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South Africa

Integrating Gender Issues into National Budgetary Policies and Procedures: Some Policy Options


Elson, Diane. 1998. "Integrating Gender Issues into National Budgetary Policies and Procedures: Some Policy Options." Journal of International Development 10 (7): 929-41.

Author: Diane Elson


The national budget generally has different implications for women and men, but it is put together without consideration of gender equality. Tools are being developed to integrate gender analysis into appraisal of delivery of public services, composition of expenditure and revenue, and overall budget strategy. A gender-aware budget statement can indicate the extent to which the budget is gender-balanced, and be used to monitor resource allocations and outcomes. The Commonwealth Secretariat is facilitating a pilot project to explore the practical use of some of these tools in preparation and presentation of the budget in South Africa, Sri Lanka and Barbados.

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, South Asia Countries: Barbados, South Africa, Sri Lanka

Year: 1998

The Women's Budget


Budlender, Debbie. 1997. “The Women’s Budget.” Agenda 13 (33): 37-42.

Author: Debbie Budlender


Public spending goes little further than last year in reaching the poorest majority - black women. Debbie Budlender critically reviews planned Government expenditure in the 1997/8 budget through a gender lens.

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting, Race Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 1997

Gender Equity Concerns in Public Expenditure: Methodologies and Country Summaries


Esim, Simel. 1996. Gender Equity Concerns in Public Expenditure: Methodologies and Country Summaries. Washington DC: International Center for Research on Women.

Author: Simel Esim


This note consists of two main parts: First part is primarily based on a review of methodologies used for public expenditure analysis with poverty and gender equity concerns. The second part summarizes the results of studies looking into social sector allocations using public expenditure incidence in Ghana, Ivory Coast and South Africa.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Ghana, South Africa

Year: 1996

Budgets as if People Mattered: Democratizing Macroeconomic Policies


Çağatay, Nilüfer, Mümtaz Keklik, Radhika Lal, and James Lang. 2000. “Budgets as if People Mattered: Democratizing Macroeconomic Policies.” SEPED Conference Paper Series, UNDP, New York.

Authors: Nilüfer Çağatay, Mümtaz Keklik, Radhika Lal, James Lang


This UNDP conference paper, published in May 2000 by Nilufer Cagatay, Mumtaz Keklik, Radhika Lal and James Lang, provides a contextual framework for budget initiatives and discusses how much progress has been made towards achieving the commitments declared in Copenhagen and Beijing. The paper makes a case for rethinking macroeconomics such that social policy becomes a constitutive element of macroeconomics. The authors further discuss the need for and role of people-centered budgets, pro-poor and gender-sensitive budgets. The lessons learned from these initiatives are brought forth as well as recommendations for future budget exercises. (Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Australia, Philippines, South Africa

Year: 2000

Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country Studies and Good Practice


Budlender, Debbie, and Guy Hewitt. 2002. Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country Studies and Good Practice. London, UK: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Authors: Debbie Budlender, Guy Hewitt


This Commonwealth Secretariat publication by Debbie Budlender and Guy Hewitt (2002), documents "good practice" in gender budget work from across the globe. Practitioners share their first-hand experiences and in-depth knowledge of the why, where and how of gender responsive budget (GRB) initiatives. They reflect on both the challenges and successes of initiatives in the Andean region, Australia, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, Rwanda, Scotland, South Africa and the UK. A chapter on the Commonwealth Secretariat's involvement in developing and implementing GRB initiatives is also included to suggest the role that can be played by external agencies at the national, regional and international level.

This book builds on a previous publication, Gender Budgets Make Cents, which was designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of GRB initiatives. It described the conceptual framework, evolution of the work and lessons learned, and provided brief summaries of country initiatives. Together, these titles show the importance of integrating a gender perspective into budgetary policies to promote equality between women and men. 

(Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Mexico, Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, South Korea, United Kingdom

Year: 2002

The Political Economy of Women's Budgets in the South


Budlender, Debbie. 2000. “The Political Economy of Women’s Budgets in the South.” World Development 28 (7): 1365-78. 

Author: Debbie Budlender


Soon after the democratic elections of 1994, South Africa embarked on its first women's budget exercise, a collaborative venture between nongovernmental organizations and the South African parliament. Some time later the South African government initiated its own exercise in gender analysis of the budget. The South African initiative has attracted a lot of interest from around the world. In a number of other countries governments and civil society players have embarked on gender analysis exercises, often with strong support from international donors. This paper discusses the ways in which these exercises can assist in addressing gender issues, as well as some of the tensions involved.

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Political Economies Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2000

Debates and Dilemmas: Water


Everett, Jana Matson, and Sue Ellen M. Charlton. 2014. “Debates and Dilemmas: Water.” In Women Navigating Globalization: Feminist Approaches to Development, 95–117. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Authors: Jana Matson Everett, Sue Ellen M. Charlton

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America Countries: Peru, South Africa

Year: 2014

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study


Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London


There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

Gender-Responsive Budgeting


Khan, Zohra. 2015. “Gender-Responsive Budgeting.” In The Oxford Handbook of Transnational Feminist Movements, edited by Rawwida Baksh and Wendy Harcourt, 485-506. New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199943494.013.022. 

Author: Zohra Khan


This chapter situates gender-responsive budgeting, or GRB, within the debates and research in feminist economics and analysis of macroeconomics, poverty and inequality. It traces the origins of GRB back to seminal experiences in Australia and South Africa that laid the foundation for more recent practice in countries including Ecuador, Morocco and Nepal. It looks at the actors, strategic alliances and partnerships that have supported the mushrooming of GRB around the world to show that one of the main strengths of this work is the transitional networking and coming together of feminists, inside and outside bureaucracies, in support of more and better resources for women. Charting the journey of GRB, it illustrates that where it has succeeded, it has resulted in better alignment between policy commitments and financing for gender equality. Some of main critiques of GRB are addressed and important questions about the future of this work are considered.

Keywords: gender-responsive budgeting, GRB, feminist economics, poverty inequality, women's organization, national women's machinery

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Oceania Countries: Australia, Ecuador, Morocco, Nepal, South Africa

Year: 2015

Chiaroscuro: The Uses of 'homophobia' and Homophobic Violence in Armed Conflicts and Political Transitions.


Serrano-Amaya, Jose Fernando. 2015. "Chiaroscuro: The Uses of 'Homophobia' and Homophobic Violence in Armed Conflicts and Political Transitions." PhD thesis, University of Sydney.

Author: Jose Fernando Serrano-Amaya


This research connects studies of gender and sexualities with studies of political conflicts, conflict resolution and democratisation, using two in-depth case studies (Colombia and South Africa). It explores the hypothesis that homophobia, or the set of hatreds bundled under that term, plays a fundamental role in the dispute for hegemony between antagonists during political transitions. The study shows how homophobia, as a form of gender and sexual violence, has both a constructive and deconstructive character in political transitions. It contributes to the transformation of gender and sexual orders required by warfare and deployed by armed groups. It also reinforces the creation of consensus around the projects of change implemented by them. From the perspective of individuals and their organisations such hatreds are part of the embodied experience of violence caused by protracted conflicts and social inequalities. In their struggles for dignity, such violence becomes a reason to mobilise and to transform themselves into political activists.

This PhD research is important for theoretical, methodological and political reasons. Theoretically, it creates links between fields of study that have been developed separately from each other, reading concepts applied in one field with the lens of the other. Debates on ‘non-normative’ sexualities are useful in discussing normative concepts such as ‘conflict resolution’. Methodologically, the research analyses issues of documentation, memory and case construction that are of relevance in the field of human rights and gender in post-conflict reconstruction. In terms of political significance, this research is developed at a time in which discrimination against individuals and collectives, because of their sexual orientation and gender identities, is being increasingly recognised in the international arena. This research provides information that has not yet been collected and provides a systematic analysis useful for NGOs and state institutions.

Keywords: sexual violence, homophobia, homosexuality, LGBTQ rights, armed conflict

Topics: Armed Conflict, LGBTQ, Sexual Violence, Sexuality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America Countries: Colombia, South Africa

Year: 2015


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