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Rwanda

Women and War in Rwanda: Gender, Media and the Representation of Genocide

Citation:

Holmes, Georgina. 2014. Women and War in Rwanda: Gender, Media and the Representation of Genocide. International Library of African Studies 39. London; New York: IBTauris.

Author: Georgina Holmes

Annotation:

"Georgina Holmes argues that the media represents a site within which political and military actors can influence narratives about war and genocide, and breaks new ground in analyzing the role of gender in the conflict. This book is essential reading on the gendered dynamics of conflict and genocide in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo." (Summary from WorldCat)

Topics: Gender, Women, Genocide Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda

Year: 2014

Why Women’s Participation Is Essential to Sustainable Peacebuilding: Lessons from Sierra Leone

Citation:

White, Aimee. 2008. "Why Women’s Participation Is Essential to Sustainable Peacebuilding: Lessons from Sierra Leone." M.A., Canada: Dalhousie University (Canada).

Author: Aimee White

Annotation:

Summary:
Post-conflict countries will not achieve sustainable peace without the inclusion and participation of women in peacebuilding processes. In Sierra Leone, women were heavily involved in bringing about an end to the 1991--2002 conflict, but yet were largely excluded from political and decision-making processes in post-conflict context. The physical and structural gender-based violence women experienced throughout the conflict and the ways in which women took the lead in addressing these issues in the post-conflict context demonstrates women's essential but formally unrecognized role in peacebuilding in Sierra Leone. The post-genocide context in Rwanda provides a comparison for the ways in which women have seized the socio-political space opened up by conflict to challenge gender inequality and take an active role in the political structures of the country. There are a number of international policy frameworks to complement this process in post-conflict countries but international and national rhetoric must translate into concrete action. (Summary from original)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Rwanda, Sierra Leone

Year: 2008

Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Stotsky, Janet G., Lisa Kolovich, and Suhaib Kebhaj. 2016. “Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 

Authors: Janet G. Stotsky , Lisa Kolovich, Suhaib Kebhaj

Abstract:

Gender budgeting is an initiative to use fiscal policy and administration to address gender inequality and women's advancement. A large number of sub-Saharan African countries have adopted gender budgeting. Two countries that have achieved notable success in their efforts are Uganda and Rwanda, both of which have integrated gender-oriented goals into budget policies, programs, and processes in fundamental ways. Other countries have made more limited progress in introducing gender budgeting into their budget-making. Leadership by the ministry of finance is critical for enduring effects, although nongovernmental organizations and parliamentary bodies in sub-Saharan Africa play an essential role in advocating for gender budgeting.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal Policy & Administration, gender inequality, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, NGOs, Political Participation Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda, Uganda

Year: 2016

Gender Mainstreaming in Sector Budget Support: The Case of the European Commission's Sector Support to Rwanda's Agriculture Sector

Citation:

Holvoet, Natalie, and Liesbeth Inberg. 2015. “Gender Mainstreaming in Sector Budget Support: The Case of the European Commission’s Sector Support to Rwanda’s Agriculture Sector.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 16 (2).

Authors: Natalie Holvoet, Liesbeth Inberg

Abstract:

Donors face difficulties when handling gender concerns in the context of ongoing changes in aid modalities. Against this background, the European Union (EU) Member States and the European Commission (EC) adopted the EU Plan of Action on Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment in Development (2010-2015) and launched, in collaboration with the UN Women and the International Training Center of the International Labour Organization, the 'Increasing Accountability in Financing for Gender Equality' program. Within the framework of this program, the EU delegation in Rwanda has elaborated a Gender Mainstreaming Strategy for the EC sector budget support to the Agriculture Sector in Rwanda. Given that, so far, experiences with gender mainstreaming in sector budget programs in the agriculture sector are hardly documented, the review of the current degree of gender-sensitivity and the remedying gender mainstreaming strategy are also the focus of our contribution. Both the EC and Rwanda are interesting cases as the former is an influential actor in development cooperation, while Rwanda's own commitment to gender equality gives the EC (and other donors) an interesting entry point to further trigger gender mainstreaming through (sector) budget support.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, European Commission, Rwanda, sector budget support, agricultural sector

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Europe Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2015

Peacebuilding Through a Gender Lens and the Challenges of Implementation in Rwanda and Côte d'Ivoire

Citation:

Hudson, Heidi. 2009. “Peacebuilding Through a Gender Lens and the Challenges of Implementation in Rwanda and Cote d'Ivoire.” Security Studies 18 (2): 287–318.

Author: Heidi Hudson

Abstract:

With the hypothesis in mind that discrimination against women increases the likelihood that a state will experience internal conflict, this article contends that considering gender is a key part of an effective peacebuilding process. Evidence gathered by studying peacebuilding from a feminist perspective, such as in Rwanda and Cote d’Ivoire, can be used to reconceptualize the peace agenda in more inclusive and responsible ways. Following from this, the article argues that a culturally contextual gender analysis is a key tool, both for feminist theory of peacebuilding and the practice of implementing a gender perspective, in all peace work. Using the tools of African feminisms to study African conflicts, this contribution warns against “adding women” without recognizing their agency, emphasizes the need for an organized women’s movement, and suggests directions for the implementation of international laws concerning women’s empowerment at the local level. The article concludes by suggesting that implementation of these ideas in practice is dependent on the way in which African feminists employ main- streaming, inclusionary, and transformational strategies within a culturally sensitive context of indigenous peacebuilding processes.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Genocide, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, International Law, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Non-state armed groups, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Rwanda

Year: 2009

Maternal Health Care Seeking Behavior in a Post-Conflict HIPC: The Case of Rwanda

Citation:

Chandrasekhar, S., Tesfayi Gebreselassie, and Anuja Jayaraman. 2011. “Maternal Health Care Seeking Behavior in a Post-Conflict HIPC: The Case of Rwanda” Population Research and Policy Review 30 (1):25-41

Authors: S. Chandrasekhar, Tesfayi Gebreselassie, Anuja Jayaraman

Abstract:

Rwanda is one of nine post-conflict heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) of the world. There was a worsening of health indicators since the early nineties on account of conflict. In light of this, we examine factors affecting maternal health care seeking behavior in Rwanda using three rounds of Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS) data (1992, 2000, and 2005). We find that progress towards increasing the share of assisted deliveries has been slow. There has been no significant increase in the proportion of women seeking antenatal care. This could partially explain why a large proportion of women continue to deliver at home without professional assistance. Further, women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the 2000 RDHS are less likely to deliver in a health facility than those who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the 1992 RDHS. We do not find such a result for the year 2005. We also find that women are more likely to deliver at home with professional assistance in 2000 and 2005 compared to 1992.

Keywords: Rwanda, maternal health, place of delivery, conflict

Topics: Development, Poverty, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2011

Girlhood in a Post-Conflict Situation: The Case of Rwanda

Citation:

Gervaid, Myriam, Eliane Ubalijoro, and Euthalie Nyirbega. 2009. “Girlhood in a Post-Conflict Situation: The Case of Rwanda” Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity 79:13-23

Authors: Myriam Gervaid, Eliane Ubalijoro, Euthalie Nyirbega

Abstract:

Girls in Rwanda have been confronted with unique challenges since the 1994 genocide. This study aims to analyse their everyday experiences, given the repercussions the genocide has had on their lives and the sociocultural pressures they face. Using a comprehensive cross-sectoral approach we examine their positions and roles through four 'lenses': security and protection, economic security, access to basic services, and participation and empowerment. This gender analysis of girlhood in a post-conflict environment reveals that girls must contend with a wide-ranging and interconnected set of gender biases and highlights the fact that they are relatively 'invisible' in programmes for women or youth, even though they play a major role in the rebuilding of peaceful communities. We conclude that post-conflict programmes would benefit from consulting with girls and young women to detect disparities in access to welfare services and resources and help shape policies and programmes that address their interests.

Keywords: girls, gender, youth, post-conflict situation, empowerment

Topics: Girls, Genocide, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Human Security Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2009

Traditional justice and legal pluralism in transitional context: The case of Rwanda's Gacaca Courts

Citation:

Nagy, Rosemary, "Traditional justice and legal pluralism in transitional context: The case of Rwanda's Gacaca Courts," in Reconciliation(s): Transitional Justice in Postconflict Societies, ed. Joanna R. Quinn (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2009).

Author: Rosemary Nagy

Topics: Gender, Women, Justice, Impunity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2009

Legislative Power and Women's Representation

Citation:

Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie, and Peverill Squire. 2014. “Legislative Power and Women’s Representation.” Politics & Gender 10 (04): 622–58. doi:10.1017/S1743923X14000440.

Authors: Leslie Schwindt-Bayer, Peverill Squire

Abstract:

Women's representation in national legislatures varies widely around the world. In 2012, only Rwanda and Andorra had achieved parity in women's representation in the national parliament, with 56% of the Rwandan Chamber of Deputies being female and exactly half the Andorran General Council represented by each sex. In many other countries, women still have little representation in the national legislature, despite being almost 50% of the population. A large body of research has emerged to try to explain the wide variation across countries, with most of it focusing on cultural, socioeconomic, and electoral explanations (e.g., McDonagh 2002; Norris 1985; Reynolds 1999; Rule 1987; Tripp and Kang 2008). Recent scholarship, however, has suggested that the legislature itself is a gendered institution that marginalizes women and argues for greater attention to understanding exactly how legislative institutions affect women's representation (Beckwith 2005; Chappell 2006; 2010; Duerst-Lahti and Kelly 1995; Hawkesworth 2003; 2005; Krook and Mackay 2011; Schwindt-Bayer 2010).

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Political Participation Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Andorra, Rwanda

Year: 2014

Conceptions of Female Political Representation - Perspectives of Rwandan Female Representatives

Citation:

Coffé, Hilde. 2012. “Conceptions of Female Political Representation - Perspectives of Rwandan Female Representatives.” Women’s Studies International Forum 35 (4): 286–97. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2012.05.004.

Author: Hilde Coffé

Abstract:

An increasing amount of research has investigated the number of female representatives in national Parliaments (descriptive representation) and the effect on both policy output (substantive representation) and women's political participation and trust (symbolic representation). Little research exists, however, on how female representatives themselves think about female political representation and no study has empirically investigated their conceptions of female political representation. Using Q methodology, this explorative one case study investigates the conceptions of female political representation held by female representatives in the Rwandan Parliament, which is the most gender-equal Parliament in the world. On the basis of our analysis, three groups of female representatives emerged, each with a unique conception of female political representation: female representatives focusing on (a) symbolic and descriptive representations; (b) symbolic representation and power; and (c) substantive representation. These conceptions matter because they are crucial to our understanding of female representatives' actual behavior.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Quotas, Post-conflict Governance, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2012

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