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Pakistan

Appropriate Gender-Analysis Tools for Unpacking the Gender-Energy-Poverty Nexus

Citation:

Clancy, Joy, Fareeha Ummar, Indira Shakya, and Govind Kelkar. 2007. “Appropriate Gender-Analysis Tools for Unpacking the Gender-Energy-Poverty Nexus.” Gender & Development 15 (2): 241–57.

Authors: Joy Clancy, Fareeha Ummar, Indira Shakya, Govind Kelkar

Abstract:

In rural and low-income urban households, energy is ‘women’s business’: women are responsible for providing energy, and use it for domestic chores and productive activities. However, the poor quality fuels many women use contribute to their time poverty, ill health, and level of drudgery. Despite these negative impacts, energy policy remains gender-blind. This can be attributed to the invisibility of women’s needs to energy planners, stemming from a lack of appropriate gender-analysis tools to meet the particular data requirements of the energy sector. This article analyses why standard gender tools do not provide appropriate gender-disaggregated energy data, and describes a set of tools that have been developed for that purpose. The paper concludes with an evaluation of recent experiences testing the tools in Pakistan, India, and Nepal.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Nepal, Pakistan

Year: 2007

Literary Testimonies of War and Conflict of Twentieth-Century British and Pakistani Women Writers

Citation:

Ashraf, Ana. 2020. "Literary Testimonies of War and Conflict of Twentieth-Century British and Pakistani Women Writers." PhD diss., KU Leuven.

Author: Ana Ashraf

Annotation:

Summary:
In this research project, I propose to focus on the literary representation of War in the fiction of modern and contemporary women writers referring mostly to three historic conflicts (WWI, WWII & War on Terror) with the help of textual analysis of their works under the theoretical frameworks of feminist criticism and testimony. This dissertation, through close textual study of selected primary texts, aims a thorough examination of literary responses of women writers writing about three different historic conflicts, namely; WWI, WWII, and War on Terror. At one level, the objective is to show how women writers as diverse as Virginia Woolf, Vera Brittain, Rebbeca West, Olivia Manning, Stevie Smith, Elizabeth Taylor, Doris Lessing, Fatima Bhutto, and Sara Suleri have their own individual take on war. At another level, this dissertation aims to trace the common patterns underlying these diverse responses to war; to investigate whether a female tradition of war testimonies can be discovered. It intends to emphasize the significance of developing a feminist approach to war literature. It attempts to understand what Barbara Bellow Watson while analyzing the complex response of Elizabeth Bowen's War novel The Heat of the Day refers to as 'literature of Silence' and to locate in that silence a testimonial quality of an actively observant female artist rather than a helplessly passive woman who lacks authentic experience to talk about war. My claim is that no comprehensive attempt has been made previously to connect, combine and unify the female artistic testimony in fiction to war especially with reference to their current relevance under the discourse of feminism and testimony. (Summary from KU Leuven Lirias)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Terrorism Regions: Asia, South Asia, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Pakistan, United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Effectiveness of a Brief Group Psychological Intervention for Women in a Post-Conflict Setting in Pakistan: A Single-Blind, Cluster, Randomised Controlled Trial

Citation:

Rahman, Atif, Muhammad Naseem Khan, Syed Usman Hamdani, Anna Chiumento, Parveen Akhtar, Huma Nazir, Anum Nisar, Aqsa Masood, Iftikhar Ud Din, Nasir Ali Khan, Richard A. Bryant, Katie S. Dawson, Marit Sijbrandij, Duolao Wang, and Mark van Ommeren. 2019. "Effectiveness of a Brief Group Psychological Intervention for Women in a Post-Conflict Setting in Pakistan: A Single-Blind, Cluster, Randomised Controlled Trial." The Lancet 392 (10182): 1733-44.

Authors: Atif Rahman, Muhammad Naseem Khan, Syed Usman Hamdani, Anna Chiumento, Parveen Akhtar, Huma Nazir, Anum Nisar, Aqsa Masood, Iftikhar Ud Din, Nasir Ali Khan, Richard A. Bryant, Katie S. Dawson, Marit Sijbrandij, Duolao Wang, Mark van Ommeren

Abstract:

Background: Many women are affected by anxiety and depression after armed conflict in low-income and middle-income countries, yet few scalable options for their mental health care exist. We aimed to establish the effectiveness of a brief group psychological intervention for women in a conflict-affected setting in rural Swat, Pakistan. 
 
Methods: In a single-blind, cluster, randomised, controlled trial, 34 community clusters in two union councils of rural Swat, Pakistan, were randomised using block permutation at a 1:1 ratio to intervention (group intervention with five sessions incorporating behavioural strategies facilitated by non-specialists) or control (enhanced usual care) groups. Researchers responsible for identifying participants, obtaining consent, enrolment, and outcome assessments were masked to allocation. A community cluster was defined as neighbourhood of about 150 households covered by a lady health worker. Women aged 18–60 years who provided written informed consent, resided in the participating cluster catchment areas, scored at least 3 on the General Health Questionnaire-12, and at least 17 on the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule were recruited. The primary outcome, combined anxiety and depression symptoms, was measured 3 months after the intervention with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Modified intention-to-treat analyses were done using mixed models adjusted for covariates and clusters defined a priori. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number 12616000037404, and is now closed to new participants. 
 
Findings: From 34 eligible community clusters, 306 women in the intervention group and 306 women in the enhanced usual care (EUC) group were enrolled between Jan 11, 2016, and Aug 21, 2016, and the results of 288 (94%) of 306 women in the intervention group and 290 (95%) of 306 women in the EUC group were included in the primary endpoint analysis. At 3 months, women in the intervention group had significantly lower mean total scores on the HADS than women in the control group (10·01 [SD 7·54] vs 14·75 [8·11]; adjusted mean difference [AMD] –4·53, 95% CI –7·13 to –1·92; p=0·0007). Individual HADS anxiety scores were also significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (5·43 [SD 4·18] vs 8·02 [4·69]; AMD –2·52, 95% CI –4·04 to –1·01), as were depression scores (4·59 [3·87] vs 6·73 [3·91]; AMD –2·04, –3·19 to –0·88). No adverse events were reported in either group. 
 
Interpretation: Our group psychological intervention resulted in clinically significant reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms at 3 months, and might be a feasible and effective option for women with psychological distress in rural post-conflict settings. 
 
Funding: WHO through a grant from the Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance.

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2019

Without Water, There Is No Life’: Negotiating Everyday Risks and Gendered Insecurities in Karachi’s Informal Settlements

Citation:

Anwar, Nausheen H., Amiera Sanas, and Daanish Mustafa. 2020. “‘Without Water, There Is No Life’: Negotiating Everyday Risks and Gendered Insecurities in Karachi’s Informal Settlements.” Urban Studies 56 (6): 1320-37.

Authors: Nausheen H. Anwar, Amiera Sanas, Daanish Mustafa

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article provides new insights into the politics of water provisioning in Karachi’s informal settlements, where water shortages and contaminations have pushed ordinary citizens to live on the knife edge of water scarcity. We turn our attention to the everyday practices that involve gendered insecurities of water in Karachi, which has been Pakistan’s security laboratory for decades. We explore four shifting security logics that strongly contribute to the crisis of water provisioning at the neighbourhood level and highlight an emergent landscape of ‘securitised water’. Gender maps the antagonisms between these security logics, so we discuss the impacts on ordinary women and men as they experience chronic water shortages. In Karachi, a patriarchal stereotype of the militant or terrorist-controlled water supply is wielded with the aim of upholding statist national security concerns that undermine women’s and men’s daily security in water provisioning whereby everyday issues of risk and insecurity appear politically inconsequential. We contend that risk has a very gendered nature and it is women that experience it both in the home and outside.
 

CHINESE ABSTRACT:

本文为卡拉奇非正规住区的供水政治提供了新的见解,在那里水资源短缺和污染已经迫使普通公民生活在水资源短缺的边缘上。我们将注意力转向卡拉奇的日常做法,这些做法涉及供水不安全方面的性别差异,卡拉奇几十年来一直是巴基斯坦的安全风向标。我们探索了四种不断变化的安全逻辑,这些逻辑极大地加深了街区层面的供水危机,并凸显了新出现的、“供水成为安全议题”的局面。性别差异说明了这些安全逻辑之间的对立,因此我们讨论了长期缺水对普通妇女和男人生活的影响。在卡拉奇,受军方或恐怖分子控制的供水实行严格的父权制。其目的是以破坏普通人的日常供水安全为代价,维护一种中央集权式的国家安全,在这种体制下,人们日常生活中的风险和不安全问题在政治上显得无关紧要。我们认为风险具有非常强的性别差异质,女性在家庭和外部都会经历这种风险.

Keywords: exclusion, gender, infrastructure, politics, poverty, security, social justice, water, 关键词, 排斥, 性别, 基础设施, 政治, 贫困, 安全, 社会正义, 水

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Terrorism, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2020

Identifying Gender Vulnerabilities in Context of Climate Change in Indus Basin

Citation:

Abbasi, Saqib Shakeel, Muhammad Zubair Anwar, Nusrat Habib, Qaisar Khan, and Kanwal Waqar. 2019. "Identifying Gender Vulnerabilities in Context of Climate Change in Indus Basin." Environmental Development 31: 34-42.

Authors: Saqib Shakeel Abbasi, Muhammad Zubair Anwar, Nusrat Habib, Qaisar Khan, Kanwal Waqar

Abstract:

Changes in temperature and hydro-meteorological patterns in Indus basin due to climate change are believed to be impacting farming communities in different ways. From a gender perspective however, impacts of change vary from place to place, household to household and for individual members of the household due to a multiplicity of factors including expectation of individual members of a household to take additional responsibilities in difficult times. As an unavoidable coping strategy, the affected communities in upper Indus basin are compelled to send male members away from home in search of alternate sources of livelihoods. This compels women to take additional responsibilities at farm, household and community levels which ultimately increase the vulnerabilities of local women. However, scenario is different in mid-stream, where women have an additional workload to manage water requirements for household and livestock. While in downstream of the basin, women are culturally and socially dependent on men which increase their vulnerability many folds. Therefore, differentiated analysis of climate change impacts, based on gender roles and responsibilities, is crucial in climate change research. This paper presents gendered vulnerabilities at different scales in up, mid and downstream of the basin.

Keywords: Indus Basin, gender vulnerability, gender role, scale

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: China, Pakistan

Year: 2019

The Effects of Gender Transport Poverty in Karachi

Citation:

Iqbal, Sana, Andree Woodcock, and Jane Osmond. 2020. “The Effects of Gender Transport Poverty in Karachi.” Journal of Transport Geography 84 (April).

Authors: Sana Iqbal , Andree Woodcock, Jane Osmond

Abstract:

Karachi is the economic hub of Pakistan, with an estimated population of 20 million (Khawar, 2017). However, it lacks a systematised public transport service, with few buses and no trains, leaving private bus owners to run poor-quality deregulated services. Although it may be argued that poor service fails to accommodate the needs of the inhabitants of this megacity, women are additionally marginalised by restricted transport services. Men not only have more space allocated to them on public transport but also have the freedom to use alternative and cheaper private modes of transport such as motorbikes and cycles, which are socially discouraged for women. However, there is little literature on the barriers to women's mobility in countries in the Global South, which shows how they are differentially deprived of their agency owing to the cultural norms and gender disparity in transport provision. This paper aims to identify and assess the various aspects of gender transport poverty faced by young working women in Karachi using a quantitative survey. It will broaden the understanding of gender transport poverty in the Global South.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2020

Conceptualizing Gendered Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Hindu Kush Himalaya: Contextual Conditions and Drivers of Change

Citation:

Goodrich, Chanda Gurung, Pranita Bhushan Udas, and Harriet Larrington-Spencer. 2019. "Conceptualizing Gendered Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Hindu Kush Himalaya: Contextual Conditions and Drivers of Change." Environmental Development 31: 9-18.

Authors: Chanda Gurung Goodrich, Pranita Bhushan Udas, Harriet Larrington-Spencer

Abstract:

Not all women or all men are equally vulnerable. Manifestations of vulnerability to climate change vary in different groups of people, based on their position in a social and gender structure in a particular location and at a particular time. We need to understand the pre-existing conditions, what we term “contextual conditions” that underlie experiences of vulnerability and lead to its complexity and reproduction. This paper is based on a literature review and takes the standpoint that not only is gender a powerful and pervasive contextual condition, but that it intersects with other contextual conditions to shape vulnerabilities. Further, gender and other contextual conditions also influence and are influenced by socioeconomic drivers of change to produce differential gendered vulnerabilities. Therefore, manifestations of gendered vulnerability to climate change are the result of complex and interlinked factors, which cannot be simplified for the sake of efficiency. This paper offers a conceptual framework bringing together these interlinkages and intersectionalities in understanding differential gendered vulnerabilities.

Keywords: climate change, gender, Hindu Kush Himalaya, vulnerabilities

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Intersectionality Regions: Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan

Year: 2019

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services during Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

Citation:

Singh, Neha S., James Smith, Sarindi Aryasinghe, Rajat Khosla, Lale Say, and Karl Blanchet. 2018.  “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services during Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.” PLoS One 13 (7): 1-19.

Authors: Neha S. Singh, James Smith, Sarindi Aryasinghe, Rajat Khosla, Lale Say, Karl Blanchet

Abstract:

Background: An estimated 32 million women and girls of reproductive age living in emergency situations, all of whom require sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. This systematic review assessed the effect of SRH interventions, including the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) on a range of health outcomes from the onset of emergencies.
 
Methods and Findings: We searched EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE and PsychINFO databases from January 1, 1980 to April 10, 2017. This review was registered with the PROSPERO database with identifier number CRD42017082102. We found 29 studies meet the inclusion criteria. We found high quality evidence to support the effectiveness of specific SRH interventions, such as home visits and peer-led educational and counselling, training of lower-level health care providers, community health workers (CHWs) to promote SRH services, a three-tiered network of health workers providing reproductive and maternal health services, integration of HIV and SRH services, and men’s discussion groups for reducing intimate partner violence. We found moderate quality evidence to support transport-based referral systems, community-based SRH education, CHW delivery of injectable contraceptives, wider literacy programmes, and birth preparedness interventions. No studies reported interventions related to fistulae, and only one study focused on abortion services.
 
Conclusions: Despite increased attention to SRH in humanitarian crises, the sector has made little progress in advancing the evidence base for the effectiveness of SRH interventions, including the MISP, in crisis settings. A greater quantity and quality of more timely research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of delivering SRH interventions in a variety of humanitarian crises.

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Domestic Violence, Education, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Girls, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Haiti, Pakistan, Philippines

Year: 2018

Women's Mobility via Bus Rapid Transit: Experiential Patterns and Challenges in Lahore

Citation:

Malik, Bilal Zia, Zia Ur Rehman, Ammad Hassan Khan, and Waseem Akram. 2020. "Women's Mobility via Bus Rapid Transit: Experiential Patterns and Challenges in Lahore." Journal of Transport & Health 17: 1-18.

Authors: Bilal Zia Malik, Zia Ur Rehman, Ammad Hassan Khan, Waseem Akram

Abstract:

Background: Women in developing countries experience greater restrictions in mass urban mobility. UN’s Sustainability Development Goals for 2030 recommend safe, affordable, accessible, and sustainable public transportation, particularly for the vulnerable groups. Pakistan experiences rapid urbanization trends and considerably low ranking worldwide for gender equality. In addition, socio-cultural norms, higher dependency on public transport, lack of genderresponsive mass transportation, and harassment experiences limit women to explore potential growth opportunities.

Objectives: Since limited evidence exists on the subject, this study aims to investigate typical mobility attributes of women users of Pakistan’s first bus rapid transit (BRT) in Lahore, explore the challenges they face, and recommend measures for improved urban mobility.

Methods: Primary data include face-to-face interview-based questionnaire surveys along the BRT corridor to assess various quantitative and qualitative travel characteristics. Descriptive and cross-comparison statistical techniques were applied to obtain reliable results. Responses related to harassment were documented and evaluated. Graphical trends and pictorial evidences were also presented.

Results: Major segments of the study sample belonged to lower-income, relatively younger and middle age, students, employees and users with no or limited work. More prevalent modes to and from BRT stations were paratransit, including rickshaws and chingchis (motorbikes converted into rickshaws), followed by walking. Majority accessed BRT within 5 km, covered less than 15 km along 27 km BRT corridor, and traveled during daylight. Major challenges were harassment at stations and in buses (younger users being more affected), limited facilities for the elderly, lack of seating/waiting facilities near entrances/exits of BRT stations, limited dedicated space in buses and ticketing booths during rush hours.

Conclusion: The study highlights important typical mobility trends and difficulties of women while using Lahore BRT. Addressing women’s mass urban mobility issues could improve their educational and economic prospects. Findings could be useful for transportation agencies and practitioners to incorporate gender-sensitive measures in future BRT systems, particularly in developing countries. 

Keywords: women's mobility, bus rapid transit, gender equality, developing country

Topics: Economies, Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2020

Armed Conflict and Women's Agency: The Case of Swat, Pakistan

Citation:

Wagha, Rehana. 2014. “Armed Conflict and Women's Agency: The Case of Swat, Pakistan.” Asian Journal of Women's Studies 20 (3): 121-31.

Author: Rehana Wagha

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:

Women are generally portrayed as the helpless victims of armed conflicts. However, the consequences of such portrayal or essentialist representations prove very adverse for women’s identity and agency. Rather than fully acknowledging women’s courage and strength in civil conflicts and war situations, their role and voices are hidden and muffled. As a result, they are neither counted nor given any role in critical decision-making for the future. This study is aimed at retrieving women’s agency in the context of Islamic militancy in the Swat region of Pakistan.

URDU ABSTRACT:

Keywords: agency, patriarchy, Islamic militancy, identity, female consciousness, feminism

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Women, Terrorism, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2014

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