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Nepal

Women's Empowerment for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Response in Nepal

Citation:

Dhungel, Rajesh, and Ram Nath Ojha. 2012. “Women’s Empowerment for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Response in Nepal.” Gender & Development 20 (2): 309–21.

Authors: Rajesh Dhungel, Ram Nath Ojha

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
It is generally accepted that women overall are more vulnerable to disaster risk and have specific needs during a crisis. But in Nepal, social taboos and norms restrict women's freedom to express their needs to humanitarian workers in times of crisis, as these are normally strangers to the community deputed by humanitarian agencies or state agencies. These norms are deep-rooted in Nepal and other South Asian countries, and they increase the vulnerability of women to disaster risks, be they natural or man-made. In this context, starting in 2008, the Disaster Risk Reduction and Humanitarian programme (DRR-HP) in Nepal has introduced Women's Empowerment as a key component of community-based disaster risk reduction interventions in different DRR-HP projects. Altogether, 42 Women's Empowerment Centres (WECs), each with 30 women participants, have been supported to lead DRR and emergency response work in their local communities. The WECs have become a successful way of reducing socio-economic and physical vulnerability in the community, as well as an important means of strengthening women's empowerment and leadership.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Il est généralement accepté que les femmes sont globalement plus vulnérables face aux risques de catastrophe et ont des besoins particuliers durant une crise. Cependant, au Népal, les tabous et les normes sociaux limitent la liberté des femmes à exprimer leurs besoins aux travailleurs humanitaires en temps de crise, car ces derniers sont en général des étrangers pour la communauté, délégués par des agences humanitaires ou des organismes de l’État. Ces normes sont profondément ancrées au Népal et dans d'autres pays sud-asiatiques, et elles accroissent la vulnérabilité des femmes face aux risques de catastrophes, naturelles ou causées par l'Homme. Dans ce contexte, à partir de 2008, le Programme humanitaire et de réduction des risques de catastrophe (Disaster Risk Reduction and Humanitarian programme (DRR-HP)) au Népal a introduit l'autonomisation des femmes comme un élément clé des interventions communautaires de réduction des risques de catastrophe dans différents projets du DRR-HP. Ce sont 42 « Centres d'autonomisation des femmes » (CAF) en tout, chacun comptant 30 participantes, qui ont été aidés à mener des activités de RRC et d'intervention en situation d'urgence au sein de leurs communautés locales respectives. Les CAF sont devenus un moyen efficace de réduire la vulnérabilité socio-économique et physique au sein de la communauté, ainsi qu'un important moyen de renforcer l'autonomisation et le leadership des femmes.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Se acepta por lo general que las mujeres son más vulnerables ante los riesgos de desastres y tienen necesidades específicas durante una crisis. Pero en Nepal los tabús y las normas sociales cohíben a las mujeres para expresar sus necesidades a los trabajadores humanitarios en momentos de crisis ya que a menudo las organizaciones humanitarias o agencias gubernamentales los envían pero son personas completamente extrañas para las comunidades. Estas normas tienen una larga tradición en Nepal y en otros países de Asia del Sur y aumentan la vulnerabilidad de las mujeres ante los riesgos de desastres, sean naturales o provocados por el ser humano. En este contexto, a partir de 2008, el Programa Humanitario de Reducción de Riesgos ante Desastres (DRR-HP por sus siglas en inglés) en Nepal incorporó el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres como un elemento clave en diversas acciones del componente Reducción Comunitaria de Riesgos ante Desastres (CBDRR). En total se han apoyado 42 Centros para el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres (CEM), cada uno integrado por 30 mujeres que realizan labores de DRR para enfrentar emergencias en sus comunidades. Los CEM se han convertido en recursos efectivos para reducir la vulnerabilidad socioeconómica y física en las comunidades y para fortalecer a las mujeres y sus liderazgos.

Keywords: Women's Empowerment Centre (WEP), Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), vulnerability, Nepal, DRR, Disasters, gender and development (GAD)

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2012

Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development

Citation:

Pandey, Shanta. 1998. “Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development.” International Social Work 41 (3): 339-55. 

Author: Shanta Pandey

Annotation:

Summary:
“In developing countries, poor populations, especially women and children, are disproportionately concentrated in ecologically degraded, fragile, and marginal lands (Durning, 1989). A wide range of development programs have been launched to promote social and economic development of rural areas. These programs are in the form of reforestation, irrigation and drinking water improvement, innovative farming techniques, primary health care facilities and health education, and training and human capital development. People’s participation, especially women’s, in these development programs is crucial for their success. Much has been written on the failure of states and development projects to engage rural people, especially rural women, in these rural development initiatives (Mayoux, 1995). This paper reviews several case studies conducted in Nepal and identifies some of the factors that contribute to the participation of rural people, especially rural women, in forest resources management programs. The paper also discusses social workers’ role in promoting participation and sustainable development” (Pandey, 1998, 339).

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, Infrastructure, Energy, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 1998

The Role of Gender and Caste in Climate Adaptation Strategies in Nepal

Citation:

Onta, Nisha, and Bernadette P. Resurreccion. 2011. “The Role of Gender and Caste in Climate Adaptation Strategies in Nepal.” Mountain Research and Development 31 (4): 351–56.

Authors: Nisha Onta, Bernadette P. Resurreccion

Abstract:

Despite the growing number of studies and research projects on climate change adaptation, only a few have examined the gender and cultural dynamics of the adaptation process. Inequality has been identified as a major indicator of the vulnerability of individuals and groups; nevertheless, the gender and cultural aspects of inequality have not received much emphasis. The present article attempts to analyze the influence of gender and cultural relations on the process of climate change adaptation by presenting a study of Dalit and Lama households in the mountainous Humla District of Nepal. The inhabitants of Humla have been experiencing a shift in the monsoon season, a decrease in snowfall, and longer dry periods, with adverse effects on their livelihoods. The main focus of this article is to highlight the cultural, social, and economic dependency of the Lama and Dalit ethnic groups and to examine whether processes of adaptation exacerbate or alter gender inequalities and intercaste dependencies. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, gender, caste, Dalit, Humla, Nepal

Annotation:

Topics: Caste, Environment, Climate Change, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2011

Women’s Rights in Climate Change: Using Video as a Tool for Empowerment in Nepal

Citation:

Khamis, Marion, Tamara Plush, and Carmen Sepúlveda Zelaya. 2009. “Women’s Rights in Climate Change: Using Video as a Tool for Empowerment in Nepal.” Gender and Development 17 (1): 125–35.

Authors: Marion Khamis, Tamara Plush, Carmen Sepúlveda Zelaya

Abstract:

An innovative Action Aid-supplied project in Nepal has seen women's empowerment make rapid progress through the use of video discussions about climate change. In this exploration of the project, we ask what we can learn from the use of such technology, and consider the implications for international development agencies and their efforts to support women's rights.

Keywords: women's rights, gender, climate change, power, women and environment, Nepal, adaptation, video

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, International Organizations, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2009

Adapting to Climate Change: A Sensitivity Analysis of National Adaptation Programmes of Action Towards Women

Citation:

Anagnostou, Sotiria. 2015. “Adapting to Climate Change: A Sensitivity Analysis of National Adaptation Programmes of Action Towards Women.” PhD diss., Arizona State University.

Author: Sotiria Anagnostou

Abstract:

The most recent decision of the 2012 Conference of the Parties (CoP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognizes that in order to create climate policies that respond to the different needs of men and women a more balanced representation of women from developed and developing countries is needed. National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) provide a process for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to “identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs to respond to impending threats from climate change.” Since 1997, the United Nations has agreed to gender mainstreaming- a globally accepted strategy for promoting gender equality by ensuring that gender perspectives and attention to the goal of gender equality are central to all activities in the all UN systems. Due to the gender division of labor climate change will affect men and women differently. Policies and programs that do not take into account the needs and capacities of both men and women will fail to be effective and may worsen preexisting conditions that historically favor men. My research investigates the UN’s commitment towards gender mainstreaming. More specifically my objective is to understand how and to what extent the NAPAs from 49 countries integrate a gender dimension into their national climate adaptation policy. For the purpose of this research, I consider three interrelated issues: whether gender-specific needs and vulnerabilities were identified by the NAPA; if these needs and vulnerabilities were addressed by proposed adaptation projects; and in what forms women participated in the formulation of the NAPA. The scope of this research begins with an overview assessment of 49 NAPAs followed by a comparative assessment of NAPAs from four countries- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Niger, and an in-depth analysis of Nepal’s NAPA, which incorporates field study. Nepal was chosen as a focus country due to its identification as being both inclusive and gender sensitive. The method of inquiry consists of both quantitative and qualitative analysis, utilizing the quantitative measures of HDI and GII and the qualitative methods of content analysis and case study. The findings suggest that the response to the gender dimensions of climate change found in adaptation policies vary widely among the LDCs and the level of response is dependent upon social, cultural, economic, and political contexts within each LDC. Additionally, I find that gender mainstreaming techniques have not been fully integrated into the NAPA policy and processes, and have not been effective at promoting gender equality through adaptation strategies. Recommendations are provided in order to help mainstream gender in NAPAs as they continue to be developed, revised, and implemented.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, NGOs Regions: Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal, Niger

Year: 2015

Women’s Empowerment for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Response in Nepal

Citation:

Dhungel, Rajesh, and Ram Nath Ojha. 2012. “Women’s Empowerment for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Response in Nepal.” Gender & Development 20 (2): 309–21. doi:10.1080/13552074.2012.687220.

Authors: Rajesh Dhungel, Ram Nath Ojha

Abstract:

English Abstract:
It is generally accepted that women overall are more vulnerable to disaster risk and have specific needs during a crisis. But in Nepal, social taboos and norms restrict women's freedom to express their needs to humanitarian workers in times of crisis, as these are normally strangers to the community deputed by humanitarian agencies or state agencies. These norms are deep-rooted in Nepal and other South Asian countries, and they increase the vulnerability of women to disaster risks, be they natural or man-made. In this context, starting in 2008, the Disaster Risk Reduction and Humanitarian programme (DRR-HP) in Nepal has introduced Women's Empowerment as a key component of community-based disaster risk reduction interventions in different DRR-HP projects. Altogether, 42 Women's Empowerment Centres (WECs), each with 30 women participants, have been supported to lead DRR and emergency response work in their local communities. The WECs have become a successful way of reducing socio-economic and physical vulnerability in the community, as well as an important means of strengthening women's empowerment and leadership.
 
French Abstract:
Il est généralement accepté que les femmes sont globalement plus vulnérables face aux risques de catastrophe et ont des besoins particuliers durant une crise. Cependant, au Népal, les tabous et les normes sociaux limitent la liberté des femmes à exprimer leurs besoins aux travailleurs humanitaires en temps de crise, car ces derniers sont en général des étrangers pour la communauté, délégués par des agences humanitaires ou des organismes de l’État. Ces normes sont profondément ancrées au Népal et dans d'autres pays sud-asiatiques, et elles accroissent la vulnérabilité des femmes face aux risques de catastrophes, naturelles ou causées par l'Homme. Dans ce contexte, à partir de 2008, le Programme humanitaire et de réduction des risques de catastrophe (Disaster Risk Reduction and Humanitarian programme (DRR-HP)) au Népal a introduit l'autonomisation des femmes comme un élément clé des interventions communautaires de réduction des risques de catastrophe dans différents projets du DRR-HP. Ce sont 42 « Centres d'autonomisation des femmes » (CAF) en tout, chacun comptant 30 participantes, qui ont été aidés à mener des activités de RRC et d'intervention en situation d'urgence au sein de leurs communautés locales respectives. Les CAF sont devenus un moyen efficace de réduire la vulnérabilité socio-économique et physique au sein de la communauté, ainsi qu'un important moyen de renforcer l'autonomisation et le leadership des femmes.
 
Spanish Abstract:
Se acepta por lo general que las mujeres son más vulnerables ante los riesgos de desastres y tienen necesidades específicas durante una crisis. Pero en Nepal los tabús y las normas sociales cohíben a las mujeres para expresar sus necesidades a los trabajadores humanitarios en momentos de crisis ya que a menudo las organizaciones humanitarias o agencias gubernamentales los envían pero son personas completamente extrañas para las comunidades. Estas normas tienen una larga tradición en Nepal y en otros países de Asia del Sur y aumentan la vulnerabilidad de las mujeres ante los riesgos de desastres, sean naturales o provocados por el ser humano. En este contexto, a partir de 2008, el Programa Humanitario de Reducción de Riesgos ante Desastres (DRR-HP por sus siglas en inglés) en Nepal incorporó el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres como un elemento clave en diversas acciones del componente Reducción Comunitaria de Riesgos ante Desastres (CBDRR). En total se han apoyado 42 Centros para el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres (CEM), cada uno integrado por 30 mujeres que realizan labores de DRR para enfrentar emergencias en sus comunidades. Los CEM se han convertido en recursos efectivos para reducir la vulnerabilidad socioeconómica y física en las comunidades y para fortalecer a las mujeres y sus liderazgos.

Keywords: Women's Empowerment Centre (WEP), Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), vulnerability, Nepal

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2012

Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda, and Saskia Stachowitsch. 2016. “Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security.” Globalizations 13 (6): 815-29. 

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Saskia Stachowitsch

Abstract:

In a case study of Nepalese Gurkhas working for Western private military and security companies (PMSCs), this article develops feminist global political economy understandings of global labour chains by exploring how the ‘global market’ and the ‘everyday’ interact in establishing private security as a gendered and racialised project. Current understandings of PMSCs, and global markets at large, tend to depoliticise these global and everyday interactions by conceptualising the ‘everyday’ as common, mundane, and subsequently banal. Such understandings, we argue, not only conceal the everyday within private security, but also reinforce a conceptual dualism that enables the security industry to function as a gendered and racialised project. To overcome this dualism, this article offers a theoretically informed notion of the everyday that dissolves the hegemonic separation into ‘everyday’ and ‘global’ levels of analysis. Drawing upon ethnography, semi- structured interviews, and discourse analysis of PMSCs’ websites, the analysis demonstrates how race, gender, and colonial histories constitute global supply chains for the security industry, rest upon and reinforce racialised and gendered migration patterns, and depend upon, as well as shape, the everyday lives and living of Gurkha men and women.

Keywords: Gurkhas, private security, feminist security studies, feminist global political economy, masculinity

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Political Economies, Race, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2016

Gender, Energy, and Empowerment: A Case Study of the Rural Energy Development Program in Nepal

Citation:

Mahat, Ishara. 2011. “Gender, Energy, and Empowerment: A Case Study of the Rural Energy Development Program in Nepal.” Development in Practice 21 (3): 405–20. 

Author: Ishara Mahat

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT

Rural women in general, and mountain women in particular, are greatly involved in managing household energy systems in Nepal. Alternative energy technologies have a high potential to reduce women’s workloads and improve their health status, as well as increasing efficient energy supply. Interventions in rural energy are primarily aimed at reducing firewood use and increasing economic growth through rural electrification, rather than aiming to reduce human drudgery, especially that of women. Hence, such intervention takes place without considering the needs, roles, interests, and potential of rural women, even though women are the primary users and managers of rural energy resources. This article aims to analyse the gender implications of rural energy technologies in Kavre district, where the Rural Energy Development Program (REDP) has been implemented, especially in terms of saving women’s labour and increasing socio-economic opportunities for women.

FRENCH ABSTRACT

Les femmes rurales en général, et celles qui habitent dans les régions montagneuses en particulier, jouent un rôle très important dans la gestion des systèmes énergétiques des ménages au Népal. Les technologies alternatives de production d’énergie présentent un important potentiel de réduction des charges de travail des femmes et d’amélioration de leur état de santé, ainsi que d’augmentation de l’approvisionnement efficace en énergie. Les interventions dans le secteur de l’énergie en milieu rural visent principalement à réduire l’utilisation du bois de feu et à intensifier la croissance économique à travers l’électrification rurale, au lieu de viser à réduire le travail humain pénible et ingrat, en particulier parmi les femmes. Par conséquent, ces interventions ont lieu sans tenir compte des besoins, rôles, intérêts et potentiel des femmes rurales, alors que les femmes sont les principales utilisatrices et gestionnaires des ressources énergétiques rurales. Le but de cet article est d’analyser les implications selon les sexes des technologies énergétiques rurales dans le district de Kavre, où le Rural Energy Development Program (REDP) a été mis en oeuvre, en particulier sur le plan de la réduction de la charge de travail pour les femmes et de l’augmentation des opportunités socioéconomiques pour les femmes.

SPANISH ABSTRACT

Las mujeres del campo en general, y las mujeres de la sierra en particular, administran activamente los sistemas de energı´a dome´sticos en Nepal. Es posible que las tecnologı´as de energı´a alternativas puedan reducir el trabajo de la mujer, mejorar su salud y hacer ma´s eficiente el uso de la energı´a. Las obras de los sistemas de energı´a en el campo esta´ disen˜adas para reducir primero el uso de len˜a y potenciar el crecimiento econo´mico a trave´s de la electrificacio´n rural, y no para reducir el trabajo pesado, mucho menos el de la mujer. Por lo tanto las obras se realizan sin tomar en consideracio´n las necesidades, el papel, los intereses o el potencial de las campesinas, aunque e´stas sean las principales usuarias y administradoras de los recursos energe ´ticos del campo. Este ensayo analiza distintas consideraciones de ge´nero de las tecnologı´as de energı´a rural del distrito de Kavre, donde se lleva a cabo el Programa de Desarrollo de Energı´a Rural (REDP en ingle´s), en particular la disminucio´n de la carga de trabajo para la mujer y el incremento de oportunidades socioecono´micas para la mujer.

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT

As mulheres rurais em geral, e as mulheres da montanha em particular, esta˜o imensamente envolvidas na gesta˜o de sistemas de energia familiares no Nepal. Tecnologias alternativas de energia teˆm um grande potencial de reduzir a carga de trabalho das mulheres e melhorar suas condic¸o˜es de sau´de, e tambe´m de aumentar o fornecimento de energia eficiente. Intervenc¸o˜es na energia rural visam principalmente reduzir o uso de lenha e aumentar o crescimento econoˆmico atrave´s da eletrificac¸a˜o rural em vez de visar a reduc¸a˜o do fardo humano, especialmente o das mulheres. Assim, tal intervenc¸a˜o ocorre sem considerar as necessidades, tarefas, interesses e potencial das mulheres rurais, mesmo sendo as mulheres as principais usua´rias e gerentes dos recursos de energia rural. Este artigo visa analisar as implicac¸o˜es de geˆnero das tecnologias de energia rural no distrito de Kavre, onde o Programa de Desenvolvimento de Energia Rural (REDP) tem sido implementado, especialmente em termos de poupar o trabalho das mulheres e aumentar as oportunidades socioeconoˆmicas para as mulheres.

Keywords: South Asia, Gender and Diversity, Labour and livelihoods

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2011

Empowered Wives and Frustrated Husbands: Nursing, Gender and Migrant Nepali in the UK

Citation:

Adhikari, Radha. 2013. “Empowered Wives and Frustrated Husbands: Nursing, Gender and Migrant Nepali in the UK.” International Migration 51 (6): 168–79. doi:10.1111/imig.12107.

Author: Radha Adhikari

Abstract:

Since 2000, increasing numbers of Nepali nurses have crossed national borders to participate in the global healthcare market. The most common destination countries are the UK, US, Australia and New Zealand. In particular, educated middle-class women are attracted to nursing with the full support of their families. There have been profound changes in women's position in Nepali society. As a female only profession in Nepal, nursing provides an excellent focus on how and why these changes have occurred.

Based on a multi-sited ethnography, including in-depth interviews with nurses and their families, conducted in Nepal and the UK from 2006–2008, this article discusses the changing nursing profession within the broader context of gender dynamics. Between 2000 and 2008, around 1000 Nepali nurses migrated to the UK. International nurse migration hugely affects nurses' immediate family dynamics. This article illustrates how migrant nurses' husbands have to accept a compromised social position, from being family bread-winners in Nepal to dependent husbands in the UK.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, South Asia, Europe Countries: Nepal, United Kingdom

Year: 2013

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