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Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Male-Female Wage Differential in the West Bank: A Gender-Based Analysis of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Citation:

Loewenthal, Amit, and Sami H. Miaari. 2020. "Male-Female Wage Differential in the West Bank: A Gender-Based Analysis of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict." Defence and Peace Economics. doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1768340.

Authors: Amit Loewenthal, Sami H. Miaari

Abstract:

This paper studies the gender wage differential in the Palestinian labor market of the West Bank before, during, and in the aftermath of the second Intifada. We combine data on the Palestinian labor force, politically motivated fatalities of Palestinians, and movement restrictions in the West Bank, in order to quantify the effect of political violence on the gender wage gap. We find that political violence during the second Intifada decreased the gender wage gap. We also observe a long-term trend of more women entering the labor force, especially in middle-income occupations where there is an existing large share of female employees. Political violence did not seem to reverse or hurt that trend. We provide suggestive evidence that the reduction in the wage gap is due to the increased supply of low-skilled men, who previously worked in Israel and entered the local labor market due to the Intifada.

Keywords: conflict, gender, wage gap, Intifada, palestine

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2020

Asymmetry in Cross-Conflict Collaboration: Is There a Gender Factor?

Citation:

Golan, Galia. 2011. "Asymmetry in Cross-Conflict Collaboration: Is There a Gender Factor?" Peace and Conflict Studies18 (2): 164-91.

Author: Galia Golan

Abstract:

Asymmetry of power is an acknowledged phenomenon in negotiation, and there are a number of devices for dealing with it. Similarly, alternative dispute resolution seeks to neutralize asymmetry of power by using an interest-based model of cross-conflict collaboration, but research has indicated that asymmetry persists nonetheless. The role of gender in negotiation has been researched, and to a far lesser degree, also with regard to alternative dispute resolution. Some of the gender in negotiation research has introduced the element of asymmetry of power as well. Prompted by the highlighting of asymmetry in Israeli-Palestinian all-women alternative dispute resolution (cross-conflict collaboration), the present article seeks to determine the role of gender, comparing asymmetry in mixed groups with all-women’s groups. A qualitative analysis, based on observations over decades of personal experience, finds only differences of degree rather than essence between predominantly-male mixed and all-women’s groups regarding the effects of asymmetry. The major exception to this lies in the centrality accorded the phenomenon by women but not by men, possibly attributable to gender differences in group relations and also the feminist character of the all-female groups.

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2011

Risk and Protective Factors among Palestinian Women Living in a Context of Prolonged Armed Conflict and Political Oppression

Citation:

Veronese, Guido, Federica Cavazzoni, Sabrina Russo, and Cindy Sousa. 2019. "Risk and Protective Factors among Palestinian Women Living in a Context of Prolonged Armed Conflict and Political Oppression." Journal of Interpersonal Violence. doi:10.1177/0886260519865960.

Authors: Guido Veronese, Federica Cavazzoni, Sabrina Russo, Cindy Sousa

Abstract:

Research has widely documented the effects of war and political violence on the functioning and well-being of adults and children. Yet, within this literature, women’s agency in the face of war-related adversity and political violence remains underexplored. The present study was conducted in the Gaza Strip in the aftermath of the most recent war on Gaza in 2014, with the aim of investigating the consequences of war and political violence for women’s mental health and psychological functioning. Based on interviews with 21 Palestinian women exposed to extreme war-related traumatic events, the article offers an analysis of the risk and protective factors affecting their well-being and enhancing (or diminishing) their agency. Human Security, Family Ties, Psychosocial Resources, Individual Resources, and Moterhood emerged from the women’s narratives as key factors contributing to the maintenance of positive psychological functioning and the ability to adjust to traumatic war events in the aftermath of acute armed conflict. These exploratory findings suggest that Palestinian women display a high level of functioning and resources for adjustment that is preserved after periods of devastating armed conflict. The study draws attention to a set of protective factors for the well-being of women and their families when living with chronic political violence.

Keywords: women, war, political oppression, risk and protective factors

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2019

Climate Change, Agriculture and Gender in Gaza: Assessing the Implications of the Climate Crisis for Smallholder Farming and Gender within Olive and Grape Value Chains in Gaza

Citation:

Casas, Norman Martín, Asmaa Abumezied, and Charlotte L. Sterrett. 2020. Climate Change, Agriculture and Gender in Gaza: Assessing the Implications of the Climate Crisis for Smallholder Farming and Gender within Olive and Grape Value Chains in Gaza. Oxfam.

Authors: Norman Martín Casas, Asmaa Abumezied, Charlotte L. Sterrett

Annotation:

Summary:
Women and men working in smallholder olive and grape sectors in Gaza face many difficulties in eking out a living, many as a result of a long blockade that restricts free movement of people and goods and access to land needed for agriculture, severely hampering any economic prospects. Climate change exacerbates the crisis, with rising temperatures and sea levels causing further shocks, stresses and uncertainty. This research assesses smallholder farmers’ capacity to absorb, adapt and transform their livelihoods in the face of these challenges – with a particular focus on women, who bear the brunt of climate change and inequality – and suggests a range of actions that should be taken to address the crisis. (Summary from Oxfam)

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2020

Ecofeminism in Dialogue

Citation:

Vacoch, Douglas A, and Sam Mickey, eds. 2017. Ecofeminism in Dialogue. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Authors: Douglas A. Vacoch, Sam Mickey

Annotation:

Summary:
There are countless ways of thinking, feeling, and acting like an ecofeminist. Ecofeminism includes a plurality of perspectives, thriving in dialogue between diverse theories and practices involving ecological and feminist matters of concern. Deepening the dialogue, the contributors in this anthology explore critical and complementary interactions between ecofeminism and other areas of inquiry, including ecocriticism, postcolonialism, geography, environmental law, religion, geoengineering, systems thinking, family therapy, and more. This volume aims to further the cultural and literary theories of ecofeminism by situating them in conversation with other interpretations and analyses of intersections between environment, gender, and culture. This anthology is a unique combination of contemporary, interdisciplinary, and global perspectives in dialogue with ecofeminism, supporting academic and activist efforts to resist oppression and domination and cultivate care and justice (Summary from Amazon). 

Table of Contents:

1. Ecofeminist, Post-Colonial, and Anti-Capitalist Possibilities in Nalo Hopkinson’s Brown Girl in the Ring

Anna Bedford

2. “I Learnt All the Words and Broke Them Up / To Make a Single Word: Homeland”: An Eco-Postcolonial Perspective of Resistance in Palestinian’s Women’s Literature

Benay Blend

3. Pylons, Playgrounds, and Power Situations: Ecofeminism and Landscape in Women’s Short Fiction from Wales

Michelle Deininger

4. Angela Carter’s Postmodern Wolf Tales

5. “If Only I had Petals, my Situations Would be Different”: The Curious Case of Nature Reserves and Shelters for Battered Women

Edna Gorney

6. Leaning into the Light: Toward an Ecofeminist Model of Family Therapy

Gail Grossman Freyne

7. Technofeminism and Ecofeminism: An Analysis of Geoengineering Research

Tina Sikka

8. Weaving Ecofeminisms and Spiritualities: Reflections from Latin American Women

Ann Hidalgo

9. Women, Water, and Ecofeminism: A Method to Respond to the Commodification of Water

Rachel Hart Winter

10. Hope Over Powerlessness: McFague’s Meditation on the World as God’s Body

Rebecca Meier-Rao

11. Dilemmas and Possibilities of Online Activism in a Gendered Space

Jessica McLean

12. Mapping and Misrecognition: Ecofeminist Insights into Chicana Feminist Aesthetics

Christina Holmes

13. Ecofeminist Potentials for International Environmental Law

Kate Wilkinson Cross

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Domestic Violence, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, International Law, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Justice Regions: MENA, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, United Kingdom

Year: 2018

Middle Eastern Women between Oppression and Resistance: Case Studies of Iraqi, Palestinian and Kurdish Women of Turkey

Citation:

Khodary, Yasmin, Noha Salah, and Nada Mohsen. 2020. "Middle Eastern Women between Oppression and Resistance: Case Studies of Iraqi, Palestinian and Kurdish Women of Turkey." Journal of International Women's Studies 21 (1): 204-26.

Authors: Yasmin Khodary, Noha Salah, Nada Mohsen

Abstract:

Wars and conflicts have had a profound impact on women and gender in the Middle East. In this article, we aim to highlight the various ways in which the ongoing oppression and conflict in the Middle East shape the responses of the Iraqi, Palestinian and Kurdish women of Turkey and the object of their struggles. We go beyond the 'Orientalist' discourse, which depicts Middle Eastern women in armed conflicts as solely vulnerable and helpless victims, to discuss the resisting roles played by the Iraqi, Palestinian and Kurdish women of Turkey. Middle Eastern women have played and continue to play major roles in responding to society, gender and state oppression. While the Iraqi women in this study voice their resistance through conventional actions and wide civil-society activism that transcends the local level, the Palestinian women engage in unconventional unarmed or peaceful resistance through Sumud and cultural resistance as well as armed/non-peaceful acts of resistance. Finally, in the face of Turkish state oppression, the Kurdish women of Turkey also deploy non-peaceful resistance through becoming active fighters and engaging leadership positions in the Kurdistan Workers' Party.

Keywords: Iraqi women, Palestinian women, Kurdish women, Resilience, resistance, oppression

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Combatants, Female Combatants, Conflict, Gender, Women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Turkey

Year: 2020

Rethinking Homonationalism

Citation:

Puar, Jasbir. 2013. "Rethinking Homonationalism." International Journal of Middle East Studies 45 (2): 336-39. 

Author: Jasbir Puar

Annotation:

"In my 2007 monograph Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times (hereafter TA), I develop the conceptual frame of "homonationalism" for understanding the complexities of how "acceptance" and "tolerance" for gay and lesbian subjects have become a barometer by which the right to and capacity for national sovereignty is evaluated. I had become increasingly frustrated with the standard refrain of transnational feminist discourse as well as queer theories that unequivocally stated, quite vociferously throughout the 1990s, that the nation is heteronormative and that the queer is inherently an outlaw to the nation-state. While the discourse of American exceptionalism has always served a vital role in U.S. nation-state formation, TA examines how sexuality has become a crucial formation in the articulation of proper U.S. citizens across other registers like gender, class, and race, both nationally and transnationally. In this sense, homonationalism is an analytic category deployed to understand and historicize how and why a nation's status as "gay-friendly" has become desirable in the first place. Like modernity, homonationalism can be resisted and re-signified, but not opted out of: we are all conditioned by it and through it." (Puar 2013, 336)

 

Topics: Citizenship, Class, Feminisms, Gender, LGBTQ, Nationalism, Race Regions: Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2013

Roof Knocking

"In war-stricken Palestine, a woman prepares a meal to break the fast in the month of Ramadan. A phone call by an Israeli soldier alerts her of the bombing of her building in ten minutes. Coming to accept her family’s fate is the only way she can make a stand for her life, with grim consequences."

Source: https://www.roofknockingshortfilm.com/

Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine

Citation:

Mehta, Akanksha. 2017. "Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine." PhD diss., SOAS University of London.

Author: Akanksha Mehta

Annotation:

Summary: 
"Right-Wing movements have gained political momentum in the last few decades, drawing within their ranks women who not only embody their exclusionary and violent politics but who also simultaneously contest everyday patriarchies. This thesis examines the everyday politics of women in two right-wing movements, the cultural nationalist Hindu right-wing project in India and the settler-colonial Zionist project in Israel-Palestine. Based on fourteen months of ethnographic, narrative, and visual ‘fieldwork’ conducted with women in both these movements, I argue that through a politics of the everyday, right-wing women bargain and negotiate with patriarchal communities/homes, male-formulated ideologies and discourses, and maledominated right-wing projects and spaces. These mediations replicate and affirm as well as subvert and challenge patriarchal structures and power hierarchies, troubling the binaries of home/world, private/public, personal/political, and victim/agent. I assert that dominant literature on rightwing women focuses on motherhood and family, ignoring various other crucial subject positions that are constituted and occupied by right-wing women and neglecting the agential and empowering potential of right-wing women’s subjectivities.
 
"I use four themes/lenses to examine the everyday politics of right-wing women. These are: pedagogy and education; charity and humanitarian work; intimacy, friendship, sociability and leisure; and political violence. By interrogating the practices that are contained in and enabled by these four locations of Hindu right-wing and Zionist settler women’s everyday politics, this thesis highlights the multiple narratives, contradictions, pluralities, hierarchies, power structures, languages, and discourses that encompass right-wing women’s projects" (Mehta 2017, 3-4). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Political Participation, Religion, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia Countries: India, Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2017

Naila and the Uprising

When a nation-wide uprising breaks out in 1987, a woman in Gaza must make a choice between love, family, and freedom. Undaunted, she embraces all three, joining a clandestine network of women in a movement that forces the world to recognize the Palestinian right to self-determination for the first time.

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