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Nepal

From Warriors of Empire to Martial Contractors: Reimagining Gurkhas in Private Security

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda. 2015. “From Warriors of Empire to Martial Contractors: Reimagining Gurkhas in Private Security.” In Gender and Private Security in Global Politics, edited by Eichler, Maya. Oxford Studies in Gender and International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Amanda Chisholm

Topics: Gender, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Gender and Green Governance: The Political Economy of Women’s Presence Within and Beyond Community Forestry

Citation:

Agarwal, Bina. 2010. Gender and Green Governance: The Political Economy of Women’s Presence Within and Beyond Community Forestry. New York: Oxford University Press.

Author: Bina Agarwal

Abstract:

Economists studying environmental collective action and green governance have paid little attention to gender. Research on gender and green governance in other disciplines has focused mainly on women's near absence from forestry institutions. This interdisciplinary book turns that focus on its head to ask: what if women were present in these institutions? What difference would that make? Would women's inclusion in forest governance - undeniably important for equity - also affect decisions on forest use and outcomes for conservation and subsistence? Are women's interests in forests different from men's? Would women's presence lead to better forests and more equitable access? Does it matter which class of women governs? And how large a presence of women would make an impact? Answers to these questions can prove foundational for effective environmental governance. Yet they have hardly been empirically investigated. In an analysis that is conceptually sophisticated and statistically rigorous, using primary data on community forestry institutions in India and Nepal, this book is the first major study to comprehensively address these wide-ranging issues. It traces women's history of exclusion from public institutions, the factors which constrain their effective participation, and how those constraints can be overcome. It outlines how strategic partnerships between forestry and other civil society institutions could strengthen rural women's bargaining power with community and government. And it examines the complexities of eliciting government accountability in addressing poor rural women's needs, such as for clean domestic fuel and access to the commons. Located in the interface of environmental studies, political economy and gender analysis, the volume makes significant original contributions to current debates on gender and governance, forest conservation, clean energy policy, critical mass and social inclusion. Traversing uncharted territory with rare analytical rigor, this lucidly written book will be of interest to scholars and students as well as policy makers and practitioners. 

Annotation: Table of Contents: Part 1: The Potential of Presence 1. Presence and Representation 2. Gendered Interests and the Environment 3. From Absence to Negotiated Presence Part 2: The Impact of Presence 4. Fieldsites and Field Profile 5. From Exclusion to Empowered Engagement 6. Rules and Rulemakers 7. Violations and Penalties 8. Conservation and Regeneration 9. Shortages Amidst Growing Plenty Part 3: Beyond Presence 10. Connecting with Civil Society: Weaving a Web of Strategic Alliances 11. Engaging with Government: Extending the Web

Topics: Civil Society, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Nepal

Year: 2010

Interrogating Women’s Peace Work: Community-Based Peacebuilding, Gender, and Savings’ Co-Operatives in Post-Conflict Nepal

Citation:

Ramnarain, Smita. 2015. “Interrogating Women’s Peace Work: Community-Based Peacebuilding, Gender, and Savings’ Co-Operatives in Post-Conflict Nepal.” Community Development Journal 50 (4): 677–92. doi:10.1093/cdj/bsu065.

Author: Smita Ramnarain

Abstract:

Recent trends towards community-based and participatory approaches to peacebuilding and acknowledgment of the greater need to incorporate women's voices have resulted in experiments devolving responsibilities for building peace to women's organizations at the grassroots level in post-conflict situations. This article discusses one such experiment that women's savings and credit cooperatives in Nepal have undertaken to mediate conflict and build peace at the local levels. Using women's narratives emerging from interviews and focus group discussions, the gendered assumptions behind women's community-based peacebuilding activities, and implications for women's sustained participation in peace work, are examined. The findings reveal that this model of peacebuilding relied on educating and training women but neglected to explore the structural inequalities that cause violence. Indeed, the expectation placed on women's savings and credit co-operative members to perform unremunerated and sustained peace work in their communities may itself reflect inequalities of power that community-based peace models need to address.

Topics: Economies, Education, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Towards Victim-Centred Transitional Justice: Understanding the Needs of Families of the Disappeared in Postconflict Nepal

Citation:

Robins, Simon. 2011. “Towards Victim-Centred Transitional Justice: Understanding the Needs of Families of the Disappeared in Postconflict Nepal.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 5 (1): 75–98. doi:10.1093/ijtj/ijq027.

Author: Simon Robins

Abstract:

Despite many transitional justice processes claiming to be ‘victim-centred,’ in practice they are rarely driven by the needs of those most affected by conflict. Indeed, in many contexts the views of victims are not sought by those driving the transition. In this article, the needs of a representative sample of 160 families of people disappeared during Nepal’s decade-long Maoist insurgency are studied in an effort to understand what such families seek from the transitional justice process. The study shows that victims emphasize the need for the truth about the disappeared and for economic support to help meet basic needs. Whilst families of the disappeared would welcome justice, this is not their priority. Nepal’s transitional justice process remains still-born and discussions are polarized between a human rights community that prioritizes prosecutions and a political class that seeks to avoid them. An understanding of victims’ expectations of the process can potentially break this deadlock and allow policies to be driven by the needs of those most affected.

Topics: Gender, Women, Justice, Transitional Justice, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2011

Mental Health of Female Survivors of Human Trafficking in Nepal

Citation:

Tsutsumi, Atsuro, Takashi Izutsu, Amod K. Poudyal, Seika Kato, and Eiji Marui. 2008. “Mental Health of Female Survivors of Human Trafficking in Nepal.” Social Science & Medicine 66 (8): 1841–47. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.025.

Authors: Atsuro Tsutsumi, Takashi Izutsu, Amod K. Poudyal, Seika Kato, Eiji Marui

Abstract:

Little is known about the mental health status of trafficked women, even though international conventions require that it be con- sidered. This study, therefore, aims at exploring the mental health status, including anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), of female survivors of human trafficking who are currently supported by local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Katmandu, the capital of Nepal, through comparison between those who were forced to work as sex workers and those who worked in other areas such as domestic and circus work (non-sex workers group). The Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) was administered to assess anxiety and depression, and the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used to eval- uate PTSD. Both the sex workers’ and the non-sex workers’ groups had a high proportion of cases with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. The sex workers group tended to have more anxiety symptoms (97.7%) than the non-sex workers group (87.5%). Regarding depression, all the constituents of the sex workers group scored over the cut-off point (100%), and the group showed a significantly higher prevalence than the non-sex workers (80.8%). The proportion of those who are above the cut-off for PTSD was higher in the sex workers group (29.6%) than in the non-sex workers group (7.5%). There was a higher rate of HIV infection in the sex workers group (29.6%) than in the non-sex workers group (0%). The findings suggest that programs to address human trafficking should include interventions (such as psychosocial support) to improve survivors’ mental health status, paying attention to the category of work performed during the trafficking period. In particular, the current efforts of the United Nations and various NGOs that help survivors of human trafficking need to more explicitly focus on mental health and psychosocial support.

 

Keywords: human trafficking, women, Nepal, mental health, sex work, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2008

The Silenced and Indispensible

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda. 2014. “The Silenced and Indispensible.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 16 (1): 26–47. 

Author: Amanda Chisholm

Abstract:

Using postcolonial analysis coupled with fieldwork in both Afghanistan and Nepal, I argue that contemporary colonial relations within private security make possible a gender and racial hierarchy of security contractors. This hierarchy of contractors results in vastly different conditions of possibilities depending on the contractors' histories and nationalities. Empirically documenting perspectives from Gurkhas, constituted as third country national (TCNs) security contractors, this article contributes to the existing critical theory and gender in both private military security company literature and postcolonial studies by (1) providing a needed racial and gendered analysis from the position of the racialized security contractors and (2) empirically documenting a growing subaltern group of men participating as security contractors.

Keywords: private security, private military security companies, third country nationals, Gurkhas, Afghanistan, martial race, postcolonial, masculinities, gender

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods, Militarized Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Privatization Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Nepal

Year: 2014

Universalized Categories, Dissonant Realities: Gendering Postconflict Reconstruction in Nepal

Citation:

Ramnarain, Smita. 2015. “Universalized Categories, Dissonant Realities: Gendering Postconflict Reconstruction in Nepal.” Gender, Place & Culture 22 (9): 1305–22. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2014.958062.

 

Author: Smita Ramnarain

Abstract:

International agencies, nongovernmental organizations, governmental agencies, and development policy-makers have sought to incorporate ‘gender mainstreaming’ into postconflict policies and programs in an effort to ameliorate the unequal gender impacts of war. This article uses narratives of widow heads of household collected through field research in Nepal in 2008 and 2011 to illustrate how postconflict development discourses purporting to engage with gender not only take a narrow view of gender (i.e., by equating it to women-focused activities), but also neglect the complex and dynamic realities of women's lives. Postconflict interventions employ simplistic assumptions that neglect gender-specific postconflict insecurities and oppressions (such as systematic violence against women). By neglecting the crucial significance of social networks for widows' survival, postconflict reconstruction assumes women to be individualized receptacles for development/empowerment. The crucial role of social networks in constraining women's agency is obscured. At the same time, assumptions of homogeneity ingrained in universalized categories such as ‘widow’ and ‘conflict-affected’ obfuscate women's multiple identities, roles, and agency in their struggles for survival. The insights emerging from field research suggest a greater attunement of postconflict development interventions to women's lived experiences and social settings.

Keywords: gender, violent conflict, reconstruction, widow heads, Nepal, qualitative research

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Unpacking Widow Headship and Agency in Post-Conflict Nepal

Citation:

Ramnarain, Smita. 2016. “Unpacking Widow Headship and Agency in Post-Conflict Nepal.” Feminist Economics 22 (1): 80–105.

Abstract:

Feminist scholars have highlighted a rise in “non-traditional” household structures, as exemplified by female- and widow-headed households, as a consequence of war. This study points to the necessity of disaggregating female headship to trace the contours of household vulnerability of widow-headed households, a subset of female-headed households. The inadequacy of surveys in explaining the interplay between economic vulnerability and social norms is ameliorated through the use of ethnographic data and the narratives of widow heads collected through fieldwork in 2008–9 and 2011. The study traces key coping strategies of widow-headed households in Nepal to provide insight into the processes by which widow heads mediate social institutions and patriarchal norms in their everyday struggles for survival, and the spaces of agency that emerge herein. The study concludes with implications for prevailing understandings of household headship and agency that development practitioners must be attentive to in devising policies to support widow heads.

Keywords: agency, violent conflict, qualitative methods, female headship

Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Institutionalizing Gender Responsive Budgeting in National and Local Governments in Nepal

Citation:

Nepal, Purusottam. 2015. “Institutionalizing Gender Responsive Budgeting in National and Local Governments in Nepal.” In Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting, edited by Cecilia Ng, 163–78. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace 22. Springer International Publishing. 

Author: Purusottam Nepal

Abstract:

The chapter discusses how gender responsive budgeting has been introduced and implemented in Nepal. It looks at the changes at the national level in terms of structures and processes. The chapter also examines how changes have been made at the local level to incorporate gender sensitive participatory governance through the Local Governance and Community Development Programme. The conclusion delves into the challenges faced in this journey of combining gender responsive and participatory budgeting in Nepal.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Participatory governance, local government, accountability, Monitoring mechanisms, Grassroots women

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Budgeting, Governance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Trafficking in girls and women in Nepal for commercial sexual exploitation: emerging concerns and gaps

Citation:

Subedi, Govind. 2009. “Trafficking in girls and women in Nepal for commercial sexual exploitation: emerging concerns and gaps.” Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam e Niswan 16 (1&2): 121-145.

Author: Govind Subedi

Abstract:

Trafficking in girls and women for sexual exploitation has a long history in Nepal. Its magnitude, processes and factors leading to trafficking have changed with the growing phenomena of urbanization, Nepal’s entry in the world labour market for carpet industry, armed conflict and the emergence of foreign labour market opportunities for Nepali youth especially after 2000. Utilising secondary data from different sources and narratives of the trafficking survivors, this article aims to critically review the contemporary trafficking situation in Nepal and Government’s and civil society’s efforts to combat trafficking and identify the new areas of concerns and gaps to combat trafficking in girls and women.

Topics: Age, Youth, Gender, Women, Girls, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2009

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