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Violence Against Women in Latin America


Wilson, Tamar Diana. 2014. “Violence Against Women in Latin America.” Latin American Perspectives 41 (1): 3–18. doi:10.1177/0094582X13492143.

Author: Tamar Diana Wison

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Rape, Torture Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua

Year: 2014

No More Killings! Women Respond to Femicides in Central America


Prieto-Carrón, Marina, Marilyn Thomson, and Mandy Macdonald. 2007. “No More Killings! Women Respond to Femicides in Central America.” Gender and Development 15 (1): 25–40.

Authors: Marina Prieto Carrón, Marilyn Thomson, Mandy Macdonald


This article looks at a specific form of social violence against women in Mexico and Central America, the violent murder of women - femicidio or feminicidio in Spanish, femicide in English. We explore the nature of femicide by analysing the situation from a gender perspective, as an extreme form of gender-based violence (GBV), and linking femicides with discrimination, poverty and a 'backlash' against women. In a climate of total state impunity, it is extremely important to support the responses of feminists and women's organisations in the region who are carrying out research to document femicides and GBV in general, supporting survivors and their families, and carrying out advocacy activities. 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Impunity, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, North America Countries: Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua

Year: 2007

Reconstructing Roles and Relations: Women's Participation in Reconstruction in Post-Mitch Nicaragua


Bradshaw, Sarah. 2001. “Reconstructing Roles and Relations: Women’s Participation in Reconstruction in Post-Mitch Nicaragua.” Gender & Development 9 (3): 79–87. doi:10.1080/13552070127757.

Author: Sarah Bradshaw


Hurricane Mitch, which took place in October 1998, affected millions of people in Central America, in Honduras and Nicaragua in particular. In Nicaragua, following the hurricane, many civil society organisations mobilised to participate in reconstruction, and to present alternatives to the government's reconstruction plans. The newly-formed Civil Co-ordinator for Emergency and Reconstruction (CCER), a coalition of NGOs, undertook a large-scale social audit of the reconstruction process. This article presents the results of the audit alongside more in-depth research to provide a gendered analysis of the reconstruction. It focuses on the roles of women in reconstruction, their participation and leadership in reconstruction projects and in individual household responses, and questions whether reconstruction projects have had any impact on transforming gender relations in post-hurricane communities.

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Humanitarian Assistance, NGOs Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2001

Gender, Sexuality, and Politics: Rethinking the Relationship Between Feminism and Sandinismo in Nicaragua


Heumann, Silke. 2014. “Gender, Sexuality, and Politics: Rethinking the Relationship Between Feminism and Sandinismo in Nicaragua.” Social Politics 21 (2): 290. doi:10.1093/sp/jxu004.

Author: Silke Heumann


This paper revisits the historical relationship between Sandinismo and Feminism in Nicaragua, to explain the increasing antagonism between them. Drawing on the personal accounts of women's rights, sexual rights, and reproductive rights activists who participated in the Sandinista Revolution and movement, I show that the current conflict -- far from being a radical break with the past -- can be traced to antagonisms that have long existed within the Sandinista movement. The Sandinista leadership actively mobilized an anti-feminist discourse that marginalized sexual and reproductive rights from the revolutionary struggle. By constructing feminism as antagonistic to the revolution and forcing a split in loyalties, this discourse produced complex processes of (self)disciplining and (self)silencing. The article seeks to highlight the complexity of these processes and the internal dilemmas they produced. It questions not only the primacy of the economic or material sphere over issues of gender and sexuality, but also the very division of these into different spheres of experience and politics.

Keywords: political leadership, gender, sexuality, feminism, reproductive health

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Health, Reproductive Health, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2014

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study


Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London


There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

Mujeres rurales, tierra y producción: Propiedad, acceso y control de la tierra para las mujeres.


Fuentes López, Adriana Patricia, Javier Lautaro Medina Bernal and Sergio Andrés Coronado Delgado. 1993. Mujeres rurales, tierra y producción: Propiedad, acceso y control de la tierra para las mujeres. San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para el Desarrollo de las Mujeres Negras Costarricenses.

Authors: Adriana Patricia Fuentes López, Javier Lautaro Medina Bernal , Sergio Andrés Coronado Delgado

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua

Year: 1993

Mujeres, Derechos a la Tierra y Contrarreformas en América Latina


Deere, Carmen Diana and Magdalena León. 1997. "Mujeres, Derechos a la Tierra y Contrarreformas en América Latina." Paper presented at the XX Congreso Latinoamericano de la Asociación de Estudios Latinoamericanos (LASA), Mexico City, April,  129-53.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Magdalena León

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua

Year: 1997

Gender, Land and Sexuality: Exploring Connections


Jacobs, Susie. 2014. “Gender, Land and Sexuality: Exploring Connections.” International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 27 (2): 173–90. 

Author: Susie Jacobs


This article explores links between the issues of sexuality and gendered control over agricultural land. It discusses gendered land rights in several settings, concentrating particularly on agrarian and land reforms. I argue that land redistribution in the “household” model, discussed for Chile and Nicaragua, tends to entrench male household and agricultural control. In contrast, more collective forms, discussed for Vietnam, have displayed economic weaknesses but had potential to undercut such control by socialising women’s labour. Fears about and visions of female sexuality have much to do with backlashes against inclusion of women, either through allowing them membership of cooperatives and collectives or through granting rights such as joint titling to land. In sub-Saharan Africa, there currently exists much discussion of improving women’s control over agriculture and its products. These continue to meet opposition, despite female predominance in agriculture in the region. Thus, even though women work on the land in many societies, this does not give them any automatic “closeness” to nature or say within households. Control over women’s, especially wives’, labour within peasant households, is linked to the manner that their persons and their labour are bound up in this socio-economic form. The article also examines two feminist attempts to configure alternative agricultural forms: the case of a lesbian agricultural collective in the west of the USA and an Indian model of new female-centred households for single women. Heterosexuality as an institution and gender subordination more broadly, as the examples here indicate, have to do not only with sexual practices or identity but extend also to issues of labour and access to crucial resources.

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Gender, Households, LGBTQ, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights, Sexuality Regions: Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Chile, India, Nicaragua, United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 2014

War, Religion, and Gender Ideology: The Politics of Peace Symbols in the 1990 Nicaraguan Elections


Dolan, Maureen. 1990. "War, Religion, and Gender Ideology: The Politics of Peace Symbols in the 1990 Nicaraguan Elections." Critical Sociology 17 (2): 103-9.

Author: Maureen Dolan


Analyses of the Sandinista defeat in the Nicaraguan elections of 1990 have focused both on the external pressures on the revolutionary state (warfarea and subsequent economic factors unfavorable for the national economy) and on factors internal to the revolutionary process (separation of FSLN from the grassroots organizations, hierarchical party structures, and related factors). However, little space has been devoted to an analysis of the gender politics of the election, either in terms of women's response as subjects differently affected by the war or in terms of the impact of the ideological struggle over the social construction of women and mothers in the electoral process.

This paper will examine how the complex personal and political component of the lived experience of prolonged warfare became articulated in the gender politics of the electoral campaign. I will argue tht the international process of militarization that characterized the contra war shaped the context for the construction of gender politics in the 1990 election campaign. I will further argue that the gender metaphors of the political discourse, as utilized in the ideological construction of the presidential candidates as peace candidates, constitute a key site in which the electoral campaigns of the Sandinistas and the UNO coalition defined their strategy. Ultimately, the construction of Danial Ortega as "gallo enavejado" – the macho fighting cock armed for battle – was less convincing as an image for achieving peace in Nicaragua than Violeta Chamorro, ideologically constructed by the UNO campaign as the "Virgin Mary" – the conciliatory maternal figure with religious and quasi-magical power for ending war.

Keywords: Political campaigns, militarism, political parties, ideology, education

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Political Participation, Religion Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 1990

Gender and Attitudes Toward Justice System Bias in Central America


Walker, Lee Demetrius. 2008. “Gender and Attitudes Toward Justice System Bias in Central America.” Latin American Research Review 43 (2): 80-106.

Author: Lee Demetrius Walker


What interests of Latin American women create distinctive attitudes toward justice system equality that differ from those of Latin American men? Building on recent work on general justice system bias and using 2003 Latinobarómetro data, I test this question in three Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Nicaragua) using two sets of attitudes toward justice system performance (equal punishment and equal treatment), women are significantly more likely to believe that the criminal justice system provides unequal treatment before the law than are men, while women and men express the same level of belief that the justice system provides equal punishment. Evidence indicates that women connect unequal treatment to economic factors and follow a conflict model of criminal justice, which posits these attitudinal differences as a function of the group's subordinate position in society.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua

Year: 2008


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