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Nigeria

African Women's Movements in the Twentieth Century: A Hidden History

Citation:

Berger, Iris. 2014. “African Women’s Movements in the Twentieth Century: A Hidden History.” African Studies Review 57 (3): 1–19. 

 

Author: Iris Berger

Abstract:

This article begins by exploring the efforts of African women’s movements from the 1990s onward to end violent civil conflicts and to insist on guarantees of gender equity in newly formed governments. It attempts to explain these recent successes first by examining the complex relationships between international women’s movements and African women’s groups from the Second World War onward, particularly from the era of the U.N. Decade for Women beginning in 1975. The article then turns to a broader problem: exploring the connections between contemporary women’s activism and deeper currents in African history that link the precolonial period with the more recent past. By examining a variety of twentieth-century women’s protests, it argues that cloaked in the language of political, economic, and environmental grievances, these movements also reflect a hidden history of women’s influence as public healers, empowered not only to cure individuals, but also to mend broader relationships in the community.

Keywords: women, empowerment, protest movements, healing, international women's movements, Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict Prevention, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Kenya, Nigeria

Year: 2014

Rural Electrification and Household Labor Supply: Evidence from Nigeria

Citation:

Claire Salmon, and Jeremy Tanguy. 2016. “Rural Electrification and Household Labor Supply: Evidence from Nigeria.” World Development 82: 48–68.

Authors: Claire Salmon, Jeremy Tanguy

Abstract:

 In Nigeria, the most populated African country, rural electrification is a critical issue because of the low household elec- trification rate and the poor quality of the grid. This energy poverty has harmful economic and social consequences in rural areas, such as low productivity, lack of income-generating opportunities and poor housing conditions. In this paper, we consider electrification as a technical shock that may affect household time allocation. Using the 2010–11 General Household Survey, we investigate how electrification affects female and male labor supply decisions within rural households in Nigeria. Focusing on husband–wife data, we consider potential dependence in spouses’ labor supply decisions and address the challenge of zero hours of work using a recent copula-based bivariate hurdle model (Deb et al., 2013). In addition, an instrumental variable strategy helps identify the causal effect of electrification. Our results underline that this dependence in spouses’ labor supply decisions is critical to consider when assessing the impact of electri- fication on these outcomes. Electrification increases the working time of both spouses in the separate assessments, but the joint analysis emphasizes only a positive effect of electrification on husbands’ working time. In line with the household labor supply approach, our findings highlight that, within the household, the labor supply decisions of one spouse significantly affect those of the other spouse. Thus, if we neglect the effect of electrification on the spouse of the individual examined, we may fail to assess how this individual has been actually affected by this common shock on both spouses. Our results suggest that these within–household relationships promote hus- bands’ working time at the expense of wives’ working time.

Keywords: rural electrification, labor supply, developing countries, joint decision making, copulas, bivariate hurdle model

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods, Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2016

Between "Victims" and "Criminals": Rescue, Deportation, and Everyday Violence Among Nigerian Migrants

Citation:

Plambech, Sine. 2014. “Between ‘Victims’ and ‘Criminals’: Rescue, Deportation, and Everyday Violence Among Nigerian Migrants.” Social Politics 21 (3): 382–402. doi:10.1093/sp/jxu021.

Author: Sine Plambech

Abstract:

This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as "victims of human trafficking"; others were categorized as undocumented migrants -- "criminals" guilty of violating immigration laws. Despite the growing political attention devoted to protecting victims of trafficking, I argue that in areas of Nigeria prone to economic insecurity and gender-based violence, the categories of "victim" and "criminal" collapse into, and begin to resemble, one another once on the ground. The need to identify and distinguish groups of migrants from one another illustrates the dilemmas that have arisen in the wake of increasingly restrictive European immigration policies. Furthermore, the return processes create a hierarchical structure in which the violence women experience in the sex industry in Europe is imagined to be worse than the everyday violence they experience at home.

Keywords: sex industry, human trafficking, immigration policy, violence, gender, Nigeria

Topics: Citizenship, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2014

Gender Responsive Entrepreneurial Economy of Nigeria: Enabling Women in a Disabling Environment

Citation:

Nwoye, May. 2007. “Gender Responsive Entrepreneurial Economy of Nigeria: Enabling Women in a Disabling Environment.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 9 (1): 167-75.

Author: May Nwoye

Abstract:

Growth and development are among the most exciting subjects in economics, and the application of their principles to developing countries especially the African economies, is both needed and timely. In Nigeria, women have historically been disadvantaged in accessing not only material resources like property and credit, but also have been deprived of resources like education, market information and modern technology. All of these factors have negative implications for the type of enterprises that women are engaged in. This paper highlights the various economic constraints faced by women in Nigeria, as a result of limitations imposed on them by nature and culture; It calls for removal of gender-related obstacles in order to facilitate the creation of enterprises by women, as well as improving their general education, and entrepreneurial skills. The paper argues that gender imbalances in access to education and productive resources have important implications, not only for equity, but also for economic output, productivity, food security, fertility, and child welfare. It further recommends gender specific activities and affirmative action, whenever women are in a particularly disadvantageous position. The paper concludes that mainstreaming gender into budget and policy design will provide women access to support services they require to develop the necessary confidence, explore alternative business ideas and entrepreneurial strategies that will stimulate, not only the Nigerian economy, but the people’s way of life.

 

Keywords: Nigeria, Entrepreneurial Economy, women and economics

Topics: Development, Economies, Education, Gender, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2007

Women’s Responses to State Violence in the Niger Delta

Citation:

Ekine, Sokari. 2008. “Women’s Responses to State Violence in the Niger Delta.” Feminist Africa 10: 67–83.

Author: Sokari Ekine

Abstract:

This paper will discuss the ways in which the women of the Niger Delta have responded to acts of violence by the Nigerian State and its allies, the multinational oil companies. I first briefly outline the background to the crises in the Niger Delta and then discuss the responses and resistance of the women.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Corruption, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Multi-National Corporations, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2008

Stuck in the Middle: Women and the Struggle for Survival in the Oil-Degraded Niger Delta

Citation:

Anugwom, Edlyne. 2007. “Stuck in the Middle: Women and the Struggle for Survival in the Oil-Degraded Niger Delta.” Agenda: Empowering Women For Gender Equity, Biopolitics: New Technologies Trilogy, 1 (1): 58–68.

Author: Edlyne Anugwom

Abstract:

This focus examines the relevance of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) as economic and empowering mechanisms for women in the oil degraded Niger Delta region of Nigeria. While ICTs have become increasingly popular in the region and have provided economic niches for women, influence of ICTs has differed significantly between urban and rural women. Therefore, while urban women are now heavily engaged in various ICT businesses, like call centres and cyber cafés, the economic degeneration and underdevelopment of the rural enclaves have limited the commercial viability of ICTs for women. In spite of this, ICTs are important in both rural and urban areas in the region in terms of improving the knowledge base of women and enabling them to articulate their positions. Generally, the effective usage of ICTs, whether for leisure or commercial purposes, has been limited by structural constraints ranging from dearth of electricity to impoverished economic situations of women. However, the different impact of ICTs on women in urban and rural areas calls for a policy orientation that is conversant with the peculiar needs of women in both areas and the improvement of the general socio-economic situation of the rural enclaves.

Topics: Development, Economies, Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2007

Militarism, conflict and women's activism in the global era: Challenges and prospects for women in three West African contexts

Citation:

Mama, Amina and Margo Okazawa-Rey. 2012. "Militarism, conflict and women's activism in the global era: challenges and prospects for women in three West African contexts." Feminist Review 101 (1): 97-123.

Authors: Amina Mama, Margo Okazawa-Rey

Abstract:

This article develops a feminist perspective on militarism in Africa, drawing examples from the Nigerian, Sierra Leonean and Liberian civil wars spanning several decades to examine women’s participation in the conflict, their survival and livelihood strategies, and their activism. We argue that postcolonial conflicts epitomise some of the worst excesses of militarism in the era of neoliberal globalisation, and that the economic, organisational and ideological features of militarism undermine the prospects for democratisation, social justice and genuine security, especially for women, in post-war societies. Theorisations of ‘new wars’ and the war economy are taken as entry points to a discussion of the conceptual and policy challenges posed by the enduring and systemic cultural and material aspects of militarism. These include the contradictory ways in which women are affected by the complex relationship between gendered capitalist processes and militarism, and the manner in which women negotiate their lives through both. Finally, we highlight the potential of transnational feminist theorising and activism for strengthening intellectual and political solidarities and argue that the globalised military security system can be our ‘common context for struggle’1 as contemporary feminist activist scholars.

Keywords: militarism, gender, armed conflict, West Africa, feminism, security

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Democracy / Democratization, Economies, Gender, Femininity/ies, Globalization, Justice, Livelihoods, Militarized Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone

Year: 2012

Oil, Gender and Agricultural Child Labour in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Development

Citation:

Joseph-Obi, Chioma. 2011. “Oil, Gender and Agricultural Child Labour in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Development.” Gender & Behaviour 9 (2): 4072–99.

Author: Chioma Joseph-Obi

Abstract:

The Niger Delta region of Nigeria continues to face the problem of agitations, violent conflicts, crimes, rural-urban migration, environmental degradation, militant resistance engendering a frightening state, characterized by violence and criminality in the form of kidnapping, prostitution, escalating unemployment, and vandalization. This paper examines how the activities of oil multinational corporations has compromised agriculture and child labour in the region. This paper is expository and analytical in thrust. It is based on data collected through a survey conducted amongst agricultural child labourers in Rivers State of Nigeria. The sample consisted of 180 respondents drawn from Afara, Kpite-Tai and Tombia, communities all in Rivers State using the purposive sampling technique. A total of 90 parents/guardians were also drawn from the three communities. The study assessed the relationship between oil and gas exploration, gender and the agricultural child labour. The relationship between household size and agricultural child labour and the relationship between health-related hazards and girl-child labour. Data generated from the survey were subjected to statistical analyses using simple percentages to establish primary correlation. It revealed that there is a significant relationship between (a) household size and child labour, and (b) oil and gas exploration and gender and child labour. This paper, was also viewed through the lens of Marxian Feminist Theory. Finally, some recommendations were made, top of which the existing poverty alleviation programmes in the country should be targeted at the girls' and women first.

Keywords: gender, Agricultural child labour, Niger Delta, poverty, oil, multinationals

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Girls, Health, Households, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Multi-National Corporations, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2011

"When Will I Get My Rest?” Neo-Liberalism, Women, Class and Ageing in Ibadan, Nigeria

Citation:

Adeniyi-Ogunyankin, Grace. 2012. “‘When Will I Get My Rest?’ Neo-Liberalism, Women, Class and Ageing in Ibadan, Nigeria.” Agenda 26 (4): 29–36.

Author: Grace Adeniyi-Ogunyankin

Abstract:

In-depth interviews about gender and the urban political economy in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria with a sample of 24 women aged 46 to 83 years revealed that there are class differences in ageing as it pertains to women’s experiences of financial security and care work. Based on interview responses, this briefing argues that neoliberalism has exacerbated the class disparity in ageing among women in Ibadan. Neoliberalism has heightened urban inequality through policies that have led to currency devaluation, state retrenchment of social services and employment insecurity. These policies have in turn intensified women’s triple burden of reproduction, production and community management as women bear the responsibility of absorbing the shock of neoliberal economic policies. Moreover, contrary to neoliberal assumptions that older people are mainly dependants who rely on their families for financial assistance and care, poorer older women are also shock absorbers as far as economic activity and care work is concerned. This briefing highlights that neoliberalism in fact increases the burden on older people, especially women, and can have adverse effects on the ageing process in that it exacerbates deprivation and increases the social constraints faced by poor elder women and their burden of care.

Keywords: neoliberalism, gender, age, class, financial security, care work

Topics: Age, Class, Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods, Political Economies, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2012

Oil and the Production of Competing Subjectivities in Nigeria: ‘Platforms of Possibilities’ and ‘Pipelines of Conflict'

Citation:

Adunbi, Omolade. 2011. “Oil and the Production of Competing Subjectivities in Nigeria: ‘Platforms of Possibilities’ and ‘Pipelines of Conflict.’” African Studies Review 54 (3): 101–20.

Author: Omolade Adunbi

Abstract:

This article examines how multinational corporations, recognizing the symbolic value of oil pipelines, flow stations, and platforms as ancestral promises of wealth to subject populations, work with NGOs and communities (sometimes in collaboration with the latter, but sometimes in a more adversarial manner) in setting up governance structures that often compete with, and sometimes oppose, the state in struggles over territorial control and resource extraction. These forms of contestations, it argues, create new sites of power in which NGOs aid multinational oil corporations in negotiating new sites of governance that in themselves create new structures of power.

Topics: Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy, Multi-National Corporations, NGOs Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2011

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