Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

The Dialogue That Died


Cockburn, Cynthia. 2014. “The Dialogue That Died.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 16 (3): 430–47. doi:10.1080/14616742.2013.849964.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn


For fifteen years, in the north of the state of Israel, a women's organization existed in which Israeli Jewish and Israeli Palestinian women activists worked together for peace and justice in a careful and challenging dialogue across difference. “Bat Shalom of the North” was the subject of research by the author in 1996. In this article she reports on her return in 2012 to re-interview former members. Applying the feminist concept of “transversal politics” she analyzes the organization's trajectory, radicalization and eventual closure in the context of a failed peace process and increasing violence in the region. Their perspective on Israel's oppression of its Palestinian minority led the surviving members of Bat Shalom of the North in its final days to envision not a “two-state solution” to the Israel Palestine conflict but a single, inclusive, multicultural and democratic country, in which subject identities are built not on a feeling of belonging to land, language or religion but on shared adhesion to human and democratic rights.

Keywords: Israel, Palestinians, women, conflict, occupation, land, identity

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2014

Sexual Torture of Palestinian Men by Israeli Authorities


Weishut, Daniel J. N. 2015. “Sexual Torture of Palestinian Men by Israeli Authorities.” Reproductive Health Matters 23 (46): 71–84. doi:10.1016/j.rhm.2015.11.019.

Author: Daniel J. N. Weishut


In the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, arrests and imprisonment of Palestinian men in their early adulthood are common practice. The Public Committee Against Torture in Israel (PCATI) collected thousands of testimonies of Palestinian men allegedly tortured or ill-treated by Israeli authorities. There are many types of torture, sexual torture being one of them. This study is based on the PCATI database during 2005-2012, which contains 60 cases – 4% of all files in this period – with testimonies of alleged sexual torture or ill-treatment. It is a first in the investigation of torture and ill-treatment of a sexual nature, allegedly carried out by Israeli security authorities on Palestinian men. Findings show that sexual ill-treatment is systemic, with 36 reports of verbal sexual harassment, either directed toward Palestinian men and boys or toward family members, and 35 reports of forced nudity. Moreover, there are six testimonies of Israeli officials involved in physical sexual assault of arrested or imprisoned Palestinian men. Physical assault in most cases concerned pressing and/or kicking the genitals, while one testimony pertained to simulated rape, and another described an actual rape by means of a blunt object. The article provides illustrations of the various types of sexual torture and ill-treatment of boys and men in the light of existing literature, and recommendations. 

Keywords: sexual violence, torture, human rights, Israel, Palestinian

Topics: Gender, Men, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Men, Torture, Sexual Torture Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2015

Women, Gender, and Terrorism


Gentry, Caron E., and Laura Sjoberg, eds. 2011. Women, Gender, and Terrorism. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Authors: Caron E. Gentry, Laura Sjoberg


"In the last decade the world has witnessed a rise in women’s participation in terrorism. Women, Gender, and Terrorism explores women’s relationship with terrorism, with a keen eye on the political, gender, racial, and cultural dynamics of the contemporary world. Throughout most of the twentieth century, it was rare to hear about women terrorists. In the new millennium, however, women have increas­ingly taken active roles in carrying out suicide bombings, hijacking air­planes, and taking hostages in such places as Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Lebanon, and Chechnya. These women terrorists have been the subject of a substantial amount of media and scholarly attention, but the analysis of women, gender, and terrorism has been sparse and riddled with stereotypical thinking about women’s capabilities and motivations. In the first section of this volume, contributors offer an overview of women’s participation in and relationships with contemporary terrorism, and a historical chapter traces their involvement in the politics and conflicts of Islamic societies. The next section includes empirical and theoretical analysis of terrorist movements in Chechnya, Kashmir, Palestine, and Sri Lanka. The third section turns to women’s involvement in al Qaeda and includes critical interrogations of the gendered media and the scholarly presentations of those women. The conclusion offers ways to further explore the subject of gender and terrorism based on the contributions made to the volume. Contributors to Women, Gender, and Terrorism expand our understanding of terrorism, one of the most troubling and complicated facets of the modern world." (University of Georgia Press)




Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Media, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups, Political Participation, Terrorism, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Sri Lanka

Year: 2011

Anti-Militarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace Movements


Cockburn, Cyntha. 2012. Anti-Militarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace Movements. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn

Keywords: peace movements, women and peace, women, militarism, Japan



Acknowledgements                                                                                           x

Glossary of Acronyms                                                                                        xi

Introduction 1

  1. Finding a Voice: Women at Three Moments of British Peace Activism             19
  2. War Resisters and Pacifist Revolution                                                             46
  3. Legitimate Disobedience: An Anti-militarist Movement in Spain                     74                    
  4. Midlands City: Faiths and Philosophies Together for Palestine                        103
  5. Saying No to NATO: Divergent Strategies                                                       126                                        
  6. Seeing the Whole Picture: Anti-militarism in Okinawa and Japan                    152
  7. A State of Peace: Movements to Reunify and Demilitarize Korea                     180
  8. Guns and Bodies: Armed Conflict and Domestic Violence                                211
  9. Towards a Different Common Sense                                                                231


References                                                                                                            264

Index                                                                                                                    277




Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Japan, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom

Year: 2012

The Search for Lasting Peace: Critical Perspectives on Gender-Responsive Human Security


Boyd, Rosalind. 2016. The Search for Lasting Peace: Critical Perspectives on Gender-Responsive Human Security. New York, NY: Routledge.


Author: Rosalind Boyd


"Presenting the human security agenda as a policy response to the changing nature of violent conflicts and war, this collection traces its evolution in relation to conflicts in different contexts (Burma, India, Palestine, Canada, East Timor, Guatemala, Peru and African countries) and from the perspective of gender, addresses initiatives for peace with justice. Cases are analysed when the human security agenda, including UNSC resolution 1325, was in its initial phase and point to both the weakness of the concept and the unexpected direction it has taken. These discussions - always relevant - are more urgent than ever as gender-based violence against women has increased, resulting in new UNSC resolutions. Some chapters suggest that militarism and economic globalization must be directly confronted. Many of the contributors to the volume bridge the gap between academic research and activism as ’scholar-activists’ with an engaged connection to the situations they are describing. Human security remains an active component of policy and academic debates in security studies, women’s and gender studies, development studies, history and political economy as well as within NGO communities. This rich collection fills a needed gap in the literature and it does so in a language and style that is clear, accessible and reader-friendly." (Summary from Routledge)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, International Organizations, NGOs, Security, Human Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, MENA, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Canada, Guatemala, India, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Peru

Year: 2016

Women and War in the Middle East: Transnational Perspectives


Al-Ali, Nadje, and Nicola Pratt. 2009. Women and War in the Middle East: Transnational Perspectives. London: Zed Books.

Author: Nadje Al-Ali

Keywords: women and war, Iraqi women, Palestinians, international cooperation


"Women and War in the Middle East provides a critical examination of the relationship between gender and transnationalism in the context of war, peace-building and post-conflict reconstruction in the Middle East. Critically examining the ways in which the actions of various local and transnational groups - including women's movements, diaspora communities, national governments, non-governmental actors and multilateral bodies - interact to both intentionally and inadvertantly shape the experiences of women in conflict situations, and determine the possibilities for women's participation in peace-building and (post)-conflict reconstruction, as well as the longer-term prospects for peace and security. The volume pays particular attention to the ways in which gender roles, relations and identities are constructed, negotiated and employed within transnational social and political fields in the conflict and post-conflict situations, and their particular consequences for women. Contributions focus on the two countries with the longest experiences of war and conflict in the Middle East, and which have been subject to the most prominent international interventions of recent years - that is, Iraq and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Issues addressed by contributors include the impact of gender mainstreaming measures by international agencies and NGOs upon the ability of women to participate in peace-building and post-conflict resolution; the consequences for gender relations and identities of the US-led invasion and occupation of Iraq; and how transnational feminist movements can most effectively support peace building and women's rights in the region.Based entirely on original empirical research. Women and War in the Middle East brings together some of the foremost scholars in the areas of feminist international relations, feminist international political economy, anthropology, sociology, history and Middle East studies." -The University of Chicago Press

Table of Contents

Introduction: Women and War in the Middle East: Transnational Perspectives
Nadje Al-Ali and Nicola Pratt

Part I: Gendering the Neoliberal Imperial Project

1. Gendering Informal Economies in Iraq
V. Spike Peterson

2. The United States, the Iraqi Women's Diaspora and Women's 'Empowerment' in Iraq
Nadje Al-Ali and Nicola Pratt

3. Post-war Reconstruction', Imperialism and Women's NGOs
Shahrzad Mojab

Part II: Revisiting Transnational Women's Activism in the Context of Conflict, Post-conflict and Peace-building

4. Gender Mainstreaming and Feminist Organizing in the Middle East and North Africa
Isis Nusair

5. 'Here, it's not about conflict resolution - we can only resist': Palestinian Women's Activism in Conflict Resolution and Non-violent Resistance
Sophie Richter-Devoe

Part III: Gender, Citizenship and Post-conflict Reconstruction

6. Fragmented Citizenship: Communalism, Ethnicity and Gender in Iraq
Martina Kamp

7. Gendered Palestinian Citizenship: Women, Legal Pluralism and Post-conflict Aid
Riina Isotalo

Conclusion: Gendering War and Transnationalism in the Middle East
Nadje Al-Ali and Nicola Pratt


Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Globalization, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2009

Nowhere to Run: Gay Palestinian Asylum-Seekers in Israel


Kagan, Michael, and Anat Ben-Dor. 2008. Nowhere to Run: Gay Palestinian Asylum-Seekers in Israel. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University’s Public Interest Law Program.

Authors: Michael Kagan, Anat Ben-Dor


In the Occupied Palestinian Territories, some gay men face torture and potentially lethal violence at the hands of PA security forces, members of their own families, and armed militant groups. Brutal repression of homosexuality by a wide array of actors in Palestinian society puts an unknown number of people at risk, and represents an important violation of human rights for people living in the Occupied Territories.

Meanwhile, Israel prohibits these people from even filing asylum applications, simply because of their nationality. The United Nations has intervened in a few cases to promote resettlement of gay Palestinian men to third countries, but the UN refugee office in Jerusalem has generally cooperated with Israel in excluding Palestinians from the asylum system.

Israel has increasingly recognized equal rights for gays, lesbians and trans-gendered people and has taken substantial steps in recent years to implement the right to seek asylum. Asylum claims based on sexual orientation are becoming increasingly routine in international refugee law. If respect for the rights of gay men in the Occupied Territories does not improve, and if the State of Israel’s current refusal to receive Palestinian asylum-seekers does not change, innocent people will be put in mortal danger. Israel’s continued refusal to consider asylum claims from gay Palestinians violates the general rule of international law – recognized by Israel’s High Court – against returning a foreigner to a territory where his or her life or freedom may be in danger. Under international law, no state may discriminate by nationality with regard to refugee protection.

This report analyzes evidence that gay Palestinians are at risk of severe human rights violations in PA-controlled areas and analyzes Israel’s obligations to asylum-seekers under international law. It then makes recommendations as to how Israel and the United Nations can better protect gay Palestinian asylum-seekers.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, LGBTQ Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2008

How Sexual Trauma Can Create Obstacles to Transnational Feminism: The Case of Shifra


Weinbaum, Batya. 2006. “How Sexual Trauma Can Create Obstacles to Transnational Feminism: The Case of Shifra.” NWSA Journal 18 (3): 71-87.

Author: Batya Weinbaum


Obstacles to organizing peace can sometimes emerge because women have suffered previous sexual violence. Consequently, the frame through which they react to contemporary political situations, including peace demonstrations organized by transnational feminists, might at the core have an internal structure derived from previous violation that women then project to identify, modify, and contain controversy in external events. Therefore, closely examining the border between private and public spheres in women's lives might not always lead to progressive politics for women as a group, as some might hope. Rather, some women might attempt to recover from specifically sexual violence in previous wars, seizing upon discourse bound of national security. They may attempt to regain internal strength by fortifying gender identity that has been thrown into crisis, using nationalistic contours to reaffirm their sense of self. This might lead them to actively protest other women working for peace. Since trauma survivors exhibit modes of recounting life histories that vividly dramatize past events in order to draw attention to private pain in public, the force of such narrators who speak in the streets can upstage peaceworkers' events.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Trauma, Nationalism, Religion, Security, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against Women, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Israel, Morocco, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Spain

Year: 2006

Gender in Conflict: The Palestinian- Israeli Conflict through Feminist Lenses


Sharoni, Simona. 1999. “Gender in Conflict: The Palestinian- Israeli Conflict through Feminist Lenses.” Signs 24 (2): 487-99.

Author: Simona Sharoni

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugee/IDP Camps, Feminisms, Gender, Women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1999

Gender and ‘Peace Work’: An Unofficial History of Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations


Aharoni, Sarai. 2011. “Gender and ‘Peace Work’: An Unofficial History of Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations.” Politics & Gender 7 (3): 391–416. doi:10.1017/S1743923X11000274.

Author: Sarai Aharoni


Unlike earlier attempts to theorize Israeli women’s peace activism in civil society, this article examines the involvement of women in backstage roles of formal negotiations during the Oslo Process. On the basis of a qualitative analysis of the organizational structure and gender division of labor in Israeli negotiating bodies, I find that women were placed as midlevel negotiators and professional and legal advisors, and also served as spokeswomen and secretaries. This pattern of participation reveals 1) that the “security logic,” developed by Israeli negotiators led to, and reinforced, a structured gendered division of labor, providing a rational justification for gender inequality; 2) that the ability to control administrative capacities and women workers generated symbolic masculine power and assisted in maintaining asymmetries between Israeli and Palestinian delegations; 3) and that midlevel Israeli negotiators’ narratives reveal the extent to which conceptual confusion and self-contradictory approaches toward the Oslo Accords reinforced women’s overall invisibility. I conclude that patterns of rigid gender roles in official negotiating structures not only minimize women’s meaningful inclusion in peace negotiations but also affect the production of public historical narratives about gender, peace, and war.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2011


© 2024 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories