Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Peace Process: Israeli and Palestinian Women

Citation:

Espanioli, Nabila, and Dalia Sachs. 1991. “Peace Process: Israeli and Palestinian Women.” Bridges 2 (2): 112–19.

Authors: Nabila Espanioli , Dalia Sachs

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, International Organizations, Peace Processes, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1991

Women and the Art of Peacemaking: Data from Israeli-Palestinian Interactive Problem-Solving Workshops

Citation:

D’ Estrée, Tamra Pearson, and Eileen F. Babbitt. 1998. “Women and the Art of Peacemaking: Data from Israeli-Palestinian Interactive Problem-Solving Workshops.” Political Psychology 19 (1): 185–209.

Authors: Tamra Pearson d'Estree, Eileen F. Babbitt

Abstract:

Are women “natural” peacemakers? If so, is this because of natural inclinations to avoid conflict or to engage in tough discussions? Are there particular skills in which women excel that make them more likely than their male counterparts to be able to build relational bridges, to facilitate negotiations, and to reduce tensions? After a review of the literature on gender differences in such skills, a systematic comparison of interaction quality is made between two Israeli-Palestinian interactive problem-solving workshops that differed only in gender composition. A third Israeli-Palestinian workshop that involved female political elites is also examined for subsequent changes in the conflict relationship or for changes in political activity. The implications of different repertoires of skills for altering political processes are discussed.

Keywords: peacemaking, conflict resolution, gender, elites, peace process, middle east

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Peace Processes, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1998

The Soldier and the Terrorist: Sexy Nationalism, Queer Violence

Citation:

Kuntsman, Adi. 2008. “The Soldier and the Terrorist: Sexy Nationalism, Queer Violence.” Sexualities 11 (1-2): 142–70. doi:10.1177/1363460707085468.

Author: Adi Kuntsman

Abstract:

An Israeli soldier, praised for killing terrorists in their homes, and adored as a gay prince charming; a Palestinian gay man called either a lying terrorist or a cute Arab boy with an almond ass; an Abu-Ghraib prisoner, whose naked body, pornographically mediated and distributed by the media generates a homosexual rape fantasy of all Arabs in-the-name-of- Israeli-security. These images were collected during my ethnography of a Russian-Israeli GLBT community, in the community’s website. My analysis of the website’s publications and discussions focuses on the ways violence, sexuality and nationhood intertwine in immigrants’ sense of belonging to the country that is officially defined by the state policy – and indeed perceived by many immigrants themselves – as their home. I examine how masculinities become synecdoches of nation, and how homosexual fantasies work to create attachment to one’s national home and hatred towards those defined as its enemies.

Keywords: immigration, masculinities, nationalism, queer studies, violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Sexual Violence, Sexuality, Terrorism, Torture, Sexual Torture, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Russian Federation

Year: 2008

UNSCR 1325 and Women’s Peace Activism in the Occupied Palestinian Territory

Citation:

Farr, Vanessa. 2011. “UNSCR 1325 and Women’s Peace Activism in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 13 (4): 539–56. doi:10.1080/14616742.2011.611661.

Author: Vanessa Farr

Abstract:

Palestinian women's organized resistance to the Israeli occupation is decades old and has been well-documented and analyzed by feminists in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) and outside. Some of the most recent attempts to formulate and shape this resistance make reference to UNSCR 1325. The application of the Resolution in the work of three women's organizations in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and Palestinian-Israeli peace-making attempts are analysed in this paper. However, the paper concludes that the disconnects between women's activism on the ground and in academia, the intentions stated in the UNSCR 1325, and the Israel-Palestine peace process are so vast that there is little evidence that the Resolution offers an effective mechanism for women to make their voices heard.

Keywords: occupied Palestinian territory, West Bank, Gaza Strip, women's peace activism, state-building, UNSCR 1325

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses, NGOs, Peace Processes, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2011

Feminism, Nationalism, and Difference: Reflections on the Palestinian Women’s Movement

Citation:

Jacoby, Tami Amanda. 1999. “Feminism, Nationalism, and Difference: Reflections on the Palestinian Women’s Movement.” Women’s Studies International Forum 22 (5): 511–23.

Author: Tami Amanda Jacoby

Abstract:

This article draws from the Palestinian women’s movement as a point of entry into reconceptualizing the relationship between nationalism, feminism, and difference in the Middle East. I employ postmodern concepts to explore the diversity of a female nationalist agency through processes and symbols of national liberation and Sharia personal status law. How are representations of masculinity and femininity articulated within these frameworks of a subordinate nationalism? Is national liberation an effective forum for negotiating the diversity of women’s agency in the nation? What are the distinct constraints and opportunities of feminisms that are implicated in national liberation struggle, religious contestation, and conditions of acute international conflict? Finally, what are the implications of this case study for a broader revision of feminist theory and practice?

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Nationalism, Political Participation, Religion Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1999

Male Gender and Rituals of Resistance in the Palestinian Intifada: A Cultural Politics of Violence

Citation:

Peteet, Julie. 1994. “Male Gender and Rituals of Resistance in the Palestinian Intifada: A Cultural Politics of Violence.” American Ethnologist 21 (1): 31–49.

Author: Julie Peteet

Abstract:

This article examines ritualized inscriptions of bodily violence upon Palestinian male youths in the occupied territories. It argues that beatings and detention are construed as rites of passage into manhood. Bodily violence is crucial in the construction of a moral self among its recipients, who are enabled to juxtapose their own cultural categories of manhood and morality to those of a foreign power. Ritual as a transformative experience foregrounds a political agency designed to reverse relations of domination between occupied and occupier. Simultaneously, it both reaffirms and transforms internal Palestinian forms of domination.

Keywords: middle east, masculinity, ritual performance, violence, body, construction of self

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1994

The Gender−Culture Double Bind in Israeli−Palestinian Peace Negotiations: A Narrative Approach

Citation:

Aharoni, Sarai B. 2014. “The Gender-Culture Double Bind in Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations: A Narrative Approach.” Security Dialogue 45 (4): 373–90. doi:10.1177/0967010614537329.

Author: Sarai B. Aharoni

Abstract:

This article investigates structural conditions for women’s inclusion/exclusion in peace negotiations by focusing on the linkage between acts of gender stereotyping and cultural framing. Through a narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Israeli negotiators and administrators who participated in official negotiations during the Oslo peace process, I link two recent claims about how gender may affect negotiators’ understandings of strategic exchange: the gendered devaluation effect and the gender–culture double bind hypothesis. Building upon postcolonial feminist critique, I argue that narratives about women and cultural difference (a) demonstrate and engage with Israeli essentialist and Orientalist discourses about Arab culture and masculinity; (b) manifest how ideas about strategic dialogue and negotiations are gendered; and (c) convey how policymakers and negotiators may use cultural claims to rationalize women’s exclusion from diplomatic and strategic dialogue. Furthermore, the study implies that dominant framings of Israeli–Palestinian negotiations as a binary East–West encounter need to be replaced by a more nuanced conceptualization of cultural identity that captures contextual aspects of difference, including the existence of military power and masculine dominance.

Keywords: gender, Narratives, Peace Negotiations, postcolonial feminism, Israeli-Arab conflict

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2014

Women Breaking the Silence: Military Service, Gender, and Antiwar Protest

Citation:

Sasson-Levy, Orna, Yagil Levy, and Edna Lomsky-Feder. 2011. "Women Breaking the Silence: Military Service, Gender, and Antiwar Protest." Gender & Society 25 (6): 740-63.

Authors: Orna Sasson-Levy, Yagil Levy, Edna Lomsky-Feder

Abstract:

This paper analyzes how military service can be a source of women’s antiwar voices, using the Israeli case of “Women Breaking the Silence” (WBS). WBS is a collection of testimonies from Israeli women ex-soldiers who have served in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The WBS testimonies change the nature of women’s antiwar protest by offering a new, paradoxical source of symbolic legitimacy for women’s antiwar discourse from the gendered marginalized position of “outsiders within” the military. From this contradictory standpoint, the women soldiers offer a critical gendered voice, which focuses on criticism of the combat masculinity and gendered identification with the Palestinian “other.” While they reaffirm the republican ethos that grants political dominance to male soldiers, they also deconstruct the image of hegemonic masculinity as the emblem of the nation and undermine gendered militarized norms.

Keywords: military, state, nationalism, politics, collective behavior, social movements

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2011

Women Resisting Men: Inheritance and Disinheritance in the Yemenite Jewish Community in Mandatory Palestine

Citation:

Klorman, E.B. 2006. “Women Resisting Men: Inheritance and Disinheritance in the Yemenite Jewish Community in Mandatory Palestine.” Nashim: A Journal of Jewish Women’s Studies & Gender Issues, no. 11, 126–41.

Author: E.B. Klorman

Abstract:

Yemenite Jewish women immigrated to Palestine mostly from the rural-tribal areas of Yemen, where both Muslim and Jewish women usually did not inherit property. In Palestine the situation was different, especially following the British Mandate inheritance regulations of 1923, which stipulated that females and males had equal inheritance rights. The Yemenite Jewish community did not easily adapt to these significant changes, and women had to struggle to implement their lawful inheritance and ownership rights.

Annotation:

Quotes:

“Analyzing a number of representative cases in which women resisted attempts to disinherit them, this article presents Yemenite Jewish women as adamant subjects acting to advance their interests by employing various means. It argues that their initiatives were largely rooted in a tradition of independent conduct brought with them from Yemen. They negotiated with the JNF, used the services of lawyers, initiated lawsuits, sought the help of their political representatives, and engaged male acquaintances to act on their behalf. Their endeavors to retain property are viewed as an example of their search for economic independence and an expression of their adaptation to the social and legal conditions in Jewish Palestine. The article also expands on the attitudes of the relevant yishuv institutions toward these women. The study is based mainly on previously unstudied letters and other documents assembled from different archives.” (127)

“Efforts by Yemenite Jewish men to take over family property in Palestine corresponded with the traditional practice they brought with them from Yemen. Until the middle of the twentieth century, Yemen's legal system was based on the Shari'a (Muslim religious law). While civil and family matters pertaining to a specific religious community were under the jurisdiction of its own religious law, dissatisfied plaintiffs could always appeal to the Muslim court. In matters of inheritance, Jewish law is unfavorable to women: A daughter inherits from her father only if he has no sons, and a wife does not inherit from her husband, though she is entitled to be supported by his estate as long as she does not remarry. Though some Jewish communities adopted regulations that improved women's inheritance rights, the Yemenite Jewish community did not. In contrast, Muslim law is more favorable to women. Generally speaking, it stipulates that female heirs receive a share equal to one half of that of their male co-heirs. As a result of this disagreement between the two legal systems. Jewish women, mainly in the towns, sometimes appealed to the Muslim court for a more favorable ruling.” (127)

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Religion, Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Yemen

Year: 2006

Gender Relations and Inheritance: Person Power and Property in Palestine

Citation:

Moors, Annelies. 1996. “Gender Relations and Inheritance: Person Power and Property in Palestine.” In Gendering the Middle East: Emerging Perspectives, edited by Deniz Kandiyoti, 69–84. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Author: Annelies Moors

Abstract:

This document, the fourth chapter in a book on emerging perspectives about gender and gender studies in the Middle East, argues that power/property relations in the Muslim Middle East can be illuminated by application of a gender perspective. The author illustrates this thesis with information gained through discussions with Palestinian women (during fieldwork in 1980) that challenged published theories about the direct relation between property and power. Thus, the chapter considers the specific positions women assume or find themselves in and looks at property as an indicator of a social relationship rather than as a material resource. The discussion opens with a summary of the legal systems that dictate ownership. The following specific circumstances are then described: 1) the reluctance of daughters with brothers to claim their share of inheritance, preferring instead to enhance the status of their brothers and to increase the level of obligation the brothers feel towards them; 2) the social problems faced by daughters of wealthy families who claim an inheritance; 3) the rights of single and elderly female family members to housing and maintenance; 4) daughters' inheritance of gold from their mothers; 5) the distress indicated when married women claim their inheritances; and 6) the special problems faced by widows with young children, especially urban widows. The chapter ends by noting that these examples indicate that a complex web of gendered social relations must be untangled to understand women's inheritance strategies in this region. (Popline)

Topics: Gender, Political Economies, Rights, Property Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1996

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