Gender in Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction, Manila, October 2008


Smyth, Ines. “Gender in Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction, Manila, October 2008.” Development in Practice 19, no. 6 (2009): 799–802.

Author: Ines Smyth


The Congress on Gender in Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction (held in Manila 19–22 October 2008) was the Third Global Congress of Women in Politics and Governance. Its purpose was to provide a forum for decision makers to formulate gender-responsive programmes related to climate change and disaster-risk reduction. More than 200 people participated, including parliamentarians, representatives of environmental and women's organisations, and donor agencies. Proceedings focused on the fact that climate change magnifies existing inequalities, and in particular gender inequality. The Congress issued the Manila Declaration for Global Action on Gender, Climate Change, and Disaster Risk Reduction.

Keywords: environment, gender and diversity, Governance and public policy, East Asia

Topics: DDR, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2009

Brothers, Lovers, and Revolution: Negotiating Military Masculinity and Homosexual Identity in a Revolutionary Movement in the Philippines


Alburo, Kaira Zoe K. 2011. "Brothers, Lovers, and Revolution: Negotiating Military Masculinity and Homosexual Identity in a Revolutionary Movement in the Philippines." Asia-Pacific Social Science Review 11 (2): 27-42.

Author: Kaira Zoe K. Alburo


In an attempt to contribute to theorizing military masculinity and heteronormativity, I look at a ‘queer’ event that made headlines in the Philippines in 2005: the first ‘gay marriage’ in the country officiated by the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and its armed wing, the New People’s Army (NPA). As a Maoist inspired guerrilla movement, the NPA has waged war against the Philippine government since 1969 under the leadership of the CPP. The paper examines how the relations between masculinity, military and homosexual identities play out at different levels: ideology, institutions, subjective identities, and symbols. These elements come together and embody competing articulations about the masculine/sexual Filipino ‘revolutionary’, thus challenging heteronormative imaginaries of Philippine society. The paper concludes by demonstrating how gay cadres in the NPA negotiate their sexual identity in the context of military masculinity in the 21st century revolutionary movement.

Keywords: homosexuality, military masculinities, Communist Party of the Philippines, New People's Army, Philippines

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Sexuality Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2011

Philippine Commonwealth and Cult of Masculinity


McCoy, Alfred W. 2000. “Philippine Commonweath and Cult of Masculinity.” Philippine Studies 48 (3): 315-46. 

Author: Alfred McCoy

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2000

The Hidden Assembly Line: Gender Dynamics of Subcontracted Work in a Global Economy


Balakrishnan, Radhika. 2002. The Hidden Assembly Line: Gender Dynamics of Subcontracted Work in a Global Economy. Boulder, Colorado: Kumarian Press.

Author: Radhika Balakrishnan


Looks at the economic trends impacting Asian women and subcontracted labor, illuminating the lives of the millions of women struggling in low-wage jobs. Presents case studies from Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India. Provides examples of strategic responses from NGOs, unions, and activists, The Hidden Assembly Line studies the impact of subcontracted work in different national settings, linking it to the global economy and to changes in women’s financial security and work opportunities. The contributors debate the implications for women’s empowerment and for the changing social relations of production. This book contains clear, practical information for scholars, students and researchers interested in women’s roles regarding economic development and the globalization of the world economy.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Globalization, Livelihoods, NGOs, Political Economies, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: India, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka

Year: 2002

The Squeaky Wheel’s Dilemma: New Forms of Labor Organizing in the Philippines


McKay, Steven C. 2006. “The Squeaky Wheel’s Dilemma: New Forms of Labor Organizing in the Philippines.” Labor Studies Journal 30 (4): 41–63.

Author: Steven C. McKay


The paper details innovative strategies of local labor organizers to unionize workers under the hostile conditions surrounding export processing zones. The case study from the Philippines outlines a comprehensive, scalar strategy with an analysis of four key elements: first, the local political context; second, community-based organizing attentive to gender and justice issues; third, the adoption of multiple organizational forms; and fourth, the strategic extension of network ties to multiple geographic scales. Through a comparison with campaigns in other export processing zones, the study suggests that the most effective strategy for protecting labor rights combines social movement unionism with strategic international solidarity that supports core local efforts to organize. 

Topics: Gender, Justice, Political Economies, Political Participation, Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2006

Economic Development Policies and Women Workers: Filipina Workers in a Japanese Transplant


 Licuanan-Galela, Niza. 2001. “Economic Development Policies and Women Workers: Filipina Workers in a Japanese Transplant.” NWSA Journal 13 (3): 169–80.

Author: Niza Licuanan-Galela


Introduction: Economic globalization has resulted in the integration of economies and workers on a worldwide scale. Export industrialization is one of the key strategies that has made globalization possible; central to the success of export industrialization programs are transnational corporations (TNCs) that engage in off-shore productions. Encouraged by the economic success of export industrialization, many developing countries have anchored their development programs on this economic strategy. To secure investment in their countries, governments offer inducements that often include export processing zones (EPZ) with no-strike policies, cheap but highly- skilled labor, and tax holidays. In return, the host governments expect the TNCs to create employment opportunities, and through their investments, to boost the domestic economy.

Women are the major resources for the cheap but skilled labor force that are found in the EPZs. For example, in the Philippines, women compose more than 80 percent of workers involved in export industrialization, and have formed the backbone of the country's economy (Chant 1996; Chant and Mcllwaine 1995;Hutchinson 1992). Fuentes and Ehrenreich contend that due to both biological and social reasons, women have been heavily recruited to do the labor-intensive jobs found on global assembly lines (1983). Boserup (1970) and others (Beneria and Sen 1981; Buvinic 1976; Ward 1988) contend that economic development strategies, especially those concerned with industrial development, more often led to further marginalization of women's status. Studies on women in global assembly lines indicate that women's work experiences, especially the way they are treated in these factories, have profound effects on their perception of their status (Chant and Mcllwaine 1995;Nash andFernandez-Kelly1983; Ong 1987;Poster 1998; Tiano 1994; Ward1990; Wolf 1992).

This study addresses two questions on women engaged in TNC global assembly line work.' First, what type of labor-management policies are found on global assembly lines in the Philippines? Second, how have these labor managerial policies and practices affected Filipino women workers on the global assembly line? Beyond these questions, the paper also explores the implications of these work experiences on rural women's social position in the Philippines. If global assembly-line work emerges as the most dominant form of industrial work for rural women, would it lead to the enhancement or further marginalization of women workers' status?

This research is based on a case study using in-depth interviews with Filipino women workers in a Japanese automotive, wiring-harness, assembly plant. The date provides insights on how work is engendered on the global assembly lines. It helps us understand the workplace dynamics that underlie the experiences women workers have reported in earlier research (see Chant and Mcllwaine 1995; Eviota 1992; Fuentes and Ehrenreich 1983; Grossman 1980; Ong 1987).This study also offers insights into how national development policies are transformed at the local level into labor- management policies which directly affect women's work experiences.

I argue that the working conditions in the local factories are a product of the interplay between the local culture's gender ideology and the work cultures' gender ideology. The detailed information presented here on how Japanese labor-management systems are transferred and adopted into Southeast Asian global assembly lines broadens our understanding, not only of the degree and form of transference of Japanese labor managerial practices; it also delineates the unique ways in which gender is manipulated in the work place. In global assembly lines not only are investments and technology transferred from the mother corporation to the off-shore production factories, but systems of gendered labor-management are transplanted as well.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Globalization, Livelihoods, Multi-National Corporations Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Japan, Philippines

Year: 2001

The Gender Ideological Clash in Globalization: Women, Migration, and the Modernization Building Project of the Philippines


Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar. 2007. “The Gender Ideological Clash in Globalization: Women, Migration, and the Modernization Building Project of the Philippines.” Social Thought & Research 28: 37–56.

Author: Rhacel Salazar Parreñas


My article interrogates the local impacts of global economic processes on the socio-cultural geography of the Philippines. I argue that the development of an export-oriented Filipino economy incorporates a gender ideological clash resulting from simultaneously encouraging and discouraging female domesticity. This clash emerges from the economic dependency of the Philippines on women's work outside the home on the one hand, and a longstanding gender ideology that continues to locate women's gender responsibilities inside the home on the other hand. The dependence of the Philippines on remittances from women's migrant domestic work magnifies this clash. My article looks closely at this gender ideological clash caused by working women's paradoxical positioning vis-à-vis the home, addresses why this clash occurs, describes its consequences for relations in the family, and, lastly, links it to a larger discussion of the status of women in globalization.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2007

Budgets as if People Mattered: Democratizing Macroeconomic Policies


Çağatay, Nilüfer, Mümtaz Keklik, Radhika Lal, and James Lang. 2000. “Budgets as if People Mattered: Democratizing Macroeconomic Policies.” SEPED Conference Paper Series, UNDP, New York.

Authors: Nilüfer Çağatay, Mümtaz Keklik, Radhika Lal, James Lang


This UNDP conference paper, published in May 2000 by Nilufer Cagatay, Mumtaz Keklik, Radhika Lal and James Lang, provides a contextual framework for budget initiatives and discusses how much progress has been made towards achieving the commitments declared in Copenhagen and Beijing. The paper makes a case for rethinking macroeconomics such that social policy becomes a constitutive element of macroeconomics. The authors further discuss the need for and role of people-centered budgets, pro-poor and gender-sensitive budgets. The lessons learned from these initiatives are brought forth as well as recommendations for future budget exercises. (Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Australia, Philippines, South Africa

Year: 2000

Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country Studies and Good Practice


Budlender, Debbie, and Guy Hewitt. 2002. Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country Studies and Good Practice. London, UK: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Authors: Debbie Budlender, Guy Hewitt


This Commonwealth Secretariat publication by Debbie Budlender and Guy Hewitt (2002), documents "good practice" in gender budget work from across the globe. Practitioners share their first-hand experiences and in-depth knowledge of the why, where and how of gender responsive budget (GRB) initiatives. They reflect on both the challenges and successes of initiatives in the Andean region, Australia, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, Rwanda, Scotland, South Africa and the UK. A chapter on the Commonwealth Secretariat's involvement in developing and implementing GRB initiatives is also included to suggest the role that can be played by external agencies at the national, regional and international level.

This book builds on a previous publication, Gender Budgets Make Cents, which was designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of GRB initiatives. It described the conceptual framework, evolution of the work and lessons learned, and provided brief summaries of country initiatives. Together, these titles show the importance of integrating a gender perspective into budgetary policies to promote equality between women and men. 

(Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Mexico, Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, South Korea, United Kingdom

Year: 2002

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study


Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London


There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008


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