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Russian Federation

The "Real" Chechen Man: Conceptions of Religion, Nature, and Gender and the Persecution of Sexual Minorities in Postwar Chechnya

Citation:

Scicchitano, Dominic. 2019. “The "Real" Chechen Man: Conceptions of Religion, Nature, and Gender and the Persecution of Sexual Minorities in Postwar Chechnya.” Journal of Homosexuality. doi:10.1080/00918369.2019.1701336.

Author: Dominic Scicchitano

Abstract:

In March of 2017, the Russian LGBT Network received their first reports of police violence against individuals in Chechnya because of their perceived sexual orientation. In the following months, news spread of a campaign of forced disappearances and torture specifically targeting suspected homosexual men. Between December, 2018 and February, 2019, police carried out another wave of unlawful detentions of men on the basis of their sexual orientation. The reports of unlawful detentions and extrajudicial killings of queer men may seem surreal in a world that has slowly grown more progressive with regard to LGBT rights issues. And yet, this violence is the reality faced by gay and bisexual men in Chechnya under Ramzan Kadyrov, the hypermasculine Chechen leader. This paper explores the ways in which religious practice, imaginations of nature, and conceptions of gender have influenced Chechnya’s current anti-LGBT climate.

Keywords: Chechnya, caucasus, LGBTQ+, antigay violence, unlawful detentions, religious fundamentalism, masculinities, gendered nature

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, LGBTQ, Male Victims, Post-Conflict, Religion, Sexuality, Violence Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2019

Laws in Conflict: Legacies of War, Gender, and Legal Pluralism in Chechnya

Citation:

Lazarev, Egor. 2019. "Laws in Conflict: Legacies of War, Gender, and Legal Pluralism in Chechnya." World Politics 71 (4): 667-709.

Author: Egor Lazarev

Abstract:

How do legacies of conflict affect choices between state and nonstate legal institutions? This article studies this question in Chechnya, where state law coexists with Sharia and customary law. The author focuses on the effect of conflict-induced disruption of gender hierarchies because the dominant interpretations of religious and customary norms are discriminatory against women. The author finds that women in Chechnya are more likely than men to rely on state law and that this gender gap in legal preferences and behavior is especially large in more-victimized communities. The author infers from this finding that the conflict created the conditions for women in Chechnya to pursue their interests through state law—albeit not without resistance. Women’s legal mobilization has generated a backlash from the Chechen government, which has attempted to reinstate a patriarchal order. The author concludes that conflict may induce legal mobilization among the weak and that gender may become a central cleavage during state-building processes in postconflict environments.

Topics: Conflict, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Justice, Post-Conflict, Religion Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2019

Ecofeminism in a World of BRICS: Opportunities and Challenges

Citation:

Dellios, Rosita, Arundhati Bhattacharyya, and Cindy Minarova-Banjac. 2019. “Ecofeminism in a World of BRICS: Opportunities and Challenges.” Culture Mandala 13 (2): 1-18.

Authors: Rosita Dellios, Arundhati Bhattacharyya, Cindy Minarova-Banjac

Abstract:

While feminism and environmentalism have long and illustrious histories in the annals of social movements, together they are less well recognised or understood beyond the academic community. Far from being an eclectic intersection of interests between women and the environment, ‘ecofeminism’ holds a wider significance for integrative sustainable development in the coming decades. This is especially so when viewed from the Global South and its ‘rising powers’, three of which – China, India and Brazil – form case studies in this article. Will the developing world, in the course of its development and especially under China’s influence, advance or squander the opportunity for an ecofeminist contribution to a better world order? Policy implications derived from this study call for a cross-sector approach that includes culture and religion. These challenge the limitations of binary thinking and promote interconnectedness.

Keywords: ecofeminism, sustainable development, culture, global south, BRICS

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Europe Countries: Brazil, China, India, Russian Federation, South Africa

Year: 2019

Gender Violence in Peace and War: States of Complicity

Citation:

Sanford, Victoria, Katerina  Stefatos, and Cecila M. Salvi. 2016. Gender Violence in Peace and War: States of Complicity. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Authors: Victoria Sanford, Katerina Stefatos, Cecila M. Salvi

Annotation:

Summary:
Reports from war zones often note the obscene victimization of women, who are frequently raped, tortured, beaten, and pressed into sexual servitude. Yet this reign of terror against women not only occurs during exceptional moments of social collapse, but during peacetime too. As this powerful book argues, violence against women should be understood as a systemic problem—one for which the state must be held accountable.  The twelve essays in Gender Violence in Peace and War present a continuum of cases where the state enables violence against women—from state-sponsored torture to lax prosecution of sexual assault. Some contributors uncover buried histories of state violence against women throughout the twentieth century, in locations as diverse as Ireland, Indonesia, and Guatemala. Others spotlight ongoing struggles to define the state’s role in preventing gendered violence, from domestic abuse policies in the Russian Federation to anti-trafficking laws in the United States.  Bringing together cutting-edge research from political science, history, gender studies, anthropology, and legal studies, this collection offers a comparative analysis of how the state facilitates, legitimates, and perpetuates gender violence worldwide. The contributors also offer vital insights into how states might adequately protect women’s rights in peacetime, as well as how to intervene when a state declares war on its female citizens. (Summary from Google Books) 
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction
Victoria Sanford, Katerina Stefatos and Cecilia M. Salvi
 
Part I: State Violence, Gender, and Resistance
1. Subaltern Bodies: Gender Violence, Sexual Torture, and Political Repression during the Greek Military Dictatorship (1967-1974)
Katerina Stefatos
 
2. Sexual Violence as a Weapon during the Guatemalan Genocide
Victoria Sanford, Sofía Duros Álvarez-Arenas and Kathleen Dill
 
3. Gender, Incarceration, and Power Relations during the Irish Civil War (1922-1923)
Laura McAtackney
 
4. Resistance and Activism against State Violence in Chiapas, Mexico
Melanie Hoewer
 
Part II: The Continuum of Sexual Violence and the Role of the State
5. Medical Record Review and Evidence of Mass Rape during the 2007-2008 Post-election Violence in Kenya
 
6. The Force of Writing in Genocide: On Sexual Violence in al-Anfāl Operations and Beyond
Fazil Moradi
 
7. Sexualized Bodies, Public Mutilation, and Torture at the Beginning of Indonesia's New Order Regime (1965-1966)
Annie Pohlman
 
Part III: State Responses to Gender Violence
8. Advances and Limits of Policing and Human Security for Women: Nicaragua in Comparative Perspective
Shannon Drysdale Walsh
 
9. The State to the Rescue? The Contested Terrain of Domestic Violence in Postcommunist Russia
Maija Jäppinen and Janet Elise Johnson
 
10. The Absent State: Teen Mothers and New Patriarchal Forms of Gender Subordination in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Serena Cosgrove
 
11. Anti-Trafficking Legislation, Gender Violence, and the State
Cecilia M. Salvi
 
Conclusion: Reflections on the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda
Kimberly Theidon

Topics: Conflict, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Peace and Security, Peace Processes, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe Countries: Guatemala, Indonesia, Ireland, Russian Federation

Year: 2016

Women, War and Austerity: IFIs and the Construction of Gendered Economic Insecurities in Ukraine

Citation:

Mathers, Jennifer G. 2020. “Women, War and Austerity: IFIs and the Construction of Gendered Economic Insecurities in Ukraine.” Review of International Political Economy, April, 1–22. doi: 10.1080/09692290.2020.1725903.

Author: Jennifer G. Mathers

Abstract:

This paper analyses the gendered circuits of violence that create and sustain economic insecurity in Ukraine. Drawing on feminist political economy analysis of the dependence of structural adjustment programmes on women’s labor, and feminist security studies critical analysis of the negative effects of militaries on human security, the paper shows how IFI-imposed austerity measures in Ukraine are inextricable from processes of militarization. While the gendered impacts of each of these distinct processes have been explored, this paper empirically demonstrates how IFI loan conditionalities and militarization intensify and reinforce one another precisely through the burdens they place on households and especially on women in the context of conflict.

Keywords: Ukraine, global financial crisis, international financial institutions, gender, conflict, security, russia

Topics: Economies, Feminist Economics, Conflict, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Households, International Financial Institutions, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization, Livelihoods, Militarized Livelihoods, Security, Violence Regions: Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Russian Federation, Ukraine

Year: 2020

Putin, Erdoğan and Politicized Masculinity in a Global Context

Elizabeth Wood

March 27, 2018

Campus Center, 3rd floor, Room 3540, UMass Boston

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Militarizing Men: Gender, Conscription, and War in Post-Soviet Russia

Citation:

Eichler, Maya. 2012. Militarizing Men: Gender, Conscription, and War in Post-Soviet Russia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 

Author: Maya Eichler

Annotation:

A state's ability to maintain mandatory conscription and wage war rests on the idea that a "real man" is one who has served in the military. Yet masculinity has no inherent ties to militarism. The link between men and the military, argues Maya Eichler, must be produced and reproduced in order to fill the ranks, engage in combat, and mobilize the population behind war. In the context of Russia's post-communist transition and the Chechen wars, men's militarization has been challenged and reinforced. Eichler uncovers the challenges by exploring widespread draft evasion and desertion, anti-draft and anti-war activism led by soldiers' mothers, and the general lack of popular support for the Chechen wars. However, the book also identifies channels through which militarized gender identities have been reproduced. Eichler's empirical and theoretical study of masculinities in international relations applies for the first time the concept of "militarized masculinity," developed by feminist IR scholars, to the case of Russia.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Nationalism Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2012

Pussy Rioting

Citation:

Dunn, Kevin C. 2014. “Pussy Rioting.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 16 (2): 317–34. doi:10.1080/14616742.2014.919103.

Author: Kevin C. Dunn

Abstract:

This essay explores the evolution of the Riot Grrrl movement. A feminist punk movement that profoundly impacted popular culture in the West during the 1990s, Riot Grrrl is generally regarded as an important but short-lived phenomenon. This paper explores the political relevance of Riot Grrrl within both feminism and popular culture, but also debunks the myth that Riot Grrrl faded away by the turn of the century. Exploring specific cases in Russia and Indonesia, the paper illustrates the ways in which Riot Grrrl has become a global movement and remains active today, influencing people's subjectivity and agency, helping transform people from passive consumers to active feminist cultural producers.

Keywords: popular music, punk, feminism, russia, Indonesia, Riot Grrrl

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Political Participation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe Countries: Indonesia, Russian Federation

Year: 2014

Gender Inequality in Russia: The Perspective of Participatory Gender Budgeting

Citation:

Zakirova, Venera. 2014. “Gender Inequality in Russia: The Perspective of Participatory Gender Budgeting.” Reproductive Health Matters 22 (44): 202-12.

Author: Venera Zakirova

Abstract:

Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender  and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.

 

Keywords: gender budgeting, governance, civil society, russia, citizen participation

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2014

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