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Nepal

How Do Gender Relations Shape a Community's Ability to Adapt to Climate Change? Insights from Nepal's Community Forestry

Citation:

Bhattarai, Basundhara. 2020. "How Do Gender Relations Shape a Community's Ability to Adapt to Climate Change? Insights from Nepal's Community Forestry." Climate and Development. doi:10.1080/17565529.2019.1701971.

Author: Basundhara Bhattarai

Abstract:

Despite notable policy reforms and development actions, gender inequality persists in environmental management in Nepal. In this paper, I present an in-depth case study to demonstrate how the persistence of gender-based inequality in community forestry has, or is likely to have, impacted the possibility to adapt to climate change, and then also reshape gender relations in adaptation interventions. Based on this, I argue that adaptation initiatives which rest on existing gender inequitable forest management institutions are likely to exacerbate gender-based inequality, further hampering the longer-term socio-ecological resilience. Although gender inequality is not created solely either by forestry institutions or in the institutions designed for climate adaptation, community forestry institutions are increasingly reinforcing the larger patriarchal societal structure that is deeply rooted and manifested in everyday practices. I highlight the need for both forest management and adaptation policies and practices to better recognize, appreciate and address gender inequality. In order to enhance gender-equitable adaptation to climate change, I suggest re-examining and constantly monitoring the changing gender in/equality in the existing forest management institutions and service delivery mechanisms and also adjusting adaptation planning to fully harness the potential of gender equitable forest management and climate change adaptation.

Keywords: gender equity, climate change, climate adaptation, Nepal, community forestry

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2020

Transforming Gender Relations in Nepal’s Trail Bridge Programme: Policies and Practice

Citation:

Sherpa, Mona, Ansu Tumbahangfe, Niraj Acharya, Devendra Chhetry, Indu Tuladhar, and Jane Carter. 2020. “Transforming Gender Relations in Nepal’s Trail Bridge Programme: Policies and Practice.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Transport 173 (2): 107–21.

Authors: Mona Sherpa, Ansu Tumbahangfe, Niraj Acharya, Devendra Chhetry, Indu Tuladhar, Jane Carter

Abstract:

This paper considers the extent to which the full and equal rights guaranteed in Nepal’s constitution are reflected in the government’s trail bridge programme (TBP). A review of the legal provisions and relevant literature was used to inform interviews and field enquiries at nine short-span trail bridges and one long-span bridge. The analysis indicates that the TBP is broadly gender responsive in its policies, but often falls short at field level. Analysis of the findings of the study was guided by five drivers of change for women’s economic empowerment identified by the 2016 United Nations High-Level Panel. It considered the degree to which the TBP tackles adverse gender norms and promotes positive role models; addresses unpaid care work; promotes women’s assets, representation and leadership; and contributes to a revision of gender-discriminatory laws. The paper concludes with five key suggestions for rendering the TBP more gender transformative: to address the time constraints imposed on women by unpaid care work; to ensure better facilitation of social processes; to strengthen women’s leadership; to maximise women’s income from wage labour through avoiding debt, turning it into assets and undertaking skills training; to incorporate inclusive community planning and construction of long-span bridges.

Keywords: bridges, public policy, transport management

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminist Economics, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2020

Gender Inclusiveness in Disaster Risk Governance for Sustainable Recovery of 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal

Citation:

Thapa, Vineeta, and Pairote Pathranarakul. 2019. "Gender Inclusiveness in Disaster Risk Governance for Sustainable Recovery of 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 34: 209-19.

Authors: Vineeta Thapa, Pairote Pathranarakul

Abstract:

Disaster impacts vary in two distinct stages including immediate and long-term impacts. The current disaster management practices focus mainly on immediate search and rescue overlooking long-term disaster impacts. This study explores the neglected gender sensitive aspect particularly women's roles and participation during disaster recovery, gaps in gender inclusive disaster risk governance framework, and attempts to highlight the current needs for sustainable recovery of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. The study uses a mixed-methods approach and examines the historical Kathmandu city and Sankhu town which were severely affected by the 2015 earthquake. By employing household surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, field observation, and literature review, the study found that understanding of the gender sensitivity in post-disaster recovery was oblivious among the Nepalese community due to lack of knowledge, traditional patriarchal culture, awareness and exposure. Further, the unfavorable political situation, limited capacity and policy implementation failures to gender inclusiveness have been the biggest challenge for post-disaster recovery. The findings have implications for the ongoing recovery process in Nepal and other least developed countries engaged in disaster risk reduction.

Keywords: gender inclusiveness, disaster risk governance, disaster recovery, Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Gender Integration in Climate Change and Agricultural Policies: The Case of Nepal

Citation:

Paudyal, Bimala Rai, Nitya Chanana, Arun Khatri-Chhetri, Lakpa Sherpa, Ishwori Kadariya, and Pramod Aggarwal. 2019. "Gender Integration in Climate Change and Agricultural Policies: The Case of Nepal." Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3.

Authors: Bimala Rai Paudyal, Nitya Chanana, Arun Khatri-Chhetri, Lakpa Sherpa, Ishwori Kadariya, Pramod Aggarwal

Keywords: climate change adaptation, climate-smart agriculture, gender, Nepal, policy

Annotation:

Summary:
"Gender integration across national policy processes is critical to ensure effective implementation of climate change adaptation interventions in agriculture. This is especially so for countries like Nepal, where climate vulnerability and women participation in agriculture is high, accompanied by gender gaps in access to information, technologies, markets, and labor burden. To do this, it becomes necessary to address the inter-related issues of gender, agriculture, and climate change instead of looking at them in isolation. This study, therefore, highlights policy gaps to suggest a set of recommendations for improving gender responsiveness at policy level in Nepal. It presents the gender gaps that women face in agriculture, based on data collected from five districts of the country. Subsequently, using the concept of gender-agriculture climate change nexus, it analyses 20 government policies and related documents of Nepal based on a set of five indicators. The policy analysis elucidates the level of gender integration in agriculture and climate change policies in the country. Eleven of the 15 agriculture related documents acknowledge the need to focus on women farmers, with nine of them also defining provisions for women-related issues in agriculture. Two of the five climate change policies merely acknowledge gender issues related to climate change. However, only two of the 20 policy documents recognize the need to address gender, climate change, and agricultural issues in coherence. Accordingly, the paper proposes a framework highlighting key points to make policy process and implementation plans in the agriculture sector more gender responsive in Nepal, focusing on the development and promotion of gender responsive Climate-Smart Agriculture technologies and practices. It suggests measures to increase access of assets and services to women farmers, improve their capacity to participate in decision making across levels, and promote transformative changes at both local and policy level" (Paudyal et al. 2019).

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Governance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Building Capacities of Women for Climate Change Adaptation: Insights from Migrant-Sending Households in Nepal

Citation:

Banerjee, Soumyadeep, Abid Hussain, Sabarnee Tuladhar, and Arabinda Mishra. 2019. "Building Capacities of Women for Climate Change Adaptation: Insights from Migrant-Sending Households in Nepal." Climatic Change 157: 587-609.

Authors: Soumyadeep Banerjee, Abid Hussain, Sabarnee Tuladhar, Arabinda Mishra

Abstract:

Women’s capacities are often constrained due to their roles in their household and society, institutional barriers and social norms. These constraints result in low adaptive capacity of women, which make them more vulnerable to hazards. As more men seek employment opportunities away from home, women are required to acquire new capacities to manage new challenges, including risks from climate change. An action research was conducted to assess impacts of capacity building interventions for women left behind in enhancing adaptive capacity of migrant-sending households in rural areas vulnerable to floods in Nepal. This study finds that capacity-building interventions, which aimed to strengthen autonomous adaptation measures (e.g. precautionary savings and flood preparedness), also positively influenced women to approach formal institutions. Besides, the intervention households were more likely to invest a part of the precautionary savings in flood preparedness measures than control households.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Conceptualizing Gendered Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Hindu Kush Himalaya: Contextual Conditions and Drivers of Change

Citation:

Goodrich, Chanda Gurung, Pranita Bhushan Udas, and Harriet Larrington-Spencer. 2019. "Conceptualizing Gendered Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Hindu Kush Himalaya: Contextual Conditions and Drivers of Change." Environmental Development 31: 9-18.

Authors: Chanda Gurung Goodrich, Pranita Bhushan Udas, Harriet Larrington-Spencer

Abstract:

Not all women or all men are equally vulnerable. Manifestations of vulnerability to climate change vary in different groups of people, based on their position in a social and gender structure in a particular location and at a particular time. We need to understand the pre-existing conditions, what we term “contextual conditions” that underlie experiences of vulnerability and lead to its complexity and reproduction. This paper is based on a literature review and takes the standpoint that not only is gender a powerful and pervasive contextual condition, but that it intersects with other contextual conditions to shape vulnerabilities. Further, gender and other contextual conditions also influence and are influenced by socioeconomic drivers of change to produce differential gendered vulnerabilities. Therefore, manifestations of gendered vulnerability to climate change are the result of complex and interlinked factors, which cannot be simplified for the sake of efficiency. This paper offers a conceptual framework bringing together these interlinkages and intersectionalities in understanding differential gendered vulnerabilities.

Keywords: climate change, gender, Hindu Kush Himalaya, vulnerabilities

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Intersectionality Regions: Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan

Year: 2019

Potential of Climate-Smart Agriculture in Reducing Women Farmers' Drudgery in High Climatic Risk Areas

Citation:

Khatri-Chhetri, Arun, Punya Prasad Regmi, Nitya Chanana, and Pramod K. Aggarwal. 2019. "Potential of Climate-Smart Agriculture in Reducing Women Farmers' Drudgery in High Climatic Risk Areas." Climatic Change 158: 29-42.

Authors: Arun Khatri-Chhetri, Punya Prasad Regmi, Nitya Chanana, Pramod K. Aggarwal

Abstract:

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) has a significant role to play in reducing the gender gap in labor burden for women in agriculture. A targeted approach to address this gap can be useful in developing a women-responsive climatic risk management plan focused on reducing their labor burden in agriculture, especially in areas with high climate risks. The paper therefore presents a top–down approach to identify potential labor-saving CSA technologies for women farmers in areas facing high climate risks. It involves mapping women in agriculture, climate risks, and poverty hotspots and entails understanding the role of women in agricultural activities to identify the suitable CSA options for reducing the levels of labor drudgery. The study is illustrated for Nepal where feminization of agriculture is rapidly increasing, a high level of climatic risks persists, and adaptive capacity to climate change is very low, especially among women in agriculture. Results are presented for two hotspot districts, Rupandehi and Chitwan. Household socioeconomic characteristics were found to play a major role in women’s labor contribution in different crop production activities. Discussions with farmers provided a list of more than 15 CSA interventions with labor reduction as well as yield-improving potential. Accordingly, considering the local crop, agro-climate, and social conditions, and women’s participation in different agricultural activities, CSA technologies and practices such as direct seeded rice (zero tillage and low tillage using machine), green manuring (GM), laser land leveling (LLL), and system of rice intensification (SRI) were found to potentially reduce women’s drudgery in agriculture along with improvement in productivity and farm income.

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Can Women Benefit from War? Women’s Agency in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies

Citation:

Yadav, Punam. 2020. "Can Women Benefit from War? Women’s Agency in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies." Journal of Peace Research 20 (10): 1-13.

Author: Punam Yadav

Abstract:

Women’s agency in Peace and Conflict Studies has received increased policy attention since the formulation of UN Security Council Resolution in 2000. Academic attention regarding this question has, as a result, also increased dramatically in the intervening period. Women today, as a consequence, are not just seen as victims of conflict, but also as agents of change. Despite their vulnerabilities in the situations created by conflict, women may be exposed to new knowledge and opportunities, which may have positive impacts on their lives. Therefore, it is important to recognize the lived realities and the multiple stories of postwar societies to address the new needs of people and build a sustainable peace. This article examines the everyday lives of women in post-conflict Nepal to demonstrate the significant transformations that have taken place since the war. It specifically investigates conflict-induced social and structural changes through the lived experiences of women tempo drivers, war widows, women ex-combatants and women politicians. This article is based on the analysis of 200 interviews and six focus group discussions (FGDs) carried out over a period of 12 years in seven districts of Nepal.

Keywords: civil war, Nepal, peace and security, post-conflict transformation, women's empowerment, women's agency

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2020

Living Maoist Gender Ideology: Experiences of Women Ex-Combatants in Nepal

Citation:

K.C., Luna, and Gemma Van Der Haar. 2019. “Living Maoist Gender Ideology: Experiences of Women Ex-Combatants in Nepal.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 21 (3): 434–53.

Authors: Luna K.C., Gemma Van Der Haar

Abstract:

Studies of women’s participation in civil conflict as armed combatants have attributed diverse motivations to such participation and examined the implications of participation for women’s empowerment in the aftermath. The authors contribute to these studies through an in-depth analysis of female combatants’ struggles for equality and empowerment during and after Nepal’s decade-long Maoist conflict. Scholars have argued that the emphasis of Maoist ideology in Nepal on the emancipation of women and on ending gender discrimination attracted a large number of women to the cause. Based on narratives of Maoist female ex-combatants, the authors investigate women’s engagement with Maoist ideology during and after the conflict. These narratives reveal that despite discourses of gender equality in Nepal’s Maoist struggle, promises around gender equality remain unkept in the period after the war. A reintegration program has offered women ex-combatants few options and has pushed women back into traditional gender roles. Struggles continue in this terrain. Incorporating intersectionality, the paper highlights how women ex-combatants’ gender identities intersect with caste and other social locations to produce diverse challenges for their lives.

Keywords: Maoist armed conflict, gender ideology, empowerment, women ex-combatants, post-conflict Nepal

Topics: Caste, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Intersectionality, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Everyday Realities of Reintegration: Experiences of Maoist ‘Verified’ Women Ex-Combatants in the Aftermath of War in Nepal

Citation:

K.C., Luna. 2019. “Everyday Realities of Reintegration: Experiences of Maoist ‘Verified’ Women Ex-Combatants in the Aftermath of War in Nepal.” Conflict, Security & Development 19 (5): 453–74.

Author: Luna K.C.

Abstract:

Global studies of women’s experiences in the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) process have explored its implications for women in the post-war period. Scholars have also already pointed out that ex-combatants in Nepal are facing difficulties in the reintegration period. This paper examines in particular the consequences of the DDR process for so-called Maoist ‘verified’ women ex-combatants, those who were formally acknowledged as former Maoist combatants and have experienced the entire DDR process. The paper asks how they experienced this process and how it shaped their post-conflict options. The paper first problematises the idea of a ‘return to normalcy’ and, second, shows how female ex-combatants suffered multiple forms of marginalisation as they sought to give new shape to their lives. I argue that this is in part due to the lack of a gender-inclusive framework in the DDR policy in Nepal and the failure to take into account the voices of women ex-combatants.

Keywords: verified women ex-combatant, disarmament, demobilisation and integration, Maoist armed conflict, gender equality, post-conflict settings, Nepal

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

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