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Philippines

‘You Can’t Have Our Land’: Land Grabbing and the Feminization of Resistance in Aloguinsan, Cebu

Citation:

Ocasiones, Leny G. 2018. “‘You Can’t Have Our Land’: Land Grabbing and the Feminization of Resistance in Aloguinsan, Cebu.” Philippine Sociological Review 66: 35–60.

Author: Leny G. Ocasiones

Abstract:

Land grabbing has been present in the Philippines for the past decades. It occurs when local communities and individuals lose access to land that they previously used, thus threatening their lives and livelihood. Civil society organizations that are skeptical toward the growing trend of large-scale acquisitions by foreign corporations, however, argue that land grabbing can be committed by domestic actors and sometimes in cooperation with foreign actors. Land grabbing raises important questions about the welfare, livelihood, and land security of farmers in the Philippines. Using archival sources, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions, this study investigates women's experiences of land grabbing and resistance among farmers of Aloguinsan, Cebu. This study reveals that land grabbing has profound impacts on the lives of the farmers and that women farmers are affected differently than men because women are generally considered a vulnerable group. Further, land grabbing generated fierce resistance from farmers, especially from women who developed creative ways to defend their lives, land and community. The study concludes that the resistance put up by the Aloguinsan farmers is gendered, and serves as a case of the feminization of resistance.

Keywords: land grabbing, feminization, resistance, women

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Land Grabbing, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2018

Gender, Floods and Mobile Subjects: A Postdisaster View

Citation:

Resurrección, Bernadette P., and Edsel E. Sajor. 2015. “Gender, Floods and Mobile Subjects: A Postdisaster View.” In Gendered Entanglements: Revisiting Gender in Rapidly Changing Asia, edited by Ragnhild Lund, Philippe Doneys, and Bernadette P. Resurrección, 207-34. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Authors: Bernadette P. Resurrección, Edsel E. Sajor

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter examines how people in a flood-prone coastal area of the Philippines employ mobility as a means to assuage livelihood insecurity in the face of frequent disasters in unequal gendered and social ways. In particular, this chapter is an attempt to understand: (i) how people make sense of their disaster experiences, (ii) the subjectivities that shape and eventually evolve out of these experiences of prolonged insecurity and increasing mobility or immobility, and (iii) institutional efforts to build disaster resilience and secure livelihoods, and their social effects. In short, this chapter examines the role of gendered mobility in people’s post-disaster efforts at resilience-building through livelihood engagements, and which is envisaged to enable a rethinking of gender in the disaster literature that has focused almost entirely on the impacts of disasters on women and men, citing women as a heavily-impacted, homogenous group. Secondly, the fact that women and men move or remain in-place does not influence views about resilience and disaster response, and if it does, it almost always assumes that men are more mobile than women, and thus reap more advantages. We argue that as people move or remain in place, they reproduce and materialize meanings about their gendered and social selves, and thereby influence how they face and deal with disaster risks and livelihood challenges. This chapter will also employ a feminist political ecology perspective that recognizes rural populations as being geographically mobile, where women and men reconfigure livelihoods, introducing new and possibly unequal patterns of access and control, and new forms of environmental governance at different scales (Elmhirst 2011; Watts 2000)” (Resurrección and Sajor 2015, 207-8).

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Security Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2015

Water Insecurity in Disaster and Climate Change Contexts: A Feminist Political Ecology View

Citation:

Resurrección, Bernadette P. 2019. “Water Insecurity in Disaster and Climate Change Contexts: A Feminist Political Ecology View.” In People and Climate Change: Vulnerability, Adaptation, and Social Justice, edited by Lisa Reyes Mason and Jonathan Rigg, 51–67. New York: Oxford University Press. 
 

Author: Bernadette P. Resurrección

Keywords: feminist political ecology, water, neoliberalism, emotions, subjectivities

Annotation:

Summary:
This chapter applies a feminist political ecology lens to episodes of climate change-related water insecurity in three Southeast Asian peri-urban area sites affected by flooding, water shortages, and pollution induced by long dry spells and heavy precipitation. It presents highlights from a 3-year research project that examined the everyday lives of women as they “deal with water” in the context of increasing water pollution, water scarcity, and flooding compounded by neoliberal socioeconomic conditions. These accounts illustrate how in water- and climate-change contexts, the neoliberal logics of privatization, commercialization, and reified separation between “the natural” and “the social” engage closely with emotions and intersectional gender subjectivities. The use of a feminist political ecology lens offers more holistic and grounded ways of probing into people’s experiences of climate-related water insecurity and stresses, aspects of which are often missed: gendered violence, hierarchies of place, affect, and insecurity in everyday life. (Summary from Oxford Scholarship Online)
 

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Privatization, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Making Women’s Voices Count in Community Decision-Making on Land Investments

Citation:

Salcedo-La Viña, Celine, and Maitri Morarji. 2016. “Making Women’s Voices Count in Community Decision-Making on Land Investments.” Working Paper, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.

Authors: Celine Salcedo-La Viña, Morarji Maitri

Annotation:

Summary:
The adverse impacts of commercialization and large scale land acquisitions in the global South are often disproportionately borne by women. The loss of access to farmland and common areas hit women harder than men in many communities, and women are often excluded from compensation and benefit schemes. Women’s social disadvantages, including their lack of formal land rights and generally subordinate position, make it difficult for them to voice their interests in the management and proposed allocation of community land to investors. While the development community and civil society have pushed for standards and safeguard policies that promote the meaningful involvement of rural communities generally in land acquisitions and investments, strengthening the participation of women as a distinct stakeholder group requires specific attention.

This working paper examines options for strengthening women’s participatory rights in the face of increasing commercial pressures on land in three countries: Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Philippines. It focuses on how regulatory reform—reforms in the rules, regulations, guidelines, and procedures that implement national land acquisition and investment laws—can promote gender equity and allow women to realize the rights afforded by national legal frameworks and international standards. The paper stems from a collaborative project between World Resources Institute and partner organizations in the three countries studied.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land Grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Mozambique, Philippines, Tanzania

Year: 2016

Climate Trouble: Women in Coastal Communities in the Philippines Respond to Climate Changes

Citation:

Dalisay, Soledad Natalia. 2018. "Climate Trouble: Women in Coastal Communities in the Philippines Respond to Climate Changes." Diliman Gender Review 1: 53-73.

Author: Soledad Natalia Dalisay

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Climate change characterized by sea level change and extreme weather events, among others, is currently experienced by communities worldwide. Coastal communities are particularly vulnerable as climate change adversely affects fishing, the main source of livelihood of settlements along the shore. This paper looks into the experiences of the participants in the First Philippine National Workshop on Women in Fisheries and Climate Change held in Bohol, Philippines in 2010; women in coastal communities from the three major island groups of the Philippines (namely, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao); and NGO workers who had deep engagement with grassroots women in their partner coastal communities. It covers the challenges the women faced, the explanatory models they utilized as they tried to make sense of the environmental changes, and the strategies they employed to cope with these challenges. It reveals how some of the local knowledge utilized by the people continued to help them cope with the environmental and climatic challenges while other traditional knowledge no longer seemed to be adaptive in the current environmental context. It shows the health and socio-economic impacts of climate changes. It highlights gendered differences in concerns and strategies, particularly those employed by women within their respective fishing communities as shaped by their roles and responsibilities -- including the burden of household recovery and rehabilitation. The paper also tackles recommendations drawn from the women themselves, particularly on self-empowerment towards working hand in hand with the men in achieving resilience and reducing disaster risk in their communities.

FILIPINO ABSTRACT:
Ang pagbabago ng klima at kapaligiran ay ramdam na sa mundo sa kasalukuyan. Ang papel na ito ay nagpakita ng mga karanasan ng mga kababaihan na naninirahan sa mga komunidad sa tabing-dagat na lumahok sa First Philippine National Workshop on Women in Fisheries and Climate Change na ginanap sa Tagbilaran, Bohol. Ang mga komunidad na ito ay masasabing bulnerable dahil sa pag-angat ng lebel ng karagatan at pati na rin ang pabagubagong panahon. Dahil dito ay nasabi ng mga kababaihan na apektado ang kanilang pangunahing kabuhayan na pangingisda, ilang aspeto ng kanilang kalusugan, relasyong pampamilya at iba pang gawain sa buhay. Kasama ring inilalahad ng papel na ito ang mga paraan kung paano nila naipapaliwanag ang mga pagbabago sa kanilang kapaligiran hango sa kanilang kaalamang-bayan at kung paano nila nireresolba ang mga hamong kanilang hinaharap. Ang mga karanasang naisalaysay ng mga kababaihan ay nagpapakita ng pagkakaiba nila sa mga gawi ng mga kalalakihan na naninirahan din sa tabing-dagat. Naipakita rin ng papel na ito na ang bigat ng pagharap sa mga hamon ng pabagubagong klima ay pasan ng mga kababaihan, habang ang mga kalalakihan naman ay abala sa paghahanap-buhay. Ang papel ay nagtatapos sa paglalahad ng mga rekomendasyon na mula na rin sa mga kababaihang naglalayong ibayong pagtibayin ang kanilang kakayahan kasama ang kanilang asawa at mga mahal sa buhay, nang mangibabaw sa mga paghamon ng pagbabago ng klima at kapaligiran.

Keywords: women in coastal communities, climate change, climate coping, climatic and environmental extremes

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Health, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2018

Gendered Vulnerabilities in Times of Natural Disasters: Male-to-Female Violence in the Philippines in the Aftermath of Super Typhoon Haiyan

Citation:

Nguyen, Huong Thu. 2019. "Gendered Vulnerabilities in Times of Natural Disasters: Male-to-Female Violence in the Philippines in the Aftermath of Super Typhoon Haiyan." Violence Against Women 25 (4): 421-40.

Author: Huong Thu Nguyen

Abstract:

The precarious situation faced by women and girls in the wake of climate-related disasters is illustrated through fieldwork conducted in Eastern Visayas in the Philippines, one of the regions most affected by Super Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. However, this article illustrates that these heightened levels of gendered violence faced by women and girls are not a result of the disaster alone; rather, they are rooted in the inequalities inherent in the social construction of gender prior to the catastrophe, which then become sharpened as efforts to survive become more urgent.

Keywords: violence against women and girls, natural disasters, vulnerabilities

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2019

Social Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change Impacts of Women-headed Households in the Philippines: A Comparative Analysis

Citation:

Delfino, Ariel, Josefina Dizon, Maria Ana Quimbo, and Dinah Pura Depositario. 2019. "Social Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change Impacts of Women-headed Households in the Philippines: A Comparative Analysis." Journal of Environmental Science and Management 22 (2): 36-54.

Authors: Ariel N. Delfino, Josefina T. Dizon, Maria Ana T. Quimbo, Dinah Pura T. Depositario

Abstract:

This study analyzed the social vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change impacts of women-headed households in two remote coastal communities in Lagonoy, Camarines Sur. Quantitative method following descriptive-correlational research design was employed. Out of 281 WHHs, 162 were randomly selected as the respondents of this study. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), t-test for independent samples, and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Women-headed households in the two remote coastal communities have moderate to high vulnerability in terms of demographic, economic, and social factors. No significant difference was found in their level of social vulnerability; however, a substantial difference was found in the adaptive capacity of the respondents from the East and North coastal communities. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the number of household members with disabilities, affiliation with social groups, time travel of the respondents, and household size were significant factors influencing social vulnerability in the two remote coastal communities. The study recommends formulating effective climate change policies and responsive strategies that enhance the rights and welfare of these households for equal distribution and access to resources, especially in socio-political structures in the community.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, climate change impacts, coastal communities, social vulnerability, women-headed households

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Households, Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2019

Disaster Recovery from a Gender and Diversity Perspective: Cases Following Megadisasters in Japan and Asian Countries

Citation:

Tanaka, Yumiko, Mikio Ishiwatari, and Atsuko Nonoguchi. 2019. "Disaster Recovery from a Gender and Diversity Perspective: Cases Following Megadisasters in Japan and Asian Countries." Contributing Paper to GAR 2019. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva.

Authors: Yumiko Tanaka, Mikio Ishiwatari, Atsuko Nonguchi

Annotation:

Summary:
In the aftermath of disasters, local governments are primarily responsible for implementing quick recovery programs, including the relocation of affected people from areas at risk to safer places, rehabilitation of destroyed infrastructure, as well as the recovery of health, livelihood, social security and protection. The concerns of local administrations concerned, however, often face difficulties in reflecting diverse needs and perspectives into recovery programs, due to limited capacity and experiences dealing with a large number and variety of recovery programs under severe time and personnel constraints.
 
Recovery programs need consensus building among various groups, especially women, youth, the elderly and people with disabilities; and an integrated approach to multi-sectors, such as environment, ecosystem and town planning. Local communities need to express their voice in planning recovery programs, often with support from external experts and various aid organizations, including national and international CSOs. In reality, however, the inclusion of various groups in recovery planning is little concern of local governments, thus they end up to making one standard plan or one-size-fits-all plans, to avoid favoring one area/group over another. In addition, local people, especially women, youth, the elderly and people with disability, are often regarded as only victims or beneficiaries of humanitarian and emergency aid, rather than as actors and agents of change.
 
The Sendai Framework Recovery for DRR stresses enhancing disaster preparedness in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction as a priority area. The aftermath of disaster poses a great opportunity for women, youth and other local groups to be empowered and exercise their agency and leadership, therefore, the governments as well as aid organizations and international society should utilize such a chance to increase their community disaster governance and transform a society to be more equal, inclusive, resilient and sustainable. Their recovery policies and approaches should involve various stakeholders, particularly vulnerable groups, in decision-making processes. As shown in cases in the Philippines and Sri Lanka, development assistance agencies should include capacity building activities in leadership for women and other vulnerable groups. (Summary from United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction)

Topics: Age, Youth, Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Governance, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Japan, Philippines, Sri Lanka

Year: 2019

Women's Participation in Green Growth - A Potential Fully Realised?

Citation:

Von Hagen, Markéta, and Johanna Willems. 2012. "Women's Participation in Green Growth - A Potential Fully Realised?" Donor Committee for Enterprise Development.

Authors: Markéta von Hagen, Johanna Willems

Annotation:

Summary:
The purpose of the study is threefold: (1) to shed more light on the gender dimension of green growth, especially in the context of private sector development and thereby fill an important knowledge gap in the green growth discourse; (2) to validate women’s contributions to green growth and sustainable private sector development; and (3) ultimately to promote women’s empowerment and gender equality. The overall approach of the study combines three intersecting perspectives, which are dealt with independently as well as in tandem: a gender perspective with a focus on the (potential) participation of women, a greening perspective and a private sector development perspective. The study contains case studies from Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam. (Summary from Green Growth Knowledge Platform)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
 
2. Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Green Growth
 
3. Making Women's Participation in Green Growth a Reality: Two Value Chain Examples
 
4. Assessment of Potentials, Risks and Relevant Approaches for Women's Participation in the Green Economy
 
5. Recommendations

Topics: Development, Economies, Ecological Economics, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda, Vietnam

Year: 2012

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services during Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

Citation:

Singh, Neha S., James Smith, Sarindi Aryasinghe, Rajat Khosla, Lale Say, and Karl Blanchet. 2018.  “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services during Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.” PLoS One 13 (7): 1-19.

Authors: Neha S. Singh, James Smith, Sarindi Aryasinghe, Rajat Khosla, Lale Say, Karl Blanchet

Abstract:

Background: An estimated 32 million women and girls of reproductive age living in emergency situations, all of whom require sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. This systematic review assessed the effect of SRH interventions, including the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) on a range of health outcomes from the onset of emergencies.
 
Methods and Findings: We searched EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE and PsychINFO databases from January 1, 1980 to April 10, 2017. This review was registered with the PROSPERO database with identifier number CRD42017082102. We found 29 studies meet the inclusion criteria. We found high quality evidence to support the effectiveness of specific SRH interventions, such as home visits and peer-led educational and counselling, training of lower-level health care providers, community health workers (CHWs) to promote SRH services, a three-tiered network of health workers providing reproductive and maternal health services, integration of HIV and SRH services, and men’s discussion groups for reducing intimate partner violence. We found moderate quality evidence to support transport-based referral systems, community-based SRH education, CHW delivery of injectable contraceptives, wider literacy programmes, and birth preparedness interventions. No studies reported interventions related to fistulae, and only one study focused on abortion services.
 
Conclusions: Despite increased attention to SRH in humanitarian crises, the sector has made little progress in advancing the evidence base for the effectiveness of SRH interventions, including the MISP, in crisis settings. A greater quantity and quality of more timely research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of delivering SRH interventions in a variety of humanitarian crises.

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Domestic Violence, Education, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Girls, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Haiti, Pakistan, Philippines

Year: 2018

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