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The Contribution of Critical Ecofeminism to the Criminological Debate in Spain: Debating All Rules of All Tribes

Citation:

Varona, Gema. 2020. “The Contribution of Critical Ecofeminism to the Criminological Debate in Spain: Debating All Rules of All Tribes.” In The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change, edited by Sandra Walklate, Kate Fitz-Gibbon, JaneMaree Maher, and Jude McCulloch, 119–36. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing.

Author: Gema Varona

Abstract:

This chapter aims to rethink how gender inequality is related to interpersonal and structural asymmetries of power displayed in our relationships with ecosystems, questioning the classical concept of ‘nature’ as something ‘out there’, as pointed out by dark ecology. First, with the aim of offering a joint North–South critical perspective on equality and sustainability, critical ecofeminism, through the work of A. Puleo, will be explained as a Spanish feminist line of thought and movement. This author, rejecting some essentialist visions of deep ecology, sets her ideas in relation to general critical social theory. Second, contrasting perspectives (critical feminism and ecology) will be combined to offer a rich cross-fertilisation between different perspectives and traditional themes in criminology. A common denominator can be found in the exercise of criticism through questioning binary categories, underlying assumptions and social injustice in relation to the visibility of harms. Third, the relevance of ecofeminism for current criminological debates will be highlighted beyond the obvious connections with green victimology. Finally, ecofeminism will be interpreted as a new critical standpoint and as a more inclusive language for fostering the criminological and victimological imagination in order to help to rethink the rules of the criminal justice system.

Keywords: ecofeminism, critical theory, green criminology, dark ecology, deep ecology, Spain

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Spain

Year: 2020

A Gender Analysis of Everyday Mobility in Urban and Rural Territories: From Challenges to Sustainability

Citation:

Miralles-Guasch, Carme, Montserrat Martínez Melo, and Oriol Marquet. 2016. “A Gender Analysis of Everyday Mobility in Urban and Rural Territories: From Challenges to Sustainability.” Gender, Place & Culture 23 (3): 398–417. 

Authors: Carme Miralles-Guasch, Montserrat Martínez Melo, Oriol Marquet

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Gender differences in mobility patterns between women and men have long been acknowledged. This study analyses how these differences are reproduced in different urban and rural contexts. Using mobility data from a large travel survey taken in 2006 in Spain, we examine the differences between gender mobility through age, modal split and trip purposes. Special attention is paid to how territory shapes mobility and how these territorial settings differently affect gendered mobilities. The use of this data source allows the comparison of all trips made by the total population, including all means of transport. By taking a global view on mobility, the uneven relationships that men and women have with different means of transport become more visible. After disaggregating data by age and territorial settings, results show that women are using sustainable transport modes more often than men, and travelling for more diverse reasons. Gender is thus a fundamental variable in understanding modal split and, by extension, transport sustainability, in terms of energy consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases. From this point of view, we consider women's mobility knowledge and practices – typically related to the most sustainable means of transport – as factors with rising value that could effectively guide public policy in its way to promote more sustainable mobility patterns.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Las diferencias de género en los patrones de movilidad entre mujeres y hombres son conocidas ya desde hace tiempo. Este estudio analiza cómo estas diferencias son reproducidas en distintos contextos urbanos y rurales. Utilizando datos de movilidad provenientes de una gran encuesta de movilidad realizada en 2006 en España, examinamos las diferencias entre la movilidad de género a través de la edad, la elección modal y los propósitos de viaje. Se presta especial atención a como el territorio da forma a la movilidad y cómo estos contextos territoriales afectan diferentemente a la movilidad de género. El uso de esta fuente de datos permite la comparación de todos los viajes llevados a cabo por la población, incluyendo todos los medios de transporte. Tomando una mirada global sobre la movilidad, las relaciones desiguales que hombres y mujeres tienen con los diferentes medios de transporte se vuelven más visibles. Después de desagregar los datos por edad y contexto territorial, los resultados muestran que las mujeres utilizan medios de transporte sostenibles con más frecuencia que los hombres, y que viajan por motivos más diversos. El género es por lo tanto una variable fundamental para entender la división modal y, por extensión, la sostenibilidad del transporte, en términos de consumo de energía y emisión de gases de efecto invernadero. Desde este punto de vista, consideramos el conocimiento y las prácticas de movilidad de las mujeres -típicamente relacionadas con los medios de transporte más sostenibles- como factores con creciente valor que podrían guiar efectivamente las políticas públicas en su camino a promover patrones de movilidad más sostenibles.

Keywords: movilidad cotidiana, transporte, gênero, sustentable, urbano, daily mobility, transport, gender, sustainable, urban, rural

Topics: Age, Environment, Gender, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Spain

Year: 2016

Changes in Gendered Mobility Patterns in the Context of the Great Recession (2007–2012)

Citation:

Maciejewska, Monika, Oriol Marquet, and Carme Miralles-Guasch. 2019. “Changes in Gendered Mobility Patterns in the Context of the Great Recession (2007–2012).” Journal of Transport Geography 79. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.102478.

Authors: Monika Maciejewska, Oriol Marquet, Carme Miralles-Guasch

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to analyze the interrelation between daily mobility and gender in the context of economic change. The financial crisis that has affected Spain from 2008 has witnessed significant shifts in daily mobility, which have not been equal for all socio-demographic groups. This study was undertaken in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region and it seeks to understand whether or not, during those economically difficult circumstances of the Great Recession, more equal travel patterns between men and women have emerged or, by contrast, whether or not the already existent gendered differences have deepened, paying special attention to which gender has travel habits that have changed the most. Using a quantitative approach, based on mobility data from the Working Day Mobility Surveys (EMEF) from the years 2007 and 2012, the analysis examines the changing trends in several mobility indicators such as men's and women's immobility rate, their average number of daily trips, their main mobility purposes, their modal choice habits and the time they invest in traveling.

Keywords: gender differences, daily travel patterns, Barcelona

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Spain

Year: 2019

Gender, Nation, and Situated Intersectionality: The Case of Catalan Pro-Independence Feminism

Citation:

Rodó-Zárate, Maria. 2020. “Gender, Nation, and Situated Intersectionality: The Case of Catalan Pro-Independence Feminism.” Politics & Gender 16 (2): 608–36.

Author: Maria Rodó-Zárate

Abstract:

Debates on nation, self-determination, and nationalism tend to ignore the gender dimension, women’s experiences, and feminist proposals on such issues. In turn, feminist discussions on the intersection of oppressions generally avoid the national identity of stateless nations as a source of oppression. In this article, I relate feminism and nationalism through an intersectional framework in the context of the Catalan pro-independence movement. Since the 1970s, Catalan feminists have been developing theories and practices that relate gender and nationality from an intersectional perspective, which may challenge hegemonic genealogies of intersectionality and general assumptions about the relation between nationalism and gender. Focusing on developments made by feminist activists from past and present times, I argue that women are key agents in national construction and that situated intersectional frameworks may provide new insights into relations among axes of inequalities beyond the Anglocentric perspective.

Keywords: intersectionality, Catalonia, nationalism, feminism

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Intersectionality, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Spain

Year: 2020

An Analysis about Learning to Increase Women's Participation and Employment in Europe's Energy Transition: Evidence from the European Project MEnS

Citation:

Peñalvo-López, Elisa, and Francisco-Javier Cárcel-Carrasco. 2019. “An Analysis about Learning to Increase Women’s Participation and Employment in Europe’s Energy Transition: Evidence from the European Project MEnS.” Sustainability 11 (16).

Authors: Elisa Peñalvo-López, Francisco-Javier Cárcel-Carrasco

Abstract:

The Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD) introduced the requirement for all Member States to include the concept of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in their national plans. However, this challenge requires upgrading professional skills in NZEB concepts and strategies, thus guaranteeing the maximum impact on NZEB deployment around Europe. This is the objective of MEnS (“Meeting Energy Professional Skills”), an H2020 project focused on providing high quality upskilling and education to architects, engineers, and building professionals. The role of women in the NZEB industry indicates that female participation in the building industry is still low. The need to rebalance this gender gap is highlighted in this work through the identification of female programs and schemes. In addition, the results of women’s participation in the MEnS project is analyzed. The MEns project created and implemented a new education program, training 1200 building managers (engineers and architects) in the designand construction of NZEBs, out of which 46% were women. Focusing on the Spanish case, 18 interviews were randomly conducted with women participants in order to assess the courses and their expectations of employment in the NZEB framework. The method used for the analysis was a semi-structured interview and analysis by the grounded theory. This article describes the participation of women in this educational program and analyses initial conclusions and lessons learnt from this initiative in 10 European countries, including Spain. 

Keywords: Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB), women empowerment, training, gender equality, women, employability, H2020 European project, architecture, engineering

Topics: Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Spain

Year: 2019

Three Sides to Every Story: Gender Perspectives in Energy Transition Pathways in Canada, Kenya and Spain

Citation:

Lieu, Jenny, Alevgul H. Sorman, Oliver W. Johnson, Luis D. Virla, and Bernadette P. Resurrección. 2020. “Three Sides to Every Story: Gender Perspectives in Energy Transition Pathways in Canada, Kenya and Spain.” Energy Research & Social Science 68. doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101550

Authors: Jenny Lieu, Alevgul H. Sorman, Oliver W. Johnson, Luis D. Virla, Bernadette P. Resurrección

Abstract:

Transitions toward a low-carbon future are not only technical and economical, but also deeply social and gendered. The gendered nature of energy transitions is often implicit and unexplored. As a corrective, this paper explores energy pathways by applying concepts from innovations and gender studies. We examine gender perspectives and niche energy innovations which could disrupt the regime. The regime represents the mainstream pathway that includes the dominant gender perspective and energy system. We explore different gender perspectives of energy transition pathways by applying an Alternative Pathways framework that includes: (1)  on-stream pathways that exist within the mainstream pathway to promote equal opportunities for women and men, as well as niches for energy innovations without challenging the high-carbon energy regime; (2) off-stream pathways that depart from the mainstream and promote differences across different genders while creating niches outside the energy regime; and (3) transformative pathways that are fundamentally different from the previous mainstream and includes all gender perspectives in a new energy regime. Applying this framing, in Canada, we explored Indigenous perspectives in the oil sands sector; in Kenya, we studied largescale renewable energy impacting Indigneous communities; in Spain, we evaluate the movement away from fossil fuels and towards renewable technologies. The framework helped to identify that mainstream pathways represented the dominant male perspective while woman's perspective were largely left out. Such absence generate energy pathways that are disconnected from local realities, lack public buy-in and slow-down a sustainable energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition pathways, renewable energy, gender, women, intersectionality, Indigenous people

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, North America, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Canada, Kenya, Spain

Year: 2020

Do Welfare State Taxes and Transfers Reduce Gender Income Inequality? Evidence from Eight European Countries

Citation:

Avraam, Silvia and Daria Popova. 2020. “Do Welfare State Taxes and Transfers Reduce Gender Income Inequality? Evidence from Eight European Countries.” Working Paper EM 09/20, EuroMod at the Institute for Social and Economic Research, Essex.

Authors: Silvia Avraam, Daria Popova

Abstract:

We complement the institutional literature on gender and the welfare state by examining how taxes and transfers affect the incomes of men and women. Using microsimulation and intra-household income splitting rules, we measure the differences in the level and composition of individual disposable incomes of men and women in eight European countries covering various welfare regime types. We quantify the extent to which taxes and transfers are able to close the gender gap in earnings, as well as which policy instruments contribute most to reducing the gap. We find that with the exception of old- age pensions, taxes and transfers – both contributory and means-tested – significantly reduce gender income inequality but cannot compensate for high gender earnings gaps. The equalizing effect of benefits is higher than that of taxes but varies significantly not only across countries but also across groups with different demographic characteristics. 

Keywords: gender inequality, income distribution, welfare state, social policy, Europe

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom

Year: 2020

Labour Force Participation of Women: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Policy and other Determinants in OCED Countries

Citation:

Jaumotte, Florence. 2003. “Labour Force Participation of Women: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Policy and other Determinants in OCED Countries.” OECD Economic Studies 2 (37): 51- 108.

Author: Florence Jaumotte

Annotation:

Summary:
“Female labour force participation has increased strongly in most OECD countries over the last few decades (Figure 1). The timing of the increase has varied across countries, with some countries starting earlier (e.g. the Nordics and the United States), and in the last two decades the largest increases have been observed in lower income countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as well as in some northern European countries (Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands). However, large cross-country differences in the levels of female participation persist. Focusing on prime-age women (aged 25-54), their participation rate ranges from values close to or below 60 per cent in Turkey, Korea, Mexico, and southern European countries (with the exception of Portugal) to values well above 80 per cent in the Nordic countries and some eastern European countries. Female labour force participation is the most important factor in explaining increases in aggregate participation rates as well as the current cross-country variation of aggregate participation rates…
 
 
 
“This paper assesses the role of various factors in determining the pattern of female participation rates in OECD countries. The main focus of the policy analysis is on married women with children, for whom actual participation is well below preferences. A number of policy instruments are included in the analysis, such as the tax treatment of second earners (relative to single individuals), childcare subsidies, child benefits, paid parental leave, and tax incentives to share market work between spouses. The role of other determinants, such as female education and labour market conditions, is also considered. The originality of the econometric study lies in the broad country coverage (17 OECD countries over the period 1985- 1999), in contrast with the single-country focus of most studies. OECD countries present a wide range of policies and experiences in the area of female participation, thereby providing a valuable source of information on the relative effectiveness of various policies. The analysis is based on macroeconomic data which allows estimating the aggregate impact of policy instruments rather than the responsiveness of individuals to microeconomic incentives. One other advantage of the use of macro- economic data is that the estimated coefficients incorporate to some extent general equilibrium effects (at least those on women themselves)” (Jaumotte 2003, 52-3).

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Countries: Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, United States of America

Year: 2003

Engendering Cities: Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for All

Citation:

Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés, and Michael Neuman, eds. 2020. Engendering Cities: Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for All. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, Michael Neuman

Annotation:

Summary: 
Engendering Cities examines the contemporary research, policy, and practice of designing for gender in urban spaces. Gender matters in city design, yet despite legislative mandates across the globe to provide equal access to services for men and women alike, these issues are still often overlooked or inadequately addressed. This book looks at critical aspects of contemporary cities regarding gender, including topics such as transport, housing, public health, education, caring, infrastructure, as well as issues which are rarely addressed in planning, design, and policy, such as the importance of toilets for education and clothes washers for freeing-up time. In the first section, a number of chapters in the book assess past, current, and projected conditions in cities vis-à-vis gender issues and needs. In the second section, the book assesses existing policy, planning, and design efforts to improve women’s and men’s concerns in urban living. Finally, the book proposes changes to existing policies and practices in urban planning and design, including its thinking (theory) and norms (ethics).
 
The book applies the current scholarship on theory and practice related to gender in a planning context, elaborating on some critical community-focused reflections on gender and design. It will be key reading for scholars and students of planning, architecture, design, gender studies, sociology, anthropology, geography, and political science. It will also be of interest to practitioners and policy makers, providing discussion of emerging topics in the field. (Summary from Routledge)

Table of Contents:
1.Planning the Gendered City
Inés Sánchez de Madariaga and Michael Neuman

2.A Gendered View of Mobility and Transport: Next Steps and Future Directions
Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris

3.Gendered Mobility Patterns of Carers in Austria
Bente Knoll and Teresa Schwaninge

4.Violence Against Women in Moving Transportation in Indian Cities: Reconceptualising Gendered Transport Policy
Yamini Narayanan

5.Planning Mobility in Portugal with a Gender Perspective
Margarida Queirós and Nuno Marques da Costa

6.Implementation of Gender and Diversity Perspectives in Transport Development Plans in Germany
Elena von den Driesch, Linda Steuer, Tobias Berg, and Carmen Leicht-Scholten

7.Why Low-Income Women in the U.S. Need Automobiles
Evelyn Blumenberg

8.Public Toilets: The Missing Component in Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for Women
Clara Greed

9.Are Safe Cities Just Cities? A Perspective from France
Lucile Biarrotte and Claire Hancock

10.Everyday Life Experiences of Afghan Immigrant Women as Representation of their Place of Belonging in Auckland
Roja Tafaroji

11.Gender Mainstreaming in the Regional Discourse over the Future of the Ruhr Metropolitan Area: Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming in Planning Processes
Jeanette Sebrantke, Mechtild Stiewe, Sibylle Kelp-Siekmann, and Gudrun Kemmler-Lehr

12.An Analysis of EU Urban Policy from the Perspective of Gender
Sonia De Gregorio Hurtado

13.Gender Mainstreaming Urban Planning and Design Processes in Greece
Charis Christodoulou

14.Gendering the Design of Cities in Aotearoa New Zealand: Are We There Yet?
Dory Reeves, Julie Fairey, Jade Kake, Emma McInnes, and Eva Zombori

15.Gender Impact Assessments, a Tool for the Implementation of the New Urban Agenda: The Case of Madrid Nuevo Norte
Ines Novella Abril

16.Gender and the Urban in the 21st Century: Paving Way to ‘Another’ Gender Mainstreaming
Camilla Perrone

17.Epilogue: Unifying Difference and Equality Concepts to Buttress Policy
Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Urban Displacement, Development, Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Water & Sanitation Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Austria, Germany, Greece, India, New Zealand, Portugal, Spain, United States of America

Year: 2020

Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action

Citation:

Cohen, Marjorie Griffin. 2017. Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Marjorie Griffin Cohen

Annotation:

Summary:
"Climate change is at the forefront of ideas about public policy, the economy and labour issues. However, the gendered dimensions of climate change and the public policy issues associated with it in wealthy nations are much less understood.
 
Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries covers a wide range of issues dealing with work and working life. The book demonstrates the gendered distinctions in both experiences of climate change and the ways that public policy deals with it. The book draws on case studies from the UK, Sweden, Australia, Canada, Spain and the US to address key issues such as: how gendered distinctions affect the most vulnerable; paid and unpaid work; and activism on climate change. It is argued that including gender as part of the analysis will lead to more equitable and stronger societies as solutions to climate change advance.
 
This volume will be of great relevance to students, scholars, trade unionists and international organisations with an interest in climate change, gender, public policy and environmental studies". (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
Part One: Context and Overview
1. Introduction: Why Gender Matters when Dealing with Climate Change 
Marjorie Griffin Cohen
 
2. Masculinities of Global Climate Change: Exploring Ecomodern, Industrial and Ecological Masculinity 
Martin Hultman & Jonas Anshelm
 
3. It’s Not Just the Numbers: Challenging Masculinist Working Practices in Climate Change Decision-Making in UK Government and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations 
Susan Buckingham & Rakibe Kulcur
 
Part Two: Challenges for Paid and Unpaid Work
4. Women and Low Energy Construction in Europe: A New Opportunity? 
Linda Clarke
 
5. Renewable Inequity? Women’s Employment in Clean Energy in Industrialized, Emerging and Developing Economies 
Bipasha Baruah
 
6. UK Environmental and Trade Union Groups’ Struggles to Integrate Gender Issues into Climate Change Analysis and Activism 
Carl Mandy
 
7. Transporting Difference at Work: Taking Gendered Intersectionality Seriously in Climate Change Agendas 
Leonora Angeles
 
8. The US Example of Integrating Gender and Climate Change in Training: Response to the 2008–09 Recession 
Marjorie Griffin Cohen
 
Part Three: Vulnerability, Insecurity and Work
9. Gendered Outcomes in Post-Disaster Sites: Public Policy and Resource Distribution 
Margaret Alston
 
10. Climate Change, Traditional Roles, and Work– Interactions in the Inuit Nunangat 
Mike Kim
 
11. Towards Humane Jobs: Recognizing Gendered, Multispecies Intersections and Possibilities 
Kendra Coulter
 
Part Four: Rural and Resource Communities
 
12. Maybe Tomorrow Will Be Better: Gender and Farm Work in a Changing Climate 
Amber Fletcher
 
13. Understanding the Gender Labours of Adaptation to Climate Change in Forest-Based Communities Through Different Models of Analysis 
Maureen G. Reed
 
14. The Complex Impacts of Intensive Resource Extraction on Women, Children and Aboriginal Peoples: Towards Contextually-Informed Approaches to Climate Change and Health 
Maya K Gislason, Chris Buse, Shayna Dolan, Margot W Parkes, Jemma Tosh, Bob Woollard
 
Part Five: Public Policy and Activism
15. How a Gendered Understanding of Climate Change Can Help Shape Canadian Climate Policy 
Nathalie Chalifour
 
16. The Integration of Gender in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Québec: Silos and Possibilities 
Annie Rochette
 
17. A Gendered Analysis of Housing Policies in the Context of Climate Change: A Comparison of Canada and Spain 
Penny Gurstein & Sara Ortiz Escalante
 
18. Canadian Indigenous Female Leadership and Political Agency on Climate Change 
Patricia E. Perkins
 
19. Using Information about Gender and Climate Change to Inform Green Economic Policies 
Marjorie Griffin Cohen

 

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2017

Pages

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