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Nepal

Gender, Agrobiodiversity, and Climate Change: A Study of Adaptation Practices in the Nepal Himalayas

Citation:

Bhattarai, Basundhara, Ruth Beilin, and Rebecca Ford. 2015. “Gender, Agrobiodiversity, and Climate Change: A Study of Adaptation Practices in the Nepal Himalayas.” World Development 70: 122–32.

Authors: Basundhara Bhattarai, Ruth Beilin, Rebecca Ford

Keywords: gender, agrobiodiversity management, climate change, adaptation, Nepal

Annotation:

Summary: 
Gender is seminal to agrobiodiversity management, and inequities are likely to be exacerbated under a changing climate. Using in-depth interviews with farmers and officials from government and non-government organizations in Nepal, we explore how gender relations are influenced by wider socio-economic changes, and how alterations in gender relations shape responses to climate change. Combining feminist political ecology and critical social-ecological systems thinking, we analyze how gender and adaptation interact as households abandon certain crops, adopt high-yielding varieties and shift to cash crops. We argue that the prevailing development paradigm reinforces inequitable gender structures in agrobiodiversity management, undermining adaptation to the changing climate. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Households, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2015

Flood Early Warning Systems in Nepal: A Gendered Perspective

Citation:

Shrestha, Mandira Singh, Shesh Kanta Kafle, Min Bahdur Gurung, Hari Krishna Nibanupudi, Vijay Ratan Khadgi, and Gautam Rajkarnikar. 2014. “Flood Early Warning Systems in Nepal: A Gendered Perspective.” ICIMOD Working Paper 2014/4, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Authors: Mandira Singh Shrestha, Shesh Kanta Kafle, Min Bahdur Gurung, Hari Krishna Nibanupudi, Vijay Ratan Khadgi, Gautam Rajkarnikar

Keywords: early warning, gender, flood, Nepal

Annotation:

Summary: 
This publication captures the findings of a study on flood early warning systems in Nepal that assessed the institutional arrangements, key stakeholders, legal provisions, coordination and linkage mechanisms, and four key elements of early warning systems from a gender perspective. It also gathered experience from two villages with functioning community-based flood early warning systems.
 
This report aims to improve understanding of the existing flood early warning systems in Nepal, and suggests ways to make early warning systems more effective and responsive to the needs of vulnerable groups, and women in particular. By promoting the integration of the gender perspective into disaster risk management efforts, this study contributes to the Hyogo Framework for Action. The report can be a valuable tool for use by key national stakeholders, policy makers, planners, and community members who are risk from flood hazards in Nepal. (Summary from Prevention Web)

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2014

Women's Empowerment for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Response in Nepal

Citation:

Dhungel, Rajesh, and Ram Nath Ojha. 2012. “Women’s Empowerment for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Response in Nepal.” Gender & Development 20 (2): 309–21.

Authors: Rajesh Dhungel, Ram Nath Ojha

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
It is generally accepted that women overall are more vulnerable to disaster risk and have specific needs during a crisis. But in Nepal, social taboos and norms restrict women's freedom to express their needs to humanitarian workers in times of crisis, as these are normally strangers to the community deputed by humanitarian agencies or state agencies. These norms are deep-rooted in Nepal and other South Asian countries, and they increase the vulnerability of women to disaster risks, be they natural or man-made. In this context, starting in 2008, the Disaster Risk Reduction and Humanitarian programme (DRR-HP) in Nepal has introduced Women's Empowerment as a key component of community-based disaster risk reduction interventions in different DRR-HP projects. Altogether, 42 Women's Empowerment Centres (WECs), each with 30 women participants, have been supported to lead DRR and emergency response work in their local communities. The WECs have become a successful way of reducing socio-economic and physical vulnerability in the community, as well as an important means of strengthening women's empowerment and leadership.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Il est généralement accepté que les femmes sont globalement plus vulnérables face aux risques de catastrophe et ont des besoins particuliers durant une crise. Cependant, au Népal, les tabous et les normes sociaux limitent la liberté des femmes à exprimer leurs besoins aux travailleurs humanitaires en temps de crise, car ces derniers sont en général des étrangers pour la communauté, délégués par des agences humanitaires ou des organismes de l’État. Ces normes sont profondément ancrées au Népal et dans d'autres pays sud-asiatiques, et elles accroissent la vulnérabilité des femmes face aux risques de catastrophes, naturelles ou causées par l'Homme. Dans ce contexte, à partir de 2008, le Programme humanitaire et de réduction des risques de catastrophe (Disaster Risk Reduction and Humanitarian programme (DRR-HP)) au Népal a introduit l'autonomisation des femmes comme un élément clé des interventions communautaires de réduction des risques de catastrophe dans différents projets du DRR-HP. Ce sont 42 « Centres d'autonomisation des femmes » (CAF) en tout, chacun comptant 30 participantes, qui ont été aidés à mener des activités de RRC et d'intervention en situation d'urgence au sein de leurs communautés locales respectives. Les CAF sont devenus un moyen efficace de réduire la vulnérabilité socio-économique et physique au sein de la communauté, ainsi qu'un important moyen de renforcer l'autonomisation et le leadership des femmes.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Se acepta por lo general que las mujeres son más vulnerables ante los riesgos de desastres y tienen necesidades específicas durante una crisis. Pero en Nepal los tabús y las normas sociales cohíben a las mujeres para expresar sus necesidades a los trabajadores humanitarios en momentos de crisis ya que a menudo las organizaciones humanitarias o agencias gubernamentales los envían pero son personas completamente extrañas para las comunidades. Estas normas tienen una larga tradición en Nepal y en otros países de Asia del Sur y aumentan la vulnerabilidad de las mujeres ante los riesgos de desastres, sean naturales o provocados por el ser humano. En este contexto, a partir de 2008, el Programa Humanitario de Reducción de Riesgos ante Desastres (DRR-HP por sus siglas en inglés) en Nepal incorporó el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres como un elemento clave en diversas acciones del componente Reducción Comunitaria de Riesgos ante Desastres (CBDRR). En total se han apoyado 42 Centros para el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres (CEM), cada uno integrado por 30 mujeres que realizan labores de DRR para enfrentar emergencias en sus comunidades. Los CEM se han convertido en recursos efectivos para reducir la vulnerabilidad socioeconómica y física en las comunidades y para fortalecer a las mujeres y sus liderazgos.

Keywords: Women's Empowerment Centre (WEP), Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), vulnerability, Nepal, DRR, Disasters, gender and development (GAD)

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2012

Exploring the Continuum: Gendered Violence in Post-Conflict Landscapes

Smita Ramnarain

April 19, 2018

Campus Center, 3rd floor, Room 3540, UMass Boston

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This event is being cosponsored by the William Joiner Institute for the Study of War and Social Consequences; the UMass Boston Global Governance and Human Security PhD Program; and the Honors College.

Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development

Citation:

Pandey, Shanta. 1998. “Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development.” International Social Work 41 (3): 339-55. 

Author: Shanta Pandey

Annotation:

Summary:
“In developing countries, poor populations, especially women and children, are disproportionately concentrated in ecologically degraded, fragile, and marginal lands (Durning, 1989). A wide range of development programs have been launched to promote social and economic development of rural areas. These programs are in the form of reforestation, irrigation and drinking water improvement, innovative farming techniques, primary health care facilities and health education, and training and human capital development. People’s participation, especially women’s, in these development programs is crucial for their success. Much has been written on the failure of states and development projects to engage rural people, especially rural women, in these rural development initiatives (Mayoux, 1995). This paper reviews several case studies conducted in Nepal and identifies some of the factors that contribute to the participation of rural people, especially rural women, in forest resources management programs. The paper also discusses social workers’ role in promoting participation and sustainable development” (Pandey, 1998, 339).

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, Infrastructure, Energy, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 1998

The Role of Gender and Caste in Climate Adaptation Strategies in Nepal

Citation:

Onta, Nisha, and Bernadette P. Resurreccion. 2011. “The Role of Gender and Caste in Climate Adaptation Strategies in Nepal.” Mountain Research and Development 31 (4): 351–56.

Authors: Nisha Onta, Bernadette P. Resurreccion

Abstract:

Despite the growing number of studies and research projects on climate change adaptation, only a few have examined the gender and cultural dynamics of the adaptation process. Inequality has been identified as a major indicator of the vulnerability of individuals and groups; nevertheless, the gender and cultural aspects of inequality have not received much emphasis. The present article attempts to analyze the influence of gender and cultural relations on the process of climate change adaptation by presenting a study of Dalit and Lama households in the mountainous Humla District of Nepal. The inhabitants of Humla have been experiencing a shift in the monsoon season, a decrease in snowfall, and longer dry periods, with adverse effects on their livelihoods. The main focus of this article is to highlight the cultural, social, and economic dependency of the Lama and Dalit ethnic groups and to examine whether processes of adaptation exacerbate or alter gender inequalities and intercaste dependencies. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, gender, caste, Dalit, Humla, Nepal

Annotation:

Topics: Caste, Environment, Climate Change, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2011

Women’s Rights in Climate Change: Using Video as a Tool for Empowerment in Nepal

Citation:

Khamis, Marion, Tamara Plush, and Carmen Sepúlveda Zelaya. 2009. “Women’s Rights in Climate Change: Using Video as a Tool for Empowerment in Nepal.” Gender and Development 17 (1): 125–35.

Authors: Marion Khamis, Tamara Plush, Carmen Sepúlveda Zelaya

Abstract:

An innovative Action Aid-supplied project in Nepal has seen women's empowerment make rapid progress through the use of video discussions about climate change. In this exploration of the project, we ask what we can learn from the use of such technology, and consider the implications for international development agencies and their efforts to support women's rights.

Keywords: women's rights, gender, climate change, power, women and environment, Nepal, adaptation, video

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, International Organizations, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2009

Adapting to Climate Change: A Sensitivity Analysis of National Adaptation Programmes of Action Towards Women

Citation:

Anagnostou, Sotiria. 2015. “Adapting to Climate Change: A Sensitivity Analysis of National Adaptation Programmes of Action Towards Women.” PhD diss., Arizona State University.

Author: Sotiria Anagnostou

Abstract:

The most recent decision of the 2012 Conference of the Parties (CoP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognizes that in order to create climate policies that respond to the different needs of men and women a more balanced representation of women from developed and developing countries is needed. National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) provide a process for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to “identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs to respond to impending threats from climate change.” Since 1997, the United Nations has agreed to gender mainstreaming- a globally accepted strategy for promoting gender equality by ensuring that gender perspectives and attention to the goal of gender equality are central to all activities in the all UN systems. Due to the gender division of labor climate change will affect men and women differently. Policies and programs that do not take into account the needs and capacities of both men and women will fail to be effective and may worsen preexisting conditions that historically favor men. My research investigates the UN’s commitment towards gender mainstreaming. More specifically my objective is to understand how and to what extent the NAPAs from 49 countries integrate a gender dimension into their national climate adaptation policy. For the purpose of this research, I consider three interrelated issues: whether gender-specific needs and vulnerabilities were identified by the NAPA; if these needs and vulnerabilities were addressed by proposed adaptation projects; and in what forms women participated in the formulation of the NAPA. The scope of this research begins with an overview assessment of 49 NAPAs followed by a comparative assessment of NAPAs from four countries- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Niger, and an in-depth analysis of Nepal’s NAPA, which incorporates field study. Nepal was chosen as a focus country due to its identification as being both inclusive and gender sensitive. The method of inquiry consists of both quantitative and qualitative analysis, utilizing the quantitative measures of HDI and GII and the qualitative methods of content analysis and case study. The findings suggest that the response to the gender dimensions of climate change found in adaptation policies vary widely among the LDCs and the level of response is dependent upon social, cultural, economic, and political contexts within each LDC. Additionally, I find that gender mainstreaming techniques have not been fully integrated into the NAPA policy and processes, and have not been effective at promoting gender equality through adaptation strategies. Recommendations are provided in order to help mainstream gender in NAPAs as they continue to be developed, revised, and implemented.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, NGOs Regions: Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal, Niger

Year: 2015

Women’s Empowerment for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Response in Nepal

Citation:

Dhungel, Rajesh, and Ram Nath Ojha. 2012. “Women’s Empowerment for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Response in Nepal.” Gender & Development 20 (2): 309–21. doi:10.1080/13552074.2012.687220.

Authors: Rajesh Dhungel, Ram Nath Ojha

Abstract:

English Abstract:
It is generally accepted that women overall are more vulnerable to disaster risk and have specific needs during a crisis. But in Nepal, social taboos and norms restrict women's freedom to express their needs to humanitarian workers in times of crisis, as these are normally strangers to the community deputed by humanitarian agencies or state agencies. These norms are deep-rooted in Nepal and other South Asian countries, and they increase the vulnerability of women to disaster risks, be they natural or man-made. In this context, starting in 2008, the Disaster Risk Reduction and Humanitarian programme (DRR-HP) in Nepal has introduced Women's Empowerment as a key component of community-based disaster risk reduction interventions in different DRR-HP projects. Altogether, 42 Women's Empowerment Centres (WECs), each with 30 women participants, have been supported to lead DRR and emergency response work in their local communities. The WECs have become a successful way of reducing socio-economic and physical vulnerability in the community, as well as an important means of strengthening women's empowerment and leadership.
 
French Abstract:
Il est généralement accepté que les femmes sont globalement plus vulnérables face aux risques de catastrophe et ont des besoins particuliers durant une crise. Cependant, au Népal, les tabous et les normes sociaux limitent la liberté des femmes à exprimer leurs besoins aux travailleurs humanitaires en temps de crise, car ces derniers sont en général des étrangers pour la communauté, délégués par des agences humanitaires ou des organismes de l’État. Ces normes sont profondément ancrées au Népal et dans d'autres pays sud-asiatiques, et elles accroissent la vulnérabilité des femmes face aux risques de catastrophes, naturelles ou causées par l'Homme. Dans ce contexte, à partir de 2008, le Programme humanitaire et de réduction des risques de catastrophe (Disaster Risk Reduction and Humanitarian programme (DRR-HP)) au Népal a introduit l'autonomisation des femmes comme un élément clé des interventions communautaires de réduction des risques de catastrophe dans différents projets du DRR-HP. Ce sont 42 « Centres d'autonomisation des femmes » (CAF) en tout, chacun comptant 30 participantes, qui ont été aidés à mener des activités de RRC et d'intervention en situation d'urgence au sein de leurs communautés locales respectives. Les CAF sont devenus un moyen efficace de réduire la vulnérabilité socio-économique et physique au sein de la communauté, ainsi qu'un important moyen de renforcer l'autonomisation et le leadership des femmes.
 
Spanish Abstract:
Se acepta por lo general que las mujeres son más vulnerables ante los riesgos de desastres y tienen necesidades específicas durante una crisis. Pero en Nepal los tabús y las normas sociales cohíben a las mujeres para expresar sus necesidades a los trabajadores humanitarios en momentos de crisis ya que a menudo las organizaciones humanitarias o agencias gubernamentales los envían pero son personas completamente extrañas para las comunidades. Estas normas tienen una larga tradición en Nepal y en otros países de Asia del Sur y aumentan la vulnerabilidad de las mujeres ante los riesgos de desastres, sean naturales o provocados por el ser humano. En este contexto, a partir de 2008, el Programa Humanitario de Reducción de Riesgos ante Desastres (DRR-HP por sus siglas en inglés) en Nepal incorporó el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres como un elemento clave en diversas acciones del componente Reducción Comunitaria de Riesgos ante Desastres (CBDRR). En total se han apoyado 42 Centros para el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres (CEM), cada uno integrado por 30 mujeres que realizan labores de DRR para enfrentar emergencias en sus comunidades. Los CEM se han convertido en recursos efectivos para reducir la vulnerabilidad socioeconómica y física en las comunidades y para fortalecer a las mujeres y sus liderazgos.

Keywords: Women's Empowerment Centre (WEP), Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), vulnerability, Nepal

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2012

Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security

Citation:

 
Chisholm, Amanda, and Saskia Stachowitsch. 2016. “Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security.” Globalizations 13 (6): 815-29. 

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Saskia Stachowitsch

Abstract:

In a case study of Nepalese Gurkhas working for Western private military and security companies (PMSCs), this article develops feminist global political economy understandings of global labour chains by exploring how the ‘global market’ and the ‘everyday’ interact in establishing private security as a gendered and racialised project. Current understandings of PMSCs, and global markets at large, tend to depoliticise these global and everyday interactions by conceptualising the ‘everyday’ as common, mundane, and subsequently banal. Such understandings, we argue, not only conceal the everyday within private security, but also reinforce a conceptual dualism that enables the security industry to function as a gendered and racialised project. To overcome this dualism, this article offers a theoretically informed notion of the everyday that dissolves the hegemonic separation into ‘everyday’ and ‘global’ levels of analysis. Drawing upon ethnography, semi- structured interviews, and discourse analysis of PMSCs’ websites, the analysis demonstrates how race, gender, and colonial histories constitute global supply chains for the security industry, rest upon and reinforce racialised and gendered migration patterns, and depend upon, as well as shape, the everyday lives and living of Gurkha men and women.

Keywords: Gurkhas, private security, feminist security studies, feminist global political economy, masculinity

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Political Economies, Race, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2016

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