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South Sudan

Gender, home & identity : Nuer repatriation to Southern Sudan

Citation:

Grabska, Katarzyna. 2014. Gender, home & identity : Nuer repatriation to Southern Sudan. Oxford: James Currey.

Author: Katarzyna Grabska

Abstract:

"Analyses the experiences of exile and return of Nuer women and men of all ages and how they negotiate and reshape gender identities and relations in the context of prolonged war and violence." - WorldCat

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Men, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2014

Price of Peace: Financing for Gender Equality in Post Conflict Reconstruction

Citation:

Budlender, Debbie. 2010. ‘Price of Peace: Financing for Gender Equality in Post Conflict Reconstruction’. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/womens-empowerment/price-of-peace-financing-for-gender-equality-in-post-conflict-reconstruction.html

Author: Debbie Budlender

Abstract:

Questions of the gender-responsiveness of post-conflict funding are important beyond the economic sphere. While budgets and financing are economic tools, the monies that they govern are used to finance activities that extend into all areas of govern- ment activity. In post-conflict situations, donor funds are used not only to rebuild the economy and to (re-)establish administrative systems and law and order, but also to fund social services such as education and health. Decisions as to which sectors will be funded and what will be funded within them are therefore of clear impor- tance in determining prospects for advancing gender equality in the recipient country. In an attempt to get more detailed information, the Gender Team of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) commissioned case studies in Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Southern Sudan and Timor-Leste. The case studies examine whether and how resources were allocated and used in post-conflict reconstruction initiatives to promote gender equality and address women’s needs.The studies examined whether gender issues were addressed through separate projects or through addressing gender issues in mainstream projects and programmes.They also examined how funding of post-conflict reconstruction related to their own budgets with respect to gender equality and women’s empowerment. The research covered the full post-conflict reconstruction period, including early recovery and peace-building assistance as well as later assistance as the recipient countries attempted to move towards a more ‘normal’ situation. The precise time period varied from one case study to the next and these are detailed in each individual case study. Movement towards the normal situation is reflected by a shift in instruments used, with countries over time increasingly being assisted through standard instruments and processes used in non-conflict countries. For future and current interventions, this synthesis report draws on the lessons that intervening actors as well as actors in the beneficiary countries can learn from these four case studies. 

 

Keywords: United Nations Development Programme, gender equality, gender and finance, post-conflict

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Budgeting, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Kosovo, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Timor-Leste

Year: 2010

Women Without Arms: Gendered Fighter Constructions in Eritrea and Southern Sudan

Citation:

Weber, Annette. 2011. “Women Without Arms: Gendered Fighter Constructions in Eritrea and Southern Sudan.” International Journal of Conflict and Violence 5 (2): 357–70.

Author: Annette Weber

Abstract:

An analysis of gendered fighter constructions in the liberation movements in Eritrea and southern Sudan (EPLF and SPLA/M), examining the question of female access to the sphere of masculine fighter constructs and the relevance of this for influence in peacetime affairs. Empirical research in both countries, in particular interviews with participants, reveals that what keeps women out of the sphere of legitimized violence is not some “inherent peacefulness,” but the exclusivist construct of the masculine fighter, which is supported by society. This makes it hard for women to participate in war, and especially to gain full fighter status. An intrinsic link is found between fighter status and access to power in post-conflict state-building from which women, being unable to gain full fighter status, are largely excluded.

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Eritrea, South Sudan

Year: 2011

Gender, Conflict, and Peace-Building: How Conflict Can Catalyse Positive Change for Women

Citation:

Arostegui, Julie. 2013. "Gender, Conflict, and Peace-Building: How Conflict Can Catalyse Positive Change for Women." Gender & Development 21 (3): 533-49. doi:10.1080/13552074.2013.846624.

Author: Julie Arostegui

Abstract:

Although modern-day armed conflict is horrific for women, recent conflict and postconflict periods have provided women with new platforms and opportunities to bring about change. The roles of women alter and expand during conflict as they participate in the struggles and take on more economic responsibilities and duties as heads of households. The trauma of the conflict experience also provides an opportunity for women to come together with a common agenda. In some contexts, these changes have led women to become activists, advocating for peace and long-term transformation in their societies. This article explores how women have seized on the opportunities available to them to drive this advocacy forward: including the establishment of an international framework on women, peace, and security that includes United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 and other international agreements and commitments to involving women in post-conflict peace-building. The article is based on on-the-ground research and capacity-building activities carried out in the Great Lakes Region of Africa on the integration of international standards on gender equality and women's rights into post-conflict legal systems.

Keywords: women, peace and security, gender, conflict, peace building, UN Security Council Resolution 1325, gender policy, women's empowerment, women's advocacy, Maputo Protocol, International Conference on the Great Lakes Region

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Health, Trauma, Households, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda, South Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2013

Land, Livelihoods and Identities: Inter-Community Conflicts in East Africa

Citation:

Young, Laura A., and Korir Sing’Oei. 2011. Land, Livelihoods and Identities: Inter-Community Conflicts in East Africa. London: Minority Rights Group International.

Authors: Laura A. Young, Korir Sing’Oei

Abstract:

In resource-scarce East Africa, minority groups face major challenges over the control of and access to land and natural resources. Minorities find themselves competing with other communities, with the state, and with corporate interests for control of resources upon which they depend for their livelihood, culture and future development. This report describes the situation of selected minorities and their neighbouring groups in Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan’s Jonglei State. As globalization, population explosion, and climate change converge to increase the demand for land and other resources, these communities face extreme livelihood challenges, vulnerability to conflict, and ongoing discrimination.

This report documents case studies from a diverse array of communities dealing with different multiple types of conflict, from mineral extraction to cattle rustling, to drought, to inter ethnic violence to the creation of national parks for tourism. It also outlines MRG's key recommendations on this issue. (Minority Rights Group International)

Topics: Economies, Ethnicity, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Globalization, Governance, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya, South Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2011

‘We Want Empowerment for Our Women’: Transnational Feminism, Neoliberal Citizenship, and the Gendering of Women’s Political Subjectivity in Postconflict South Sudan

Citation:

Erickson, Jennifer, and Caroline Faria. 2011. “‘We Want Empowerment for Our Women’: Transnational Feminism, Neoliberal Citizenship, and the Gendering of Women’s Political Subjectivity in Postconflict South Sudan.” Signs 36 (3): 627–52. doi:10.1086/657494.

Authors: Jennifer Erickson, Caroline Faria

Topics: Citizenship, Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Nationalism, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2011

'Walking the Line’: Southern Sudanese Masculinities and Reconciling One's Past with the Present

Citation:

Marlowe, Jay M. 2012. “‘Walking the Line’: Southern Sudanese Masculinities and Reconciling One's Past with the Present.” Ethnicities 12 (1): 50-66.

Author: Jay M. Marlowe

Abstract:

This paper discusses an ethnographic engagement with Southern Sudanese men and their experiences of resettlement as refugees in Adelaide, Australia. They use the phrase ‘walking the line’ to convey the multiple challenges of reconciling one's past within the present contexts of life in a new host country. This geographic metaphor hints at the contested borderlands of masculinity, social relations and raising children that highlight the dynamic complexities related to gender and institutional power. The participant voices provide helpful perspectives on the endeavour of forging one's identity in forced migration and resettlement contexts.

Keywords: identity, masculinity, refugee, social relations, resettlement, Sudan

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Africa, East Africa, Oceania Countries: Australia, South Sudan

Year: 2012

‘Education Is My Mother and Father’: The ‘Invisible’ Women of Sudan

Citation:

El Jack, Amani. 2012. “‘Education Is My Mother and Father’: The ‘Invisible’ Women of Sudan.” Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees 27 (2): 19-29.

Author: Amani El Jack

Abstract:

Education plays a significant role in informing the way people develop gender values, identities, relationships, and stereotypes. The education of refugees, however, takes place in multiple and diverse settings. Drawing on a decade of field research in Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, and North America, I examine the promises and challenges of education for refugees and argue that southern Sudanese refugee women and girls experience gendered and unequal access to education in protracted refugee sites such as the Kakuma refugee camp, as well as in resettled destinations such as Massachusetts. Many of these refugees, who are commonly referred to as the “lost boys and girls,” did not experience schooling in the context of a stable family life; that is why they often reiterate the Sudanese proverb, “Education is my mother and father.” I argue that tertiary education is crucial because it promotes self-reliance. It enables refugees, particularly women, to gain knowledge, voice, and skills which will give them access to better employment opportunities and earnings and thus enhance their equality and independence. Indeed, education provides a context within which to understand and make visible the changing nature of gender relationships of power.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, North America Countries: Kenya, South Sudan, Uganda, United States of America

Year: 2012

The Return of Displaced Nuer in Southern Sudan: Women Becoming Men?

Citation:

Grabska, Katarzyna. 2013. “The Return of Displaced Nuer in Southern Sudan: Women Becoming Men?” Development and Change 44 (5): 1135–57.

Author: Katarzyna Grabska

Abstract:

Conceptualizing war-time displacement as a catalyst for social change, this article examines the gendered emplacement experiences of returnee displaced women in the aftermath of the recent (1983–2005) civil war in South Sudan. The article attempts to shed light on the strategies of returnee women in transforming and contributing to their communities in the context of an independent South Sudan. It focuses specifically on their gendered emplacement strategies to access land, livelihoods and political rights. Through these diverse actions, some women contest and reconfigure gender identities while others reinforce unequal power relations within their households and communities. These gendered emplacements emphasize the hybridity of place, identity and self in processes of social transformation.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2013

The Silence of South Sudanese Women: Social Risks in Talking about Experiences of Sexual Violence

Citation:

Tankink, Marian. 2013. “The Silence of South Sudanese Women: Social Risks in Talking about Experiences of Sexual Violence.” Culture, Health & Sexuality 15 (3/4): 391–403.

Author: Marian Tankink

Abstract:

In South Sudan, it is rare for someone to speak about sexual violence. According to the South Sudanese, it can be dangerous to talk — there will be social consequences and talking can destroy you. In this paper, I describe some of the impediments women from South Sudan experience when they try to share their experienced sexual violence with significant others by describing a specific case. The main coping strategy for most South Sudanese women is to keep their experiences secret to protect themselves. The health and health-seeking behaviour of South Sudanese women are influenced by cultural notions of coping with a taboo as strong as sexual violence. I will show that the women's silence is the result of a complex and dynamic reality in the women's everyday lives. The women often experience considerable tension between the dominant public cultural ideas and their private experiences and personal notions. I conclude with a discussion about how women's silence should be respected and the trauma addressed metaphorically to avoid unwanted or uncontrolled social consequences. What is most at stake for the South Sudanese women is the prevention of further humiliation or social exclusion in their everyday lives as a result of sexual violence.

Topics: Gender, Women, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2013

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