South Sudan

Engaging with Gender and Other Social Inequalities in Renewable Energy Projects


Baruah, Bipasha, and Mini Govindan. 2015. “Engaging with Gender and Other Social Inequalities in Renewable Energy Projects.” In Sustainable Access to Energy in the Global South: Essential Technologies and Implementation Approaches, edited by Silvia Hostettler, Ashok Gadgil, and Eileen Hazboun, 189-92. Cham: Springer.

Authors: Bipasha Baruah, Mini Govindan


The scholarship and discourse on climate change has been dominated by natural scientists. Social scientists have only recently become involved in the debate, while natural scientists have been researching the topic for much longer. Consequently, the mainstream discourse on climate change continues to be about large-scale economic instruments and complex computer models. More recently, social scientists have pointed out the limitations of techno-centric approaches and put forward alternative frameworks such as sustainable development, climate justice, human rights, and environmental ethics for conceptualizing and operationalizing the sociocultural dimensions of climate change. They have also explored and documented some of the positive and negative consequences of adopting “green” technologies to respond to the climate crisis. However, issues related to gender equity have remained under-studied even in the work of social scientists. This chapter and the three chapters that follow (Chaps.  17– 19) are a modest contribution toward addressing this knowledge gap through empirical research conducted in Peru, South Sudan, and Nigeria to understand the gendered implications and outcomes of the development and expansion of renewable energy technologies. We hope that this research will highlight the need to engage more critically and proactively with gender and other social inequalities while designing and disseminating such technologies.

Keywords: social inequality, gender equity, green economy, climate justice, gender inequity

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America Countries: Nigeria, Peru, South Sudan

Year: 2015

Indigenous Approaches to Peace Building: Examining the Strategies Employed by Women in South Sudan


Adeogun, Tolulope J., and Muthoni J. Muthuki. 2017. “Indigenous Approaches to Peace Building: Examining the Strategies Employed by Women in South Sudan.” Gender & Behaviour 15 (3): 9639–51.

Authors: Tolulope J. Adeogun, Muthoni J. Muthuki


South Sudan got her independence from Sudan in 2011 and up till now it has suffered from recurrent relapses. Many groups such as Governmental organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations, Women’s Organizations and other various Civil Society groups troop into this post conflict zones in order to achieve a sustainable peace. More importantly, women at the grass roots formed groups/movements in order to help in the peace building process. Despite all the efforts at the grass roots in form of mediation, diplomacy, peaceful intervention, South Sudan still suffers relapses of war. Albeit, this is not to say that the grass roots women had not been working and making progress in peace building in South Sudan. The findings of this paper are based on an empirical study carried out in South Sudan among the grass roots women’s groups. Hence, this paper examines the indigenous strategies put in place by these women’s groups while attempting to build a sustainable peace at the grass roots in their communities after a long and protracted war, the success stories that come along with it and recommendations on what else can be done.


Keywords: indigenous approaches, peacebuilding, women's organizations, South Sudan

Topics: Gender, Women, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2017

Peace Negotiations in the Political Marketplace: The Implications of Women's Exclusion in the Sudan-South Sudan Peace Process


Westendorf, Jasmine-Kim. 2018. "Peace Negotiations in the Political Marketplace: The Implications of Women's Exclusion in the Sudan-South Sudan Peace Process." Australian Journal of International Affairs 72 (5): 433-54. 

Author: Jasmine-Kim Westendorf


This article investigates the implications of women’s exclusion for the nature and durability of peace processes, and whether factors that undermine peace consolidation post-settlement might be prevented through more inclusive peacemaking. It examines the Sudan-South Sudan peace process that produced the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the roles women played in peacemaking and their exclusion from official negotiations, and the sources of insecurity post-CPA. South Sudan’s peace process shows that the exclusion of women can be understood as a canary in a coal mine: a highly visible marker of the broader exclusivity of such processes, and the complex dynamics of elite capture in war and peace processes. Women’s exclusion was the product of the region’s political marketplace, in which power and authority is secured by elites through violence and bargaining, to the exclusion of other groups. By understanding exclusion as a deliberate strategic tactic that extends from war into peacetime, I argue that the exclusion of women is not the reason why peace processes fail in and of itself, but rather the product of elite ownership of peace processes and the structure of many peace processes that facilitates and rewards such ownership, with serious consequences for the sustainability of peace post-settlement.

Keywords: South Sudan, inclusivity, exclusivity, women, peace and security, Peace Negotiations, political marketplace

Topics: Conflict, Gender, Women, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan, Sudan

Year: 2018

Gender and Statebuilding in South Sudan


Ali, Nada Mustafa. 2011. Gender and Statebuilding in South Sudan. 298. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace. 

Author: Nada Mustafa Ali


"South Sudan’s independence ends decades of conflict as well as socioeconomic and political marginalization at the hands of successive governments in Khartoum, which affected women in gender-specific ways. Independence thus opens up opportunities for women’s economic and social empowerment, ensuring that the new country’s political and economic structures and institutions reflect commitments to women’s participation and human rights. In turn, empowering women will enable South Sudan to strengthen its economic and political structures and institutions.

There is great potential for gender equality and respect for women’s rights in South Sudan. The government has expressed commitments to equality between women and men and to women’s participation. South Sudan is relatively egalitarian and lacking in religious extremism. International actors interested in South Sudan recognize that promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment and addressing gender-based violence (GBV) are key to maintaining peace and security and helping South Sudan’s economy grow.

Challenges abound, however. South Sudan is severely lacking in infrastructure and has some of the worst human development indicators worldwide. Social and cultural practices harmful to women compound the effects of conflict and marginalization. There are constant internal and external security threats, a limited understanding of gender equality, and a tendency within communities to view gender as an alien and illegitimate concern, given the acute problems that South Sudan faces.

The government of South Sudan, with the support of regional partners and the international community, should ensure that gender equality and women’s rights are fully integrated into and are outcomes of state building. National planning, developing the permanent constitution, and building the country’s new institutions and structures should reflect commitments to gender equality and input from women and women’s groups across South Sudan. The government should cost and meet the full budgetary needs of the Ministry of Gender, Child, and Welfare; ratify and implement the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa; strengthen efforts to prevent GBV and address the needs of GBV victims and survivors; and invest more in quality and accessible health and education” (Ali 2011, 1-2).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Secessionist Wars, Economies, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2011

Gender in Peacekeeping Operations: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Ethiopian Female Peacekeepers in Abyei


Kewir, Kiven James, and Seble Menberu Gebremichael. 2020. "Gender in Peacekeeping Operations: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Ethiopian Female Peacekeepers in Abyei." Africa Insight 49 (3): 60-71.

Authors: Kiven James Kewir, Seble Menburu Gebremichael


This paper analyses the role of gender in peacekeeping operations through a review of women’s experiences in the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA). This mission is dominated by Ethiopian peacekeepers and Ethiopia has also contributed the largest number of female peacekeepers (FPKs) to the mission since 2013. In spite of this, the proportion of female troops in UNISFA remains very low. We base our analysis on 15 in-depth field interviews, two focusgroup discussions, and direct observation done between 22 July 2015 and 2 August 2015. Traditional security studies have been criticised for being gender blind and state-centric. Using the human security conception of security and standpoint feminism as a framework for analysis, this study reveals that efforts made for the full integration of women in peace operations by the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) have been thwarted by the persistence of negative stereotypes and the working conditions of FPKs in Abyei.


Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan

Year: 2020

Gender Mainstreaming in the IGAD II SUDAN Peace Process


Ndonga, Eunice M. 2017. "Gender Mainstreaming in the IGAD II SUDAN Peace Process." International Journal of Gender Studies 1 (2): 1-19. 

Author: Eunice M. Ndonga


Gender mainstreaming is generally defined as a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated.This requires careful consideration of the implications, for both women and men, of actions, policies and programmes. In earlier peace processes, there was no particular attention to women’s needs, experiences and capacities, and thus ‘gender mainstreaming’ came to be used to mean a focus on so-called ‘women’s issues’. But current research and policy tend to include men’s special needs as well, and point to the fact that sustainable peace can be obtained only if both women’s and men’s issues are taken into consideration. 

Keywords: Gender, mainstreaming, Sudan peace process, IGAD II

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan, Sudan

Year: 2017

Feminist Perspectives on Peacebuilding: The Case of Women's Organisations in South Sudan


Adeogun, Tolulope Jolaade, and Janet Muthoni Muthuki. 2018. "Feminist Perspectives on Peacebuilding: The Case of Women's Organisations in South Sudan." Agenda 32 (2): 83-92. 

Authors: Tolulope Jolaade Adeogun, Janet Muthoni Muthuki


In the past few decades there has been increased feminist scholarship in the area of conflict and peacebuilding, with calls for the inclusion of previously marginalised feminist and women’s perspectives to peacebuilding as well as examination of the processes that have sanctioned these exclusions. Feminists have argued that women’s daily experiences and struggles enable them to articulate different perspectives on peacebuilding that challenges dominant male discourse on conflict and peacebuilding. Black and African feminist scholars have further called for openness to the multiplicity and diversity of women’s experiences, including in situations of conflict and post-conflict. This article builds on feminist theorising in the area of peacebuilding by drawing on an empirical study conducted in South Sudan, a newly formed state after decades of war, on the strategies adopted by women’s organisations in peacebuilding initiatives. After South Sudan came out of decades of war it became imperative for peacebuilding to take place in order to prevent relapses. The findings of the study revealed that peace processes in South Sudan continue to exclude women from the peacebuilding strategic plans. The women, however, in exercising agency adopted a bottom-up approach within which they were largely involved in peacebuilding at grassroots level. Although this grassroots movement is suitable for sustainable peacebuilding, this article calls for the involvement of women at multiple levels. In building on feminist interventions in the area of peacebuilding, it advocates for an integrated approach to peacebuilding which entails bottom-up, horizontal and top-bottom approaches in which women are involved at all levels of decision-making.

Keywords: peacebuilding, gender inequality, feminist perspectives, women's organizations, integrated approach

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2018

The Effects of Conflict and Displacement on Violence against Adolescent Girls in South Sudan: The Case of Adolescent Girls in the Protection of Civilian Sites in Juba


Murphy, Maureen, Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, Junior Ovince, Mary Ellsberg, and Manuel Contreras-Urbina. 2019. "The Effects of Conflict and Displacement on Violence against Adolescent Girls in South Sudan: The Case of Adolescent Girls in the Protection of Civilian Sites in Juba." Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters 27 (1): 181-91. 

Authors: Maureen Murphy, Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, Junior Ovince, Mary Ellsberg, Manuel Contreras-Urbina


There is a paucity of data on violence against women and girls (VAWG) during times of conflict in general and even less information specifically on violence against adolescent girls. Based on secondary analysis of a larger study on VAWG in South Sudan, this article highlights the specific experience of conflict-affected adolescent girls resident in the Juba Protection of Civilian sites. Quantitative data from a cross-sectional household survey shows that the prevalence of non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) (26.5%) and intimate partner violence (IPV) (43.1% of partnered respondents) was high among a cohort of girls who were of adolescent age during the 2013 crisis. Direct exposure to armed conflict increased the odds of respondents experiencing NPSV (AOR: 7.21; 95%CI: 3.94–13.17) and IPV (AOR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.07–5.29). Quantitative and qualitative data also showed that patriarchal practices, compounded by poverty and unequal power relationships within the home, remain some of the primary drivers of VAWG even in conflict-affected settings. Prevention activities need to consider these wider underlying drivers of VAWG during times of armed conflict, as they remain key factors affecting violence against adolescent girls.

Keywords: violence against women and girls, conflict, non-partner sexual violence, adolescent girls, Intimate partner violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Domestic Violence, Gender, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Households, Sexual Violence, SV against Women Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2019

The Role of Women in Peace-building in South Sudan


Mai, Nyathon James Hoth. 2015. The Role of Women in Peace-building in South Sudan. Juba: The Sudd Institute. 

Author: Nyathon James Hoth Mai

Keywords: peacemaking, gender equality, reconciliation, women's rights, affirmative action, Peace Negotiations, funding


“Grounded in the prevalent under-representation of women in peace building processes, this brief explores why women’s role in peace building is critical more generally and particularly in South Sudan. Second, the brief examines the opportunities the recent Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCISS) offers women in the upcoming peace building efforts. Third, it assesses the challenges that hinder the effective participation of women in peace building. Lastly, it proposes recommendations that may help address this persistent underutilization of women’s vast skills to support durable peace in South Sudan.

"The paper argues that women’s role in peace building is essential. This is because 1) South Sudanese women have played instrumental roles in resolving past conflicts, which give them experiences and skills that are crucial in the current peace building process, 2) women’s activities in peace building support healing and reconciliation efforts for women are known for bridging conflicts related divides, 3) war impacts on women quite differently, and as such, their needs and peace-building priorities are different from those of men, and 4) it is a constitutional right and an international obligation that women participate in peace-building activities.

"The current peace-building phase in South Sudan offers an opportunity for promoting gender equity, advancing the position of women in the society, mainstreaming women’s perspectives in all the pillars of peace-building and increasing their participation in leadership. This could be done through revision of and recommitment to laws and policies to address historical inequalities and root causes of conflict. However, the patriarchal nature of the South Sudanese society and the associated customary laws, the background on which peace-building works are to be executed, has in the past hindered (may still hinder) women’s participation in public life. These factors are exacerbated by the underlying lack of political will, limited funding, ethnic politics, weak institutions, and the high illiteracy rate among women. Further, these factors could be aggravated by the current move to militarize the government, evident by recent appointments of states’ caretaker governors. While some of these issues are associated with the long-term problems of underdevelopment that South Sudan faces, any meaningful change requires immediate progress on all fronts. It remains to be seen what impact the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU) will make towards improving gender equity in building sustainable yet inclusive peace.

"There is a need for gender stratified intensification and tailoring of capacity building efforts, provision of more funding to support women’s role in public life, implementation of the 25% affirmative action across the board, and mainstreaming gender perspectives in all sectors of South Sudan. These initiatives may promote women’s greater participation in peace-building processes, hence sustainable peace” (Mai 2015, 1-2).

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2015

Building Peace in South Sudan: Progress, Problems, and Prospects


Mutasa, Charles, and Kudrat Virk. 2017. Building Peace in South Sudan: Progress, Problems, and Prospects. Cape Town: Centre for Conflict Resolution. 

Authors: Charles Mutasa, Kudrat Virk

Keywords: gender equality, peacemaking, gender identity, peace negotitations, women's rights, sexual violence, political violence


Even before the outbreak of the current conflict, translating constitutional principles on gender equality into practice was a formidable challenge in South Sudan, which has since been exacerbated by the ongoing violence. Patriarchal gender norms and traditional practices, such as the payment of bride prices and cattle-raiding among pastoral communities, are deeply implicated as drivers of conflict and insecurity in South Sudan. Similarly, sexual and gender-based violence was widespread in South Sudan prior to December 2013, but has since increased. Women and children compose a majority of those displaced by the ongoing conflict, including the over 214,000 people sheltering in UN protection-ofcivilian (PoC) sites across the country.
Meanwhile, the role of women as actual and potential agents of peacebuilding in South Sudan has been neglected. South Sudanese women, though, campaigned actively to strengthen their representation in the Addis Ababa peace negotiations and the incorporation of gender-based perspectives in the resultant agreement; and have since continued advocacy efforts to strengthen their voices in peacebuilding processes. However, greater efforts are needed to ensure that their participation in decision-making structures is both adequate and meaningful. More sustained efforts – such as the creation of UN Women–supported rural empowerment centres – are also needed to bridge the gap between the country’s female elite and women at the grassroots level.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Conflict, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2017


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