Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Gender, Culture, and Conflict Resolution in Palestine

Citation:

Richter-Devroe, Sophie. 2008. “Gender, Culture, and Conflict Resolution in Palestine.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 4 (2): 30–59.

Author: Sophie Richter-Devroe

Abstract:

Conflict resolution theory and praxis have been criticized for being insensitive to local cultures and, particularly, for not considering culturally specific gender roles carefully enough. Yet, on the other hand, culturally sensitive and gender-friendly approaches have also been found to be incompatible with each other—so what are we to make of these overlapping and contradictory criticisms of the relatively new scholarly discipline of conflict resolution? Can community-based peace-building indeed be either gender-friendly or sensitive to culture only? Tracing Palestinian women’s different forms of political activism in the national struggle and/or peace-building initiatives, his paper critically discusses a variety of gendered conflict resolution approaches and concludes that, contrary to such charges, contextualized culturally specific gender norms might in fact prove conducive to both gender empowerment and conflict resolution.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2007

Power Structure, Agency, and Family in a Palestinian Refugee Camp

Citation:

Rosenfeld, Maya. 2002. “Power Structure, Agency, and Family in a Palestinian Refugee Camp.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 34 (3): 519–51.

Author: Maya Rosenfeld

Abstract:

This article seeks to explain the generation, spread, and reproduction of post-secondary education in a Palestinian refugee camp in the West Bank since the inception of this process in the 1950s and into the 1990s, with a focus on the period of Israeli military occupation. It is based on the findings, qualitative and quantitative, of extended socio-anthropological field research that was carried out in Dheisheh camp in the years 1992–95. The conceptual framework that instructed the research methodology and the interpretation of the findings sought to combine a political-economy approach, which accords centrality to the determinants of the “system” of power relationships—in this case, primarily those of the military-occupation regime—with an analysis of “human agency” or praxis, particularly the reorganization of the division of labor in the refugee family household over the years and generations. Accordingly, the article explores and traces the inter-relationships among (1) “system-imposed” barriers and obstacles to the acquisition of education by Dheisheh refugees and to their education-related job mobility; (2) family-based patterns of organization that developed around the education and employment opportunities of second- and third-generation refugees in the face of impeding structural conditions; (3) the long-range consequences of the resultant “education and labor process” for the transformation of socio-economic relationships within the family and the community.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Political Economies Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2002

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT

Citation:

Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita J. Simon. 2013. HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT. New York: Columbia University Press.

Authors: Stephanie Hepburn, Rita J. Simon

Abstract:

An examination of human trafficking around the world including the following countries: United States, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Colombia, Iraq, Syria, Canada, Italy, France, Iran, India, Niger, China, South Africa, Australia, United Kingdom, Chile, Germany, Poland, Mexico, Russia, and Brazil. (WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Part I: Work Visa Loopholes for Traffickers
1) United States
2) Japan
3) United Arab Emirates

Part II: Stateless Persons
4) Thailand
5) Israel & The Occupied Palestinian Territories

Part III: Unrest, displacement, and Who is in charge
6) Colombia
7) Iraq
8) Syria

Part IV: Conflation
9) Canada

Part V: Conflicting Agendas
10) Italy
11) France

Part VI: Gender Apartheid
12) Iran

Part VII: Social Hierarchy
13) India
14) Niger
15) China

Part VIII: Muti Murder
16) South Africa

Part IX: Hard-to-Prove Criterion and a slap on the wrist
17) Australia
18) United Kingdom
19) Chile
20) Germany

Part X: Transparent borders
21) Poland

Part XI: Fear Factor
22) Mexico

Part XII: Poverty and Economic Boom
23) Russia
24) Brazil

Conclusion

*Each Chapter follows the following format with some variations:

Introduction
As a destination
Internal trafficking
Trafficking abroad
What happens to victims after trafficking
What happens to traffickers
Internal efforts to decrease trafficking

 

Quotes:

"Devestation from a natural disaster...creates a sudden high demand for low-wage and largely unskilled labor. Disruption of the traditional labor supply leaves room for illicit contractors to move in, and new workers can be brought in unnoticed." (19)

"There continue to be more criminal convictions of sex traffickers than of forced-labor traffickers [However, this number of individuals victimized by forced labor may be increasing]." (32)

"Many experts state that the yakuza (organized crime) networks play a significant role in the smuggling and subsequent debt bondage of women--particularly women from China, Thailand, and Colombia--for forced prostitution in Japan. Determining the exact extent of yakuza involvement is difficult because of the covert nature of the sex industry. Consequently, the yakuza are able to minimize people's direct knowledge of their involvement...The yakuza networks work with organized crime groups from other nations, such as China, Russia, and Colombia." (49-50)

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, International Law, International Human Rights, Multi-National Corporations, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Niger, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2013

A Space of Their Own: Social-Civil Discourses Among Palestinian-Israeli Women in Peace Organizations

Citation:

Herzog, Hanna. 1999. “A Space of Their Own: Social-Civil Discourses Among Palestinian-Israeli Women in Peace Organizations.” Social Politics 6 (3): 344-69.

Author: Hanna Herzog

Abstract:

This article analyzes the way the marginality of Israeli-Arabs in general and women in particular within Israeli society trickles down into women's peace organizations, and how structures shape feminine and civil identity. Contextualizing women's narrative and rendering their cultural and historical specificity illuminates the singularity of their social position, which shapes a different feminist voice—one that is openly defiant toward the Jewish society but is also critical of its own community. Their location on the periphery of various social categories—citizenship, gender, national and local-community belonging—that demarcate the boundaries of identity and social affiliation results in multiple voices and solutions. This study is based on fifty in-depth interviews conducted in 1995 with Palestinian-Israeli women who were members of various peace organizations.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, NGOs, Peacebuilding Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1999

Equality with a Difference: Gender and Citizenship in Transitional Palestine

Citation:

Hammami, Rema, and Penny Johnson. 1999. “Equality with a Difference: Gender and Citizenship in Transitional Palestine.” Social Politics 6 (3): 314-43.

Authors: Rema Hammami, Penny Johnson

Abstract:

This investigation of gender and citizenship in the Palestinian territories comes at the closing of the five-year transitional period ushered in by the Oslo agreements signed between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization. This article views the "interim self government arrangements" of this period as possibly indicative of global and local constraints on national communities seeking sovereignty, rather than as an exception to normative states and state building, and considers the effect of these constraints on the structure of rule, the conceptualization and practice of citizenship and the engendering of citizenship. The equality strategy of the Palestinian women's movement is considered in this complex context of exclusions and difference, as the movement's "active citizenship" opened up a space for public debate and propelled the movement into direct conflict with the Islamist movement, bringing into sharp relief both competing paradigms of women's citizenship and rights and political and social fault lines in Palestinian society.

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Citizenship, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1999

The Demobilization of a Palestinian Women’s Movement: From Empowered Active Militants to Powerless and Stateless ‘Citizens'

Citation:

Jad, Islah. 2008. “The Demobilization of a Palestinian Women’s Movement: From Empowered Active Militants to Powerless and Stateless ‘Citizens.’” The MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East Studies 8: 94-111.

Author: Islah Jad

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2008

Where Have All the Women (and Men) Gone? Reflections on Gender and the Second Palestinian Intifada

Citation:

Johnson, Penny, and Eileen Kuttab. 2001. “Where Have All the Women (and Men) Gone? Reflections on Gender and the Second Palestinian Intifada.” Feminist Review, no. 69, 21–43. doi:10.1080/014177800110070102.

Authors: Penny Johnson, Eileen Kuttab

Abstract:

The authors ground their reflections on gender and the complex realities of the second Palestinian intifada against Israeli occupation in the political processes unleashed by the signing of the Israeli–Palestinian rule, noting that the profound inequalities between Israel and Palestine during the interim period produced inequalities among Palestinians. The apartheid logic of the Oslo period – made explicit in Israel's policies of separation, seige and confinement of the Palestinian population during the intifada and before it – is shown to shape the forms, sites and levels of resistance which are highly restricted by gender and age. In addition, the authors argue that the Palestinian Authority and leadership have solved the contradictions and crisis of Palestinian nationalism in this period through a form of rule that the authors term 'authoritarian populism', that tends to disallow democractic politics and participation. The seeming absence of women and civil society from the highly unequal and violent confrontations is contrasted with the first Palestinian intifada (1987–91), that occurred in a context of more than a decade of democratic activism and the growth of mass-based organizations, including the Palestinian women's movement. The authors explore three linked crises in gender roles emerging from the conditions of the second intifada: a crisis in masculinity, a crisis in paternity and a crisis in maternity.

Keywords: national liberation, nationalism, military occupation, maternity, masculinity

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Occupation, Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nationalism, NGOs Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2001

Iron Breaks, Too: Israeli and Palestinian Women Talk about War, Bereavement, and Peace

Citation:

Flamhaft, Ziva. 2007. “Iron Breaks, Too: Israeli and Palestinian Women Talk about War, Bereavement, and Peace.” In From Patriarchy to Empowerment: Women’s Participation, Movements, and Rights in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia, edited by Valentine M. Moghadam, 311–26. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Author: Ziva Flamhaft

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2007

Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel-Palestine and in the North of Ireland

Citation:

Sharoni, Simona. 2001. “Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel–Palestine and in the North of Ireland.” In Victims, Perpetrators or Actors: Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence, edited by Caroline Moser and Fiona Clark, 85-98. London: Zed Books.

Author: Simona Sharoni

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, United Kingdom

Year: 2001

Peace-Building and Reconstruction with Women: Reflections on Afghanistan, Iraq, and Palestine

Citation:

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2007. “Peace-Building and Reconstruction with Women: Reflections on Afghanistan, Iraq, and Palestine.” In From Patriarchy to Empowerment: Women’s Participation, Movements, and Rights in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia, edited by Valentine M. Moghadam, 327–52. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Author: Valentine M. Moghadam

Abstract:

Valentine M. Moghadam looks at feminist insights into violence, conflict, peacebuilding, and women’s rights, as well as developments in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Palestine, to make the case for the involvement of women and the integration of gender into all phases of conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction and governance.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2007

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