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Nepal

Universalized Categories, Dissonant Realities: Gendering Postconflict Reconstruction in Nepal

Citation:

Ramnarain, Smita. 2015. “Universalized Categories, Dissonant Realities: Gendering Postconflict Reconstruction in Nepal.” Gender, Place & Culture 22 (9): 1305–22. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2014.958062.

 

Author: Smita Ramnarain

Abstract:

International agencies, nongovernmental organizations, governmental agencies, and development policy-makers have sought to incorporate ‘gender mainstreaming’ into postconflict policies and programs in an effort to ameliorate the unequal gender impacts of war. This article uses narratives of widow heads of household collected through field research in Nepal in 2008 and 2011 to illustrate how postconflict development discourses purporting to engage with gender not only take a narrow view of gender (i.e., by equating it to women-focused activities), but also neglect the complex and dynamic realities of women's lives. Postconflict interventions employ simplistic assumptions that neglect gender-specific postconflict insecurities and oppressions (such as systematic violence against women). By neglecting the crucial significance of social networks for widows' survival, postconflict reconstruction assumes women to be individualized receptacles for development/empowerment. The crucial role of social networks in constraining women's agency is obscured. At the same time, assumptions of homogeneity ingrained in universalized categories such as ‘widow’ and ‘conflict-affected’ obfuscate women's multiple identities, roles, and agency in their struggles for survival. The insights emerging from field research suggest a greater attunement of postconflict development interventions to women's lived experiences and social settings.

Keywords: gender, violent conflict, reconstruction, widow heads, Nepal, qualitative research

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Unpacking Widow Headship and Agency in Post-Conflict Nepal

Citation:

Ramnarain, Smita. 2016. “Unpacking Widow Headship and Agency in Post-Conflict Nepal.” Feminist Economics 22 (1): 80–105.

Abstract:

Feminist scholars have highlighted a rise in “non-traditional” household structures, as exemplified by female- and widow-headed households, as a consequence of war. This study points to the necessity of disaggregating female headship to trace the contours of household vulnerability of widow-headed households, a subset of female-headed households. The inadequacy of surveys in explaining the interplay between economic vulnerability and social norms is ameliorated through the use of ethnographic data and the narratives of widow heads collected through fieldwork in 2008–9 and 2011. The study traces key coping strategies of widow-headed households in Nepal to provide insight into the processes by which widow heads mediate social institutions and patriarchal norms in their everyday struggles for survival, and the spaces of agency that emerge herein. The study concludes with implications for prevailing understandings of household headship and agency that development practitioners must be attentive to in devising policies to support widow heads.

Keywords: agency, violent conflict, qualitative methods, female headship

Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Institutionalizing Gender Responsive Budgeting in National and Local Governments in Nepal

Citation:

Nepal, Purusottam. 2015. “Institutionalizing Gender Responsive Budgeting in National and Local Governments in Nepal.” In Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting, edited by Cecilia Ng, 163–78. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace 22. Springer International Publishing. 

Author: Purusottam Nepal

Abstract:

The chapter discusses how gender responsive budgeting has been introduced and implemented in Nepal. It looks at the changes at the national level in terms of structures and processes. The chapter also examines how changes have been made at the local level to incorporate gender sensitive participatory governance through the Local Governance and Community Development Programme. The conclusion delves into the challenges faced in this journey of combining gender responsive and participatory budgeting in Nepal.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Participatory governance, local government, accountability, Monitoring mechanisms, Grassroots women

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Budgeting, Governance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Trafficking in girls and women in Nepal for commercial sexual exploitation: emerging concerns and gaps

Citation:

Subedi, Govind. 2009. “Trafficking in girls and women in Nepal for commercial sexual exploitation: emerging concerns and gaps.” Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam e Niswan 16 (1&2): 121-145.

Author: Govind Subedi

Abstract:

Trafficking in girls and women for sexual exploitation has a long history in Nepal. Its magnitude, processes and factors leading to trafficking have changed with the growing phenomena of urbanization, Nepal’s entry in the world labour market for carpet industry, armed conflict and the emergence of foreign labour market opportunities for Nepali youth especially after 2000. Utilising secondary data from different sources and narratives of the trafficking survivors, this article aims to critically review the contemporary trafficking situation in Nepal and Government’s and civil society’s efforts to combat trafficking and identify the new areas of concerns and gaps to combat trafficking in girls and women.

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2009

Gender, Natural Resources, and Peacebuilding in Kenya and Nepal

Citation:

Myrttinen, Henri, Jana Naujoks, and Janpeter Schilling. 2015. “Gender, Natural Resources, and Peacebuilding in Kenya and Nepal.” Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 27 (2): 181-7.

Authors: Henri Myrttinen, Jana Naujoks, Janpeter Schilling

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Class, Economies, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Peacebuilding, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Kenya, Nepal

Year: 2015

Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectiveness Knowledge Briefs

Citation:

United Nations Development Fund for Women. 2010. Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectiveness Knowledge Briefs. New York: The United Nations Development Fund for Women.

Author: United Nations Development Fund for Women

Abstract:

This series of knowledge briefs available in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese has been produced on the basis of research carried out under the European Commission-supported programme ‘Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda’. 

The research, which was carried out in ten countries (Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Nepal, Mozambique, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) investigated how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies had been used in the context of aid modalities, such as general budget support (GBS) and sector budget support (SBS).

The research aimed to increase national partners’ and European Union decision-makers’ understanding of the opportunities for using GRB to ensure that aid contributes to the achievement of gender equality goals. The knowledge briefs aim to provide guidance on using GRB tools to integrate a gender dimension into new modalities of aid financing, so that these support the implementation of governments’ gender equality commitments. The target audiences are programmers and policy makers working for national governments, the European Commission, and bilateral donors.

The series consists of 5 separate briefs:

·Introduction to Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectivenes

· Guidance sheet on ‘How can aid be gender responsive in the context of the new aid modalities? Lessons from gender responsive budgeting initiatives’

· Brief on ‘How do donors collectively address gender issues in their aid management practices at country level?’

· Brief on ‘How do Individual donors address gender Issues in their policy, programming, and financing?’

· Summaries of country reports

 

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2010

Ten-Country Overview Report: Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda

Citation:

Budlender, Debbie. 2009. Ten-Country Overview Report: Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda. New York: The United Nations Development Fund for Women.

Author: Debbie Budlender

Abstract:

The following research reports (1 composite report and 10 country reports) have been generated as part of the UNIFEM programme,  "Integrating gender responsive budgeting into the aid effectiveness agenda”. The three-year programme funded by the European Commission (EC) was launched in 2008 and consists of research and programmatic technical assistance.

The programme seeks to demonstrate how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies contribute to enhancing a positive impact on gender equality of aid provided in the form of General Budget Support (GBS).

The first aspect of the programme involved research in ten developing countries to deepen the understanding of national partners and European Union (EU) decision makers of the opportunities for using GRB to enhance accountability to gender equality in the context of the aid effectiveness agenda. Concerned countries were Ethiopia, Peru, Tanzania, Uganda, Morocco, Nepal, India, Rwanda, Mozambique and Cameroon.

The second aspect of the programme will involve the selection of five countries in which targeted and tailored technical support will be provided in 2009 and 2010 to improve country capacity to further institutionalise GRB. (Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2009

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study

Citation:

Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London

Abstract:

There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

Gendered Impacts of Commercial Pressures on Land

Citation:

Daley, Elizabeth. 2010. Gendered Impacts of Commercial Pressures on Land. Rome: International Land Coalition.

Author: Elizabeth Daley

Abstract:

This paper contains a careful and focused analysis of the gendered impacts of commercial pressures on land (CPL), and especially their impacts on women. It is based on a review of the literature on CPL to date and an analysis from a gender perspective of International Land Coalition country case studies carried out in India, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Ethiopia, Zambia, Rwanda and Benin. Arguing that women are both likely to be affected differently from men by large-scale land deals and disproportionately more likely to be negatively affected than men because they are generally vulnerable as a group, the paper provides recommendations as to how tools and procedures envisaged by proposed regulatory frameworks must be locally appropriate and must specifically address all four aspects of women’s vulnerability with respect to CPL: productive resources, participation in decision-making, relative income poverty and physical vulnerability. (International Land Coalition)

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Land grabbing, Multi-national Corporations, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Benin, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Zambia

Year: 2010

Gender-Responsive Budgeting

Citation:

Khan, Zohra. 2015. “Gender-Responsive Budgeting.” In The Oxford Handbook of Transnational Feminist Movements, edited by Rawwida Baksh and Wendy Harcourt, 485-506. New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199943494.013.022. 

Author: Zohra Khan

Abstract:

This chapter situates gender-responsive budgeting, or GRB, within the debates and research in feminist economics and analysis of macroeconomics, poverty and inequality. It traces the origins of GRB back to seminal experiences in Australia and South Africa that laid the foundation for more recent practice in countries including Ecuador, Morocco and Nepal. It looks at the actors, strategic alliances and partnerships that have supported the mushrooming of GRB around the world to show that one of the main strengths of this work is the transitional networking and coming together of feminists, inside and outside bureaucracies, in support of more and better resources for women. Charting the journey of GRB, it illustrates that where it has succeeded, it has resulted in better alignment between policy commitments and financing for gender equality. Some of main critiques of GRB are addressed and important questions about the future of this work are considered.

Keywords: gender-responsive budgeting, GRB, feminist economics, poverty inequality, women's organization, national women's machinery

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Oceania Countries: Australia, Ecuador, Morocco, Nepal, South Africa

Year: 2015

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