South Sudan

Prevalence of HIV Infection in Conflict-affected and Displaced People in Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries: a Systematic Review


Spiegel, Paul B., Anne R. Bennedsen, Johanna Claass, Laurie Bruns, Njogu Patterson, Dieudonne Yiweza, and Marian Schilperoord. 2007. “Prevalence of HIV Infection in Conflict-affected and Displaced People in Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries: a Systematic Review.” Lancet 369 (9580): 2187–95.

Authors: Paul B. Spiegel, Anne R. Bennedsen, Johanna Claass, Laurie Bruns, Njogu Patterson, Dieudonne Yiweza, Marian Schilperoord


Violence and rape are believed to fuel the HIV epidemic in countries affected by conflict. We compared HIV prevalence in populations directly affected by conflict with that in those not directly affected and in refugees versus the nearest surrounding host communities in sub-Saharan African countries. Seven countries affected by conflict (Democratic Republic of Congo, southern Sudan, Rwanda, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, and Burundi) were chosen since HIV prevalence surveys within the past 5 years had been done and data, including original antenatal-care sentinel surveillance data, were available. We did a systematic and comprehensive literature search using Medline and Embase. Only articles and reports that contained original data for prevalence of HIV infection were included. All survey reports were independently evaluated by two epidemiologists to assess internationally accepted guidelines for HIV sentinel surveillance and population-based surveys. Whenever possible, data from the nearest antenatal care and host country sentinel site of the neighbouring countries were presented. 95% CIs were provided when available. Of the 295 articles that met our search criteria, 88 had original prevalence data and 65 had data from the seven selected countries. Data from these countries did not show an increase in prevalence of HIV infection during periods of conflict, irrespective of prevalence when conflict began. Prevalence in urban areas affected by conflict decreased in Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda at similar rates to urban areas unaffected by conflict in their respective countries. Prevalence in conflict-affected rural areas remained low and fairly stable in these countries. Of the 12 sets of refugee camps, nine had a lower prevalence of HIV infection, two a similar prevalence, and one a higher prevalence than their respective host communities. Despite wide-scale rape in many countries, there are no data to show that rape increased prevalence of HIV infection at the population level. We have shown that there is a need for mechanisms to provide time-sensitive information on the effect of conflict on incidence of HIV infection, since we found insufficient data to support the assertions that conflict, forced displacement, and wide-scale rape increase prevalence or that refugees spread HIV infection in host communities.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Health, HIV/AIDS, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2007

Sudanese Women and the Peace Process


Karame, Kari. 2005. Sudanese Women and the Peace Process. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs.

Author: Kari Karame

Topics: Gender, Women, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2005

Grounding Local Peace Organisations: A Case Study of Southern Sudan


Hilhorst, Dorothea, and Mathijs van Leeuwen. 2005. “Grounding Local Peace Organisations: A Case Study of Southern Sudan.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 43 (4): 537-63.

Authors: Dorothea Hilhorst, Mathijs van Leeuwen


Since the early 1990s, building peace during and after conflict has been moving away from the conference tables of diplomats to informal settings created by local NGOs. The vast majority, if not all, of the peacebuilding policy and literature argues for strengthening local organisations as vehicles for peace. This paper starts from the observation that there is a dire lack of organisational perspective to the processes set into motion. Current local peacebuilding policy, we argue, is based on analyses that are far removed from the everyday practices of the actors engaged in peacebuilding. The paper offers instead a qualitative approach that gives central attention to the dynamics of peace organisations and the way conflict is experienced in the everyday life of local people. It analyses the case of one local women's peace organisation: the ' Sudanese Women's Voice for Peace'. Peacebuilding is done by people, and the dynamics of their organisation are crucial for its success. The paper argues that a process approach to peace organisations will enhance agencies' efforts for local peacebuilding. Such an approach focuses on the question how actors in and around organisations give meaning to an organisation. The paper outlines this approach, presents five central properties of local peace organisations, and discusses what lessons can be learnt from this perspective for the practice of peacebuilding.

Topics: Gender, Women, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2005

Promoting a Gender-Just Peace: The Roles of Women Teachers in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction


Kirk, Jackie. 2004. “Promoting a Gender-Just Peace: The Roles of Women Teachers in Peacebuilding and Reconstruction.” Gender & Development 12 (3): 50–9.

Author: Jackie Kirk


Schools - however temporary and improvised they may be - are often among the first community organisations to start functioning after a crisis. It is important that they set a high standard in encouraging the active participation of women in reconstruction and peacebuilding after conflict. This article examines the potential of women teachers for significant participation in building a gender-just peace, and the challenges that exist for women to fulfil this potential. Drawing on examples from a number of different contexts, especially Afghanistan, Ethiopia, and south Sudan, it discusses women teachers' personal and professional development. It identifies some of the challenges faced by women in becoming teachers, and strategies to support women teachers to become agents of change in their societies.

Topics: Development, Education, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Ethiopia, South Sudan

Year: 2004


© 2023 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - South Sudan