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Morocco

Gender and the Dynamics of Mobility: Reflections on African Migrant Mothers and ‘Transit Migration’ in Morocco

Citation:

Stock, Inka. 2012. “Gender and the Dynamics of Mobility: Reflections on African Migrant Mothers and ‘Transit Migration’ in Morocco.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 35 (9): 1577–95.

Author: Inka Stock

Abstract:

By describing the everyday lives of African migrant mothers and their children in Morocco, this paper highlights how migration and ‘immobility’ in so-called ‘transit countries’ are gendering and gendered experiences. Relying on migrants' narratives, the paper demonstrates how migrants' transitions to motherhood create both specific and gendered spaces for agency and particular and gendered constraints upon agency that shape women migrants' mobility dynamics in space and time.

Keywords: migration, gender, Morocco, transit, African migrants, migrant mothers

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa Countries: Morocco

Year: 2012

Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries

Citation:

Valodia, Imraan and Caren Grown. 2010. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries. New York: Routledge; Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Authors: Imraan Valodia, Caren Grown

Annotation:

Summary:
Around the world, there are concerns that many tax codes are biased against women, and that contemporary tax reforms tend to increase the incidence of taxation on the poorest women while failing to generate enough revenue to fund the programs needed to improve these women’s lives. Because taxes are the key source of revenue governments themselves raise, understanding the nature and composition of taxation and current tax reform efforts is key to reducing poverty, providing sufficient revenue for public expenditure, and achieving social justice. This book presents original research on the gender dimensions of personal income taxes, value-added excise and fuel taxes in Argentina, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, South Africa, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. It will be of interest to postgraduates and researchers studying public finance, international economics, development studies, gender studies, and international relations, among other disciplines. (Summary from International Development Research Centre)

Topics: Development, Economies, Public Finance, Poverty, Gender, Women Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, North America, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Argentina, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, South Africa, Uganda, United States of America

Year: 2010

Explaining Divergent Outcomes of the Arab Spring: The Significance of Gender and Women's Mobilizations

Citation:

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2018. "Explaining Divergent Outcomes of the Arab Spring: The Significance of Gender and Women's Mobilizations." Politics, Groups, and Identities 6 (4): 666-81.

Author: Valentine Moghadam

Abstract:

The Arab Spring has been extensively analyzed but the presence or absence of violent protests and the divergent outcomes of the uprising that encompassed the Arab region have not been explained in terms of the salience of gender and women’s mobilizations. I argue that women’s legal status, social positions, and collective action prior to the Arab Spring helped shape the nature of the 2011 mass protests as well as the political and social outcomes of individual countries. I compare and contrast two sets of cases: Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia, which saw non-violent protests and relatively less repression on the part of the state; and Bahrain, Libya, Syria, and Yemen, where states responded to the protests, whether violent or non-violent, with force and repression, and where women and their rights have been among the principal victims. I also show why women fared worse in Egypt than in Morocco and Tunisia.

Keywords: Arab Spring, women's rights, women's mobilizations, outcomes, violence, democratization

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Conflict, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Nonviolence, Rights, Women's Rights, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen

Year: 2018

Gender and Mobility in Africa: Borders, Bodies and Boundaries

Citation:

Hiralal, Kalpana, and Zaheera Jinnah, eds. 2018. Gender and Mobility in Africa: Borders, Bodies and Boundaries. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave MacMillan.

Authors: Kalpana Hiralal, Zaheera Jinnah

Abstract:

Annotation:

Summary:
This volume examines gender and mobility in Africa though the central themes of borders, bodies and identity. It explores perceptions and engagements around ‘borders’; the ways in which ‘bodies’ and women’s bodies in particular, shape and are affected by mobility, and the making and reproduction of actual and perceived ‘boundaries’; in relation to gender norms and gendered identify.  Over fourteen original chapters it makes revealing contributions to the field of migration and gender studies. Combining historical and contemporary perspectives on mobility in Africa, this project contextualises migration within a broad historical framework, creating a conceptual and narrative framework that resists post-colonial boundaries of thought on the subject matter. This multidisciplinary work uses divergent methodologies including ethnography, archival data collection, life histories and narratives and multi-country survey level data and engages with a range of conceptual frameworks to examine the complex forms and outcomes of mobility on the continent today. Contributions include a range of case studies from across the continent, which relate either conceptually or methodologically to the central question of gender identity and relations within migratory frameworks in Africa. This book will appeal to researchers and scholars of politics, history, anthropology, sociology and international relations. (Summary from Palgrave MacMillan)
 
Table of Contents:
  1. Introduction: Gender and Mobility in Africa: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives - Hiralal, Kalpana
  2. Why Were the Women Left Behind? Chinese and Indian Migration in the Indian Ocean Region: A Historical Perspective - Hiralal, Kalpana
  3. The Migration of Women in Tunisia: Between Tradition and Modernity - Bouchoucha, Ibtihel
  4. (Re)negotiating Gender Identity Among Zimbabwean Female Pentecostal Migrants in South Africa - Chimbidzikai, Tinashe
  5. Migration, Mobilities and Families: Comparative Views Amongst Congolese, Burundian and Zimbabwean Female Refugees - Rugunanan, Pragna (et al.)
  6. Negotiating Culture and Responses to Domestic Violence in South Africa: Migrant Women and Service Providers’ Narratives - Kiwanuka, Monica
  7. ‘Who I Am Depends on Who I Am Talking To’ - Oliveira, Elsa (et al.)
  8. Between Prosecutors and Counsellors: State and Non-state Actors in the Rehabilitation of Victims of Human Trafficking in Nigeria - Ikuteyijo, Lanre Olusegun
  9. Crossing Borders, Present Futures: A Study of the Life Histories of Pakistani Immigrants in Durban - Rai, Sasha
  10. Senegalese Migrants in Morocco: From a Gender Perspective - Ait Ben Lmadani, Fatima
  11. Mobile Women: Negotiating Gendered Social Norms, Stereotypes and Relationships - Matshaka, Sarah
  12. Social Control in Transnational Families: Somali Women and Dignity in Johannesburg - Shaffer, Marnie
  13. Concluding Thoughts and Pathways for Future Research - Jinnah, Zaheera

 

 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Roles, Women Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Burundi, Congo-Brazzaville, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, Zimbabwe

Year: 2018

Climate Change, Gender, Decision-Making Power, and Migration into the Saiss Region of Morocco

Citation:

Najjar, Dina, Boubaker Dhehibi, Aden Aw-Hassan, and Abderrahim Bentaibi. 2017. “Climate Change, Gender, Decision-Making Power, and Migration into the Saiss Region of Morocco.” Working Paper 1102, The Economic Research Forum (ERF), Giza.

Authors: Dina Najjar, Boubaker Dhehibi, Aden Aw-Hassan, Abderrahim Bentaibi

Abstract:

Studies on migration in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have so far focused on migration to urban areas (local cities and European countries). Little research has explored internal migration into rural areas. Yet in Morocco rural-rural migration is an important strategy for many who are escaping climate variability and unemployment in their hometowns to take advantage of labor opportunities in thriving agricultural enterprises. Gender remains largely missing from migration research in Morocco especially for migrant women. Gender differences are important to account for as men and women have diverse motives, strategies and experiences with migration, and thus require different interventions. In light of gender differences and climate-induced migration and investments in irrigation, this research follows up on the ground to understand the experiences of men and women laborer as the migration continues in three rural areas in the Saiss region (Morocco). These are chosen based on differences in socio-economic, gender norms, and biophysical dynamics to capture as diverse experiences as possible with labor work and migration as possible. These areas also represent both sending and receiving communities. Data was collected through a survey administered to 400 laborers (179 women and 221 men) employed in the intensified agricultural sector of Saiss in Morocco. Using gender analysis, logistic regression models framework and political ecology approach, our findings emphasize that men should be sensitized in their attainment of tertiary education on gender equality and the importance soliciting women’s participation in decisionmaking, particularly with regards to assets (house). For the economic advancement of women, there should be a sustained focus on their ownership and control over unalienable assets (such as housing). The same recommendation applies to the youth. Finally, we found that migrants were less likely to control houses that they owned probably due to a general lack of title deeds. We recommend formalizing their ownership of housing in the settlement areas.

Keywords: gender analysis, decision-making, migration, rural livelihoods, climate change, logistic regression, Morocco

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, MENA Countries: Morocco

Year: 2017

Middle East and Central Asia: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Kolovich, Lisa, and Sakina Shibuya. 2016. “Middle East and Central Asia: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper No. 16/151. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Authors: Lisa Kolovich , Sakina Shibuya

Abstract:

Gender budgeting uses fiscal policies to promote gender equality and women's advancement, but is struggling to take hold in the Middle East and Central Asia. We provide an overview of two gender budgeting efforts in the region--Morocco and Afghanistan. Achievements in these two countries include increasing female primary and secondary education enrollment rates and reducing maternal mortality. But the region not only needs to use fiscal policies for women's advancement, but also reform tax and financial laws, enforce laws that assure women's safety in public, and change laws that prevent women from taking advantage of employment opportunities.

Keywords: gender budgeting, fiscal policy & administration, gender inequality, middle east, Central Asia

Topics: Education, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Central Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Morocco

Year: 2016

Feminism Inshallah: A History Of Arab Feminism

"The struggle for Muslim women’s emancipation is often portrayed stereotypically as a showdown between Western and Islamic values, but Arab feminism has existed for more than a century. This groundbreaking documentary recounts Arab feminism’s largely unknown story, from its taboo-shattering birth in Egypt by feminist pioneers up through viral Internet campaigns by today’s tech-savvy young activists during the Arab Spring.

Islam, Gender, and Democracy in Morocco: The Making of the Mudwana Reform

Citation:

Pruzan-Jorgensen, Julie. 2011. “Islam, Gender, and Democracy in Morocco: The Making of the Mudwana Reform.” In Gender and Islam in Africa: Rights, Sexuality, and Law, edited by Margot Badran. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.

Author: Julie Pruzan-Jorgensen

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Religion Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa Countries: Morocco

Year: 2011

Modernising Women and Democratisation After the Arab Spring

Citation:

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2014. "Modernising Women and Democratisation After the Arab Spring." The Journal of North African Studies 19 (2): 137-42

Author: Valentine M. Moghadam

Abstract:

What has the Arab Spring meant to women, and women's rights, in the region? Three years after the mass social protests of January and February 2011, when and where can we expect the promises of democracy and equality, and the revolutionary spirit of unity and purpose, to be realised? This Foreword offers a stock-taking of events and possible future directions, with a focus on prospects for a women-friendly democratisation.

Keywords: Arab Spring, democratisation, women, women's rights, women's movements

Topics: Armed Conflict, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen

Year: 2014

Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectiveness Knowledge Briefs

Citation:

United Nations Development Fund for Women. 2010. Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectiveness Knowledge Briefs. New York: The United Nations Development Fund for Women.

Author: United Nations Development Fund for Women

Abstract:

This series of knowledge briefs available in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese has been produced on the basis of research carried out under the European Commission-supported programme ‘Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda’. 

The research, which was carried out in ten countries (Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Nepal, Mozambique, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) investigated how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies had been used in the context of aid modalities, such as general budget support (GBS) and sector budget support (SBS).

The research aimed to increase national partners’ and European Union decision-makers’ understanding of the opportunities for using GRB to ensure that aid contributes to the achievement of gender equality goals. The knowledge briefs aim to provide guidance on using GRB tools to integrate a gender dimension into new modalities of aid financing, so that these support the implementation of governments’ gender equality commitments. The target audiences are programmers and policy makers working for national governments, the European Commission, and bilateral donors.

The series consists of 5 separate briefs:

·Introduction to Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectivenes

· Guidance sheet on ‘How can aid be gender responsive in the context of the new aid modalities? Lessons from gender responsive budgeting initiatives’

· Brief on ‘How do donors collectively address gender issues in their aid management practices at country level?’

· Brief on ‘How do Individual donors address gender Issues in their policy, programming, and financing?’

· Summaries of country reports

 

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2010

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