Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Palestinian Prison Ontologies

Citation:

Bornstein, Avram. 2010.“Palestinian Prison Ontologies.” Dialectical Anthropology 34 (4): 459-72.

Author: Avram Bornstein

Abstract:

During the first intifada uprising (1987–1993), thousands of Palestinians were arrested annually, and mass incarceration affected as many as 100,000 families. Relying on several recent ethnographies, and other published research including some of my own, this article describes the contests over Palestinian prison ontology as organized by (a) the jailers, (b) the prisoners, (c) the families of prisoners, and (d) a service agency in the emerging Palestinian Authority. What becomes evident is that mass incarceration involves ontological struggles over the framing of justice, agency, and gender. The conclusion asks how these ontological struggles may be part of other modern prisons.

Keywords: political prisoners, Israel-Palestine, justice, gender, agency

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Occupation, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Justice, Nationalism Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2010

Honor Thy Sister: Selfhood, Gender, and Agency in Palestinian Culture

Citation:

Baxter, Diane. 2007. “Honor Thy Sister: Selfhood, Gender, and Agency in Palestinian Culture.” Anthropological Quarterly 80 (3): 737-75.

Author: Diane Baxter

Abstract:

In this article, I examine the ideology of honor among West Bank Palestinians most particularly as it relates to sexuality and gender relations within families. I contend that the iconic Arab and Palestinian subject of the ideal, gendered, connected self—a central concept that undergirds most representations of honor—elides the significance of the individual and obscures the rights and strengths of women and the obligations, vulnerabilities, and anxieties of men. Beyond a critique of representations of honor, subjectivities, and patriarchy, I suggest that ideological-culturally-based explanatory models of behavior favor coherency over ambivalence and untidiness. In terms of honor and the subjectivities that inform it, such explanations have led to an over-reliance on resistance as a method of analyzing "anomalies." I argue that for Palestinian women and men, subjectivity and agency are achieved within and are a reflection of structural, ideological, and experiential configurations, rather than as resistances to them.

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexuality Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2007

Gendering the Palestinian Political Cartoon

Citation:

Yaqub, Nadia. 2009. “Gendering the Palestinian Political Cartoon.” Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication 2 (2): 187–213.

Author: Nadia Yaqub

Abstract:

This paper examines the representation of the distribution of agency and responsibility across gender roles in Palestinian political cartoons. Cartoons are read to discover the nature of family dynamics, the relationship between the home and what lies outside it, and public and private sources of culture and Palestinian identity. Included are the work of Naji al-Ali whose widely- read cartoons appeared in Arabic language newspapers from the 1960’s until his assassination in 1987, and that of six contemporary cartoonists: Baha Boukhari, Khalil Abu Arafeh, Omayya Joha, Muhammed Sabaaneh, Naser al-Jafari, and Emad Hajjaj. In al-Ali’s cartoons, Palestinian men and their families are deeply affected by the pressures of dispossession, violence, and exploitation by elites. However, because the disruption affects mainly the public sphere of military action, politics, and wage labor, it is men who are most negatively affected by those pressures. They are often at a loss as to how to respond, and do not always make wise choices. On the other hand, al-Ali locates the idea of Palestine squarely in the private sphere, in women’s roles in biological and social reproduction. Because this idea is intact, women are able to perform their roles even in states of extreme violence and dispossession. The cartoons of later artists differ in that masculinity is divorced from military action, and although politics is largely ineffectual, men are endowed with agency in the public sphere. Women in the later cartoons continue to be defined chiefly, though not exclusively, by the domestic sphere, but Palestinian motherhood is in crisis and women in grave danger in many of these cartoons, a reflection of the crisis of the idea of Palestine as a whole and sound homeland.

Keywords: Palestinian, political cartoons, gender, representation, masculinity, Naji al-Ali

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2009

The Unlikely Terrorist: Women and Islamic Resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories

Citation:

Holt, Maria. 2010. “The Unlikely Terrorist: Women and Islamic Resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories.” Critical Studies on Terrorism 3 (3): 365–82.

Author: Maria Holt

Abstract:

Islamic resistance groups in Lebanon and the Palestinian territories have been accused of using terrorist tactics to achieve their aims. Although some critics suggest that such groups may also have hijacked the democratic agenda in ways that disadvantage women, their supporters claim that they are promoting a model of modernity that is empowering women. This article examines the reasons why some Lebanese Shi’i and Palestinian women support the resistance against Israeli invasion and occupation that is justified in terms of religion. Far from seeing the actions of Hizbullah in Lebanon and Hamas in the Palestinian territories as acts of terrorism, many women welcome the resistance as it brings dignity and meaning to their lives and enhances feelings of national identification.

Keywords: women, islamic resistance, Lebanon, Palestinian territories, modernity, female martyr, Hamas, Hizbullah

Topics: Gender, Women, Religion, Terrorism, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2010

Motivated Migrants: (Re)framing Arab Women’s Experiences

Citation:

Killian, Caitlin, Jennifer Olmsted, and Alexis Doyle. 2012. “Motivated Migrants: (Re)framing Arab Women’s Experiences.” Women’s Studies International Forum 35 (6): 432–46. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2012.09.006.

Authors: Caitlin Killian, Jennifer Olmsted, Alexis Doyle

Abstract:

Much of the existing literature on Arab migration either assumes women do not migrate or focuses on their experiences in the diaspora. Using two unique data sets, one collected in a source country (Palestine) and the other in a host country (France), we are able to make visible a type of migration that has remained largely invisible to date. Combining quantitative analysis and a case study approach, we examine patterns as well as the motivations for Arab women's migration, categorizing motivations as political, educational, and employment-related, but also highlighting how political and economic forces, as well as educational and familial motives, are difficult to disentangle, and may shift over time. We also contextualize our findings historically by exploring the multifaceted manner in which structural factors, such as political systems and economic forces, influence both decisions to leave one's home and reception in the host country in gendered ways. In particular, we find that in recent decades new opportunities have emerged for women to migrate to pursue educational goals.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2012

Palestinian Women Negotiate Violent Conflict

Citation:

Holt, Maria. 2004. “Palestinian Women Negotiate Violent Conflict.” Al-Raida. 21(103): 26-30.

Author: Maria Holt

Abstract:

On 6 September 2003, Palestinian women in the West Bank town of Tulkarem organized a demonstration of more than 200 Palestinian, Israeli and international women to protest against the Apartheid Wall that is being built by Israel in the occupied territories. Their action should not surprise us as Palestinian women are well known for their active participation in resisting the occupation. Given the severity of their situation, they have little choice but to focus first and foremost on the national struggle. But does this mean that “women’s issues” will inevitably be sidelined? Are such concerns a luxury, to be attended to once the serious business of war is ended? 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2004

The Link Between Women’s Studies Programs and Grassroots Organizations in Lebanon, the Balkans, and the Palestinian Territories: A Comparative Study

Citation:

Toman, Cheryl. 2006. “The Link Between Women’s Studies Programs and Grassroots Organizations in Lebanon, the Balkans, and the Palestinian Territories: A Comparative Study.” Arab Studies Quarterly 28 (2): 55–67.

Author: Cheryl Toman

Abstract:

A primary goal of any women’s program is to create outreach opportunities beyond the university classroom in order to make a difference in one's community, whether at the local level or on the world stage. Thus, it is perhaps not a coincidence that strong Women's Studies programs have developed in Lebanon, the Balkans, and the Palestinian territories alongside successful women's activist groups. Together, they are able to work successfully despite the trials of functioning in conflict regions. This comparative study will analyze various women's organizations in these areas and their relationships with three Women's Studies programs in particular: The Institute for Women's Studies in the Arab World in Beirut, the Center for Women's Studies in Zagreb, and the Women's Studies Program at Birzeit University in the West Bank. With a focus on work at the grassroots level as well as on research, these unique university programs in cooperation with women's associations not only aid women trying to survive and overcome the tremendous hardships of everyday life, but they are also playing an essential role, especially in the case of Lebanon and Palestine, in official policy making within their own governments. Lebanon, Croatia, and Palestine have been chosen for this comparison not only for their common ties to the Mediterranean, but also as home to multicultural peoples representing different stages of dealing with war and rebuilding. Although there are other conflict regions with women's activist groups that could be discussed here as well, Lebanon, Croatia, and Palestine stand not in particular since they are the only ones with well-established university programs in Women's Studies. The Institute for Women's Studies in the Arab World in Lebanon and the Women's Studies Program at Birzeit University are the only two of their kind in the Arab world just as the Center for Women's Studies in Croatia is a model in Southeastern Europe.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Education, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Croatia, Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2006

The Gendered Nature of Education under Siege: A Palestinian Feminist Perspective

Citation:

Shalhoub-Kevorkian, Nadera. 2008. “The Gendered Nature of Education under Siege: A Palestinian Feminist Perspective.” International Journal of Lifelong Education 27 (2): 179–200.

Author: Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian

Abstract:

Military occupation affects educational space and places, transforming them into politicized, sexed, gendered, and racialized ones. The uncontrolled political violence in conflict zones causes psychological trauma, internal displacement and economic stagnation, and intersect to shape the gendered nature of education. This article is based on data collected from young Palestinian women in the Occupied Palestinian Territories between 2004–2007. Its theoretical background departs from the perspective that women's education in conflict zones is simultaneously a site of empowerment, resistance, and victimization. As such, the article demonstrates that the personal is political, and highlights how education can be both a source of consciousness-raising and a powerful mobilizing force for young women while simultaneously being oppressive in nature. The results show that the covert and overt acts of political violence against Palestinians has transformed Palestinian gender relations in complex, contradictory, and diverse ways while both militarizing and violating their right to education. In addition, the article argues that the study of gender and education requires close attention to women's words and acts in order to identify revolutionary modes of resistance that are capable of promoting social justice. It concludes by arguing that the daily terror facing young women on their way to school, the systematic denial of school permits, and other actions that interfere with their right to obtain an education not only necessitates the re-conceptualization of education conceived as a neutral zone and separated from the politics of the state, but also requires a close scrutiny of the gendered nature of education under siege. 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2008

Women’s Rite: Gendered Nationalism and Palestinian Female Suicide Bombers

Citation:

Sabatello, Maya. 2005. “Women’s Rite: Gendered Nationalism and Palestinian Female Suicide Bombers.” In . Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois.

Author: Maya Sabatello

Abstract:

I place Palestinian female suicide bombers in the socio-political discourse on gendered-nationalism, challenge Western explanations for the phenomena by analyzing national narratives, and address the social construct of national identity and Other.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Nationalism Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2005

Gender in Crisis: Women and the Palestinian Resistance Movement

Citation:

Peteet, Julie. 1991. Gender in Crisis: Women and the Palestinian Resistance Movement. New York: Columbia University Press. 

Author: Julie Peteet

Annotation:

TAB:E OF CONTENTS

Contents

Introduction pg. 1

Research and Ethnography pg. 8

Women's Lives as Text pg. 15

Gender and Culture in Exile pg. 19

1948-1969 pg. 22

Althawrah the Revolution and Community Self-Reliance 1969-1982 pg. 27

Women in Exile pg. 33

The Palestinian Women's Movement Organization and Representation pg. 38

Nationalist Roots pg. 42

Striking Out on Their Own pg. 43

1936-1939 pg. 52

1948-1960 pg. 58

The 1950s pg. 60

Integration and Transformation pg. 63

Ideas and Action Political Consciousness pg. 67

The Multiplicity of Experience pg. 72

National Consciousness pg. 76

Class Consciousness pg. 81

Female and Feminist pg. 88

Mobilizing Women pg. 100

Step by Step pg. 104

Channels of Mobilization pg. 111

Mobilization and Crisis pg. 124

Ambiguous Status and the Life Cycle pg. 132

Obstacles to Mobilization pg. 134

Action Ideology and Gender in the National Movement pg. 142

Members and Friends pg. 143

Activism pg. 147

Militancy Femininity and Status pg. 152

Mechanisms of Control pg. 156

The National Movement on Gender pg. 158

Activism and Domesticity pg. 175

The Organization of Reproduction pg. 176

Domesticity and Activism pg. 183

Domesticating the Workplace pg. 200

The Loss of Autonomy and the Transforming of Gender pg. 204

The End of an Era pg. 210

The Aftermath pg. 214

Notes pg. 219

References pg. 231

Index pg. 239 

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1991

Pages

© 2024 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories