tanzania, electricity

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2020

Toilet Not Taxes: Gender Inequity in Dar es Salaam’s City Markets

Citation:

Siebert, Marius and Anna Mbise. 2018. “Toilet Not Taxes: Gender Inequity in Dar es Salaam’s City Markets.” ICTD Working Paper 89, ICTD (The International Center for Tax and Development), Brighton. 

Authors: Marius Siebert, Anna Mbise

Abstract:

In this paper we examine market taxation in Dar es Salaam from a gender perspective. We do not find any evidence of gender bias in the way market traders are taxed, but we do find a major gender issue that we did not expect – toilet fees. Female traders pay up to 18 times more for their daily use of the market toilets than they pay as market tax. High toilet fees have a differential and adverse impact on women, who require toilets more frequently than men, and have fewer alternatives. This shows that a focus on formal taxation systems does not reveal all complex linkages between gender and taxation in the informal sector of developing countries. A gender-aware perspective on market taxation requires us to look wholistically at gender-differentiated patterns of use and funding of collective goods and services. 

 

Keywords: tax, Gender, toilets, informal sector, service provision, hygiene, local authorities, Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, gender and tax, informal taxation, market traders

Topics: Economies, Informal Economies, Public Finance, Gender Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2018

Ensuring Gender-Equity in Compensation and Resettlement Schemes Related to Commercial Land Investments in Tanzania and Mozambique

Citation:

Salcedo-La Viña, Celine, and Laura Notess. 2017. “Ensuring Gender-Equity in Compensation and Resettlement Schemes Related to Commercial Land Investments in Tanzania and Mozambique.” Paper presented at the 18th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington, DC, March 20-24.

Authors: Celine Salcedo-La Viña, Laura Notess

Abstract:

Large-scale land transfers have a disproportionate impact on women’s land rights. Prior research has shown that women in many countries have limited participation in the decision-making process preceding alienation of land from their communities. This research extends this analysis into the context of compensation and resettlement processes, which are crucial to protecting the rights of local communities impacted by development projects. It does this by examining the relevant law and practice in Tanzania and Mozambique. Both countries have experienced periods of intense investor interest in land acquisition, and have developed some legal protections for the rights of communities to compensation and/or resettlement following land transfers. However, gender-blindness in these provisions permits the perpetuation of practices which negatively impact women’s access to land and overall well-being.

The paper begins by surveying the relevant legal framework for each country, followed by a discussion of compensation and resettlement in practice, informed by a combination of a literature review and field research conducted by in-country partners. It then identifies key regulatory gaps, and proposes specific regulatory reforms to 1) improve women’s participation and representation, 2) ensure women’s inclusion in compensation, and 3) address loss of communal resources and infrastructure in a gender-sensitive manner. 

Keywords: Gender, women, land acquisitions, resettlement, compensation

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Development, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Land Grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Mozambique, Tanzania

Year: 2017

Making Women’s Voices Count in Community Decision-Making on Land Investments

Citation:

Salcedo-La Viña, Celine, and Maitri Morarji. 2016. “Making Women’s Voices Count in Community Decision-Making on Land Investments.” Working Paper, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.

Authors: Celine Salcedo-La Viña, Morarji Maitri

Annotation:

Summary:
The adverse impacts of commercialization and large scale land acquisitions in the global South are often disproportionately borne by women. The loss of access to farmland and common areas hit women harder than men in many communities, and women are often excluded from compensation and benefit schemes. Women’s social disadvantages, including their lack of formal land rights and generally subordinate position, make it difficult for them to voice their interests in the management and proposed allocation of community land to investors. While the development community and civil society have pushed for standards and safeguard policies that promote the meaningful involvement of rural communities generally in land acquisitions and investments, strengthening the participation of women as a distinct stakeholder group requires specific attention.

This working paper examines options for strengthening women’s participatory rights in the face of increasing commercial pressures on land in three countries: Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Philippines. It focuses on how regulatory reform—reforms in the rules, regulations, guidelines, and procedures that implement national land acquisition and investment laws—can promote gender equity and allow women to realize the rights afforded by national legal frameworks and international standards. The paper stems from a collaborative project between World Resources Institute and partner organizations in the three countries studied.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land Grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Mozambique, Philippines, Tanzania

Year: 2016

Female Labor Outcomes and Large-Scale Agricultural Land Investments: Macro-Micro Evidence from Tanzania

Citation:

Osabuohien, Evans S., Uchenna R. Efobi, Raoul T. Herrmann, and Ciliaka M. W. Gitau. 2019. “Female Labor Outcomes and Large-Scale Agricultural Land Investments: Macro-Micro Evidence from Tanzania.” Land Use Policy 82: 716–28.

Authors: Evans S. Osabuohien, Uchenna R. Efobi, Raoul T. Herrmann, Ciliaka M. W. Gitau

Abstract:

This paper examined the extent to which Large-scale Agricultural Land Investments (LALIs) has delivered on its promises (e.g. increased productivity, job creation, and rural development, particularly for rural women). We conducted empirical analyses using the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) dataset (macro evidence), which was complemented with two case studies of LALIs in Kilombero district, Morogoro region, Tanzania (micro evidence). The findings from the study revealed that the LALIs have limited effect on agricultural wage. However, the results show that LALIs have a negative association with the welfare of female-headed households located in communities with LALIs. On the micro evidence, we found that female-headed households working in the LALIs earned slightly lower agricultural wage compared to those not working in the LALIs. This implies that the use of LALIs in Tanzania to drive agricultural transformation requires specific targeting of potential beneficiaries.

Keywords: agricultural transformation, labor market participation, large-scale land investments, gender

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2019

Grabbing the Female Commons: Large-Scale Land Acquisitions for Forest Plantations and Impacts on Gender Relations in Kilolo District, Iringa Region, Tanzania

Citation:

Gmür, Désirée. 2019. “Grabbing the Female Commons: Large-Scale Land Acquisitions for Forest Plantations and Impacts on Gender Relations in Kilolo District, Iringa Region, Tanzania.” In The Commons in a Glocal World: Global Connections and Local Responses, edited by Tobias Haller, Thomas Breu, Tine De Moor, Christian Rohr, and Heinzpeter Znoj, 301–17. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Désirée Gmür

Annotation:

Summary:
This chapter focuses on the impacts of the ways in which large-scale land acquisitions consolidate commonly owned land that affects women’s resilience differently than men. It argues that the commons enclosure through large-scale land acquisitions (LSLA) mainly has negative impacts on women, involving increased workloads. The chapter suggests that resilience – in terms of food security – is therefore negatively impacted, creating an imbalance between gender and generation based on the power relation and discusses a new institutionalism (NI) perspective in social anthropology. The NI perspective is about institutional transformations driven by change in the relative price of land due to the LSLA that leads powerful actors to select among a plurality of institutions. In addition, the LSLA also increases wives’ dependency on their husbands as their resource base that gave them certain freedom in action has been reduced, leaving them completely reliant on the husbands’ relatives’ property, which is mostly controlled by elderly men. (Summary from Bern Open Repository and Information System)

Topics: Age, Gender, Land Grabbing, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2019

Not Affected the Same Way: Gendered Outcomes for Commons and Resilience Grabbing by Large-Scale Forest Investors in Tanzania

Citation:

Gmür, Désirée. 2020. “Not Affected the Same Way: Gendered Outcomes for Commons and Resilience Grabbing by Large-Scale Forest Investors in Tanzania.” Land 9 (4): 122.

Author: Désirée Gmür

Abstract:

The topic of large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) has attracted wide interest in the literature and the media. However, there is little work on the gendered institutional changes and gendered impacts on common pool resources (CPR) due to LSLA. The aim of this paper is to address these impacts. This is done by discussing data from participatory research (using the methods of participatory observation, semi-structured and narrative interviews, biographies, focus group discussions, value chain analysis, and household questionnaires) on a forestry plantation operated by the British investor, the New Forests Company (NFC) in the Kilolo district, in the Iringa region. The institutional arrangements regarding different land-related common pool resources from pre-colonial times until the arrival of this investment will be shown. Furthermore, how these arrangements have changed over time and since the LSLA is presented. Then, the effects on men’s and women’s access to CPR and, thus, the impacts on their capacities to perform their reproductive work and resilience will be addressed. Furthermore, the paper focuses on how different stakeholders in the land deal (the investor, the government, different local people) make use of these different institutions to push through their own interests regarding the land. Finally, the paper looks at collective compensation payments (such as monetary compensation and jobs) and forms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) schemes, and how they are perceived emically. It is argued that the LSLA in this case clearly grabs land and land-related common pool resources that were previously held in common. Women, such as daughters, sisters, and wives, had specific access and property rights to these. Thus, the paper concludes that this grabbing lowers women’s resilience and deprives them of important resources for their livelihoods, and for food and cash production at critical times. CSR programmes and compensation rarely reach women and are, for them, an anti-politics machine, hiding the grabbing processes, and impacting the poorest of the poor, while the company uses a development discourse to legitimise its activities. In fact, the people perceive the investment as trapping them in underdevelopment.

Keywords: large scale land acquisitions, Gender, institutions, common pool resources, common property, land tenure transformations, corporate social responsibility, social anthropology, resilience

Topics: Development, Gender, Land Grabbing, Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2020

The Gender and Equity Implications of Land- Related Investments on Land Access and Labour and Income-Generating Opportunities: A Case Study of Selected Agricultural Investments in Northern Tanzania

Citation:

Daley, Elizabeth, and Clara Mi Young Park. 2012. The Gender and Equity Implications of Land- Related Investments on Land Access and Labour and Income-Generating Opportunities: A Case Study of Selected Agricultural Investments in Northern Tanzania. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Authors: Elizabeth Daley, Clara Mi Young Park

Annotation:

Summary:
This study investigates the gender dimensions of the socioeconomic outcomes of selected agricultural investments in Northern Tanzania. The report draws on a review of the literature and on field research conducted in 2011. Fieldwork mainly involved stakeholder interviews and focus groups discussions with investors, local farmers, outgrowers and wage workers involved with two private-sector companies – in horticulture and jatropha – and with group-based producer schemes organized with the assistance of a member-based organization. The study’s findings indicate clearly that land-related agricultural investments do have gender-differentiated implications for labour and income generation opportunities for rural women and men, and for their access, use and control of land. This means that the governments and international organizations that are encouraging investments in agriculture need to specifically address gender and social equity concerns, and not just concerns of agricultural and economic growth and productivity. The study identifies some good practices from a gender and equity perspective in the businesses examined and suggests some policy recommendations. (Summary from the Land Portal)

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Land Grabbing, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2012

Governing a Liminal Land Deal: The Biopolitics and Necropolitics of Gender

Citation:

Chung, Youjin B. 2020. “Governing a Liminal Land Deal: The Biopolitics and Necropolitics of Gender.” Antipode 52 (3): 722–41.

Author: Youjin B. Chung

Abstract:

Over the past decade, there has been a surge in large-scale land acquisitions around the world. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that many of the prominent land deals signed during the global land rush are struggling to materialise. This emergent pattern of liminality has important implications for understanding the everyday, contingent, and gendered processes of land deal governance and subject formation. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article examines the gendered governance of a “liminal” land deal in coastal Tanzania, through a case of the EcoEnergy Sugar Project. It shows how the project’s prolonged delay has given rise, over time, to two contradistinctive sets of actors and mechanisms of control: biopolitical interventions of international development consultants focused on livelihood improvements, and necro political interventions of district paramilitary forces focused on surveillance and violence. While seemingly contradictory, I argue that both enactments of power fundamentally relied on and reproduced normative gender in rural Tanzania.

Keywords: land grab, biopolitics, necropolitics, Gender, development, Tanzania

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Land Grabbing, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2020

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