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Exploring Mobility and Migration in the Context of Rural—Urban Linkages: Why Gender and Generation Matter


Tacoli, Cecilia, and Richard Mabala. 2010. “Exploring Mobility and Migration in the Context of Rural—Urban Linkages: Why Gender and Generation Matter.” Environment and Urbanization 22 (2): 389–95.

Authors: Cecilia Tacoli, Richard Mabala


This paper draws on case studies in Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania and Vietnam to explore the different ways in which migration intersects with the changing relations between rural and urban areas and activities, and in the process transforms livelihoods and the relations between young and older men and women. Livelihood strategies are becoming increasingly diverse, and during interviews people were asked to describe their first, second and third occupations, the time allocated to each and the income that each produced. In all study regions, the number of young people migrating is increasing. This is influenced not only by expanding employment opportunities in destination areas but also by power inequalities within households, which means limited opportunities at home. It is increasingly common for young women to migrate, in part because they have no land rights and few prospects at home, in part because of more employment opportunities elsewhere. Young women also tend to move further than young men and for longer, and also remit a higher proportion of their income. Older men expect young men to migrate but often criticize young women for doing so, although women’s migration is more accepted as their remittances contribute more to household income. However, if young women had better prospects at home, it would limit their need to move to what is often exploitative and insecure work.

Keywords: gender, generation, livelihoods, migration, rural-urban linkages

Topics: Age, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Vietnam

Year: 2010

Really Effective (for 15% of the Men): Lessons in Understanding and Addressing User Needs in Climate Services from Mali


Carr, Edward R. and Sheila N. Onzere. 2018. “Really Effective (for 15% of the Men): Lessons in Understanding and Addressing User Needs in Climate Services from Mali.” Climate Risk Management 22: 82-95.

Authors: Edward R. Carr, Sheila N. Onzere


"If we are to design and implement climate services that truly help users address their weather- and climate-related vulnerabilities, we must understand who our users are in all of their diversity, what challenges these different users face, whether or not weather and climate information can address any of these challenges, and what information best addresses these challenges for different members of the same user population. Simply put, it is possible to design climate services that, in the context of a specific stressor for a specific group of people, work brilliantly, but when applied to a wider group of users for new purposes, fail dramatically. Our work assessing Mali’s l’Agence Nationale de la Météorologie’s (Mali Meteo) Agrometeorological Advisory Program serves to illustrate this important lesson, one which can inform the design and scaling-up of climate services for development, as well as the monitoring and evaluation of such services, going forward" (Carr & Onzere 2018, 83).

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Mali

Year: 2018

El acceso de las mujeres a la tierra en Mali


Niang, Korotoumou. 2020. “El acceso de las mujeres a la tierra en Mali.” En Tierra, Derechos Humanos y Desaroollo: Supuestos y Visiones desde África y América, editado por Miguel Ángel Martín López, Ramón Reuda López, Concha Pérez Curiel, y Laura García Martín, 16-37. Sevilla: Egregius Ediciones. 

Author: Korotoumou Niang


Nos encontramos con una obra que aborda múltiples cuestiones ligadas a la tierra y su aprovechamiento, en diversos escenarios geográficos, de África y América, con una perspectiva de lo que debería ser, de la influencia de una perspectiva de derechos humanos. Gracias a todo ello, se consigue una coherencia y un hilo conductor unitario, enriquecido además por el hecho de que la mayoría de los autores provienen directamente de dichos escenarios geográficos, con aportaciones cercanas y con el deseo por comprender y mejorar la realidad existente.

Topics: Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Mali

Year: 2020

Land Rights and Economic Resilience of Rural Women in the G5-Sahel Countries, West Africa


Bizoza, Alfred Runezerwa. 2019. “Land Rights and Economic Resilience of Rural Women in the G5-Sahel Countries, West Africa.” African Journal of Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences 2: 46–59.

Author: Alfred Runezerwa Bizoza


This article discusses different issues pertaining gender and land governance with focus to access and control of land by rural women and how this affects their resilience in G5-Sahel region- Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Mauritania. Findings show that land remains the property of men, customary chiefs, male members of the family who have the full control of land use; women continue to serve as servants of their husbands in the farming activities. Limited access to production resources such as land, agricultural inputs, small scale irrigation and agricultural mechanization, and lack of post-harvest handling facilities; all restrain women’s economic capacity for their economic resilience to climate change and other natural disasters. There is need, therefore, for innovative models of land tenure regularization systems in the G5-Sahel countries; models that take into account current social, cultural and religious barriers for women’s land access and use for their economic activities.

Keywords: land rights, gender, economic resilience, G5-Sahel, West Africa

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Land Tenure, Households, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger

Year: 2019

Gender Role in Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security in the Sahel Belt of West Africa: Application of Poisson and Negative Binomial Regression


Oyekale, Abayomi S. 2013. “Gender Role in Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security in the Sahel Belt of West Africa: Application of Poisson and Negative Binomial Regression.” Gender & Behavior 11 (2): 5499-511.

Author: Abayomi S. Oyekale


The Sahel belt of West Africa is high vulnerability to poverty and hunger, especially during periods of drought and other climatic adversities. This paper analyzed the impacts of gender role in agriculture and climate change exposure on monthly food shortages. The data were collected by the the Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) from 281 farmers from Burkina Faso and Mali using multi-stage sampling procedures. Descriptive statistics, Poisson regression and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analysis. The results show that average food cropland owned were 9.0227 and 2.8266 hectares in Mali and Burkina Faso respectively while 58.87 percent and 24.29 percent of the farmers indicated that men did most of the works in raw food production. Also, 24.11 percent and 43.57 percent of the households noticed more erratic rainfall in Mali and Burkina Faso, respectively, while 16.31 percent and 36.43 percent reported less overall rainfall. The regression results showed that owned grazing land, more frequent flood, reduction in ground water level, men dominances in cash crop production, fruit production and vegetable production significantly increased the log of months with shortage due to cash (p<0.10), while community grazing land, more overall rainfall, household size, business cash income, men dominances in fodder and large livestock production significantly reduced it (p<0.10). It was concluded that recognition of the contributions of women to food production in the Sahel can facilitate a process for understanding and devising livelihood strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change. 

Keywords: food security, Poisson regression, Negative binomial regression, Sahel belt, West Africa

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Mali

Year: 2013

Is Adaptation to Climate Change Gender Neutral? Lessons from Communities Dependent on Livestock and Forests in Northern Mali


Djoudi, H., and M. Brockhaus. 2011. “Is Adaptation to Climate Change Gender Neutral? Lessons from Communities Dependent on Livestock and Forests in Northern Mali.” International Forestry Review 13 (2): 123–35.

Authors: H. Djoudi, M. Brockhaus

Keywords: gender, climate change, adaptation, Faguibine, Mali


The growing risk of vulnerability to climate change is widely discussed in the scientific and political sphere. More evidence from local case studies emerges that document this risk. Vulnerability to climate change and variability appears most likely to negatively affect poor people, particularly women. Tendencies to widen existing inequalities have been observed. In the Lake Faguibine area in Northern Mali the social, political and ecological conditions have drastically changed in the last three decades. We conducted 6 single gender participatory workshops using PRA in two communities. The workshops assessed vulnerability and adaptive strategies to climate variability and change for livestock and forest based livelihoods. Our results show divergences in the adaptive strategies of men and women. Migration represented one of the most important strategies for men. Women perceived this strategy more as a cause of vulnerability than an adaptive strategy. Traditionally male activities have been added to the workload of women (e.g. small ruminant herding). The historical axes show that development projects targeting women have not integrated climate change and variability into their planning. Most activities have been built around small scale agriculture. With the drying out of Lake Faguibine, those water dependent activities are no longer relevant. Women have developed their own adaptive strategies based on newly emerged forest resources in the former lake area (e.g. charcoal production). However, women are hindered from realizing the potential of these new activities. This is due to loss of person power in the household, unclear access to natural resources, lack of knowledge and financial resources. Lack of power to influence decision at the household and community levels as well as limited market opportunities for women are additional factors. Even though women's vulnerability is increasing in the short term, over the long term the emerging changes in women's roles could lead to positive impacts. These impacts could be both societal (division of labor and power, new social spaces), and economic (market access, livestock wealth). Locally specific gender sensitive analysis of vulnerability is needed to understand dynamics and interaction of divergent adaptive strategies. Societal and political change at broader scales is needed to realize potential benefits for women in the long term. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Mali

Year: 2011

An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries


Graham, Jay P., Mitsuaki Hirai, and Seung-Sup Kim. 2016. “An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries.” PLOS ONE 11 (6): e0155981. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155981.

Authors: Jay P. Graham, Mitsuaki Hirai, Seung-Sup Kim



It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times.


This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (< 15 years of age) in the households (HHs) that report spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries.


We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries.


Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs).


In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector.

Topics: Age, Youth, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte D'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Zimbabwe

Year: 2016

The Energy-Enterprise-Gender Nexus: Lessons from the Multifunctional Platform (MFP) in Mali


Sovacool, Benjamin K., Shannon Clarke, Katie Johnson, Meredith Crafton, Jay Eidsness, and David Zoppo. 2013. “The Energy-Enterprise-Gender Nexus: Lessons from the Multifunctional Platform (MFP) in Mali.” Renewable Energy 50: 115–25.

Authors: Benjamin K. Sovacool, Shannon Clarke, Katie Johnson, Meredith Crafton, Jay Eidsness, David Zoppo


The Mali Multifunctional Platform (MFP)—a government managed, multilaterally sponsored energy program that distributed a small diesel engine attached to a variety of end-use equipment—expanded access to modern energy services and raised village incomes from 1999 to 2004. Over this period, it successfully distributed more than 500 MFPs throughout Mali, and in doing so empowered women, improved educational opportunities, and enhanced food security and community cohesion. The MFP has also motivated the government to install 1800 such platforms by the end of 2012. Based on original research interviews supplemented with an extensive literature review, this study introduces readers to the rural energy situation in Mali and describes the history of the MFP project. It then discusses the benefits the project achieved, as well as five sets of challenges the MFP faces: a growing number of non-functional platforms, lack of policy coordination, poverty, dependence on imported technology and fuel, and patriarchy. The study concludes by offering six lessons for energy development planners and practitioners.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Infrastructure, Energy, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Mali

Year: 2013

Fils, frères, pères


Bertrand, Monique. 2013. “Fils, frères, pères”. Cahiers d’études africaines, 1, 323‑44.

English: Bertrand, Monique. 2013. “Sons, brothers, fathers.” Reports on African Studies, 1, 323‑44.

Author: Monique Bertrand


Au regard d’approches intéressant au Mali le sujet collectif “femmes”, les rapports intergénérationnels offrent des pistes heuristiques pour graduer, dans la capitale, les masculinités d’hégémoniques à marginalisées. Ce texte s’attache à des capacités sociales fortement revendiquées par les hommes: leur vocation à “héberger” étrangers, épouses et descendances, parentés directe et indirecte. L’honneur de l’hôte se défend dans l’installation d’une maison et le maintien de cohabitations résidentielles, dont il assume la charge et déplore les heurts, pour tenir rang dans la vie urbaine. À différentes étapes de mobilisation et de déstabilisation de références normatives, les rôles s’inversent dans l’hébergement; des contradictions se dévoilent; les mérites reconnus à certains rencontrent les reproches adressés à de nouvelles générations d’hommes pour la redistribution des ressources urbaines. Plus individualisées, ces visions masculines contextualisent les rapports de genre dans les termes d’une transition migratoire, démographique et métropolitaine.

English Abstract:

Since “women” tend to be analysed as a collective subject in Mali, the intergenerational relationships offer heuristic ways to evaluate the masculinity in a range of hegemonic marginalised positions, in the capital of the country. This paper deals with social capacities which are still strongly asserted by men: their authority in the matter of “lodging” as much as possible of strangers, wives and descendants, from direct and indirect kinships. The honour of the logeur is defended through the setting of a house and the ability to support co-dwellers on its name, assuming the load and clashes of a family to gain prestige in the urban life. Normative references are sometimes mobilised sometimes destabilised in the course of men’s life: housing practices can reverse the social roles, or reveal new contradictions; merits recognized for some family members can meet reproaches addressed to new generations of men concerning the redistribution of urban resources. These viewpoints on male duties tend to be more individual, but they put gender relationships in the prospect of a triple transition: migratory, demographic and metropolitan.

Keywords: Mali, masculinity, migration, kinship, intergenerational relationships, urbanity

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Men, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Households Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Mali

Year: 2013

Cycles of Violence: Gender Relations and Armed Conflict


El-Bushra, Judy, and Ibrahim M.G. Sahl. 2005. Cycles of Violence: Gender Relations and Armed Conflict. Nairobi: ACORD - Agency for Co-Operation and Research in Development.

Authors: Judy El-Bushra, Ibrahim M.G. Sahl


This book describes ACORD's research 'Gender-sensitive Design and Planning in Conflict-Affected Situations', carried out during 2000 and 2001 in five communities living in the shadow of violent conflict in Juba (Sudan), Gulu (Uganda), Luanda (Angola), Timbuktu (Mali) and the Lower Shabelle region (Somalia). It also includes analysis of data collected earlier in Eritrea and Rwanda. Two main questions are examined in this book: What is the impact of war on gender relations? And can gender relations contribute to conflict?

The analysis in this book explores the term 'gender relations' and unravels it into gender 'roles', 'identities', 'ideologies' and 'institutions/power structures', examining how each of these changes as a result of war. It finds that, while gender is a factor in perpetuating violence, it is also a factor in rebuilding social relations and peace.

This book also addresses the challenges in methodologies and tools for research in turbulence. The aim is to develop flexible and sensitive research methods that go beyond information collection into engaging in joint reflection with communities about issues confronting them. Agencies should no longer continue to work only 'in' conflict rendering practical services, but also jointly work 'on' it with communities to analyse and address the factors which perpetuate it.

Keywords: gender relations, armed conflict, violence, oral testimony, Uganda, Sudan, Mali, Angola, Somalia


Table of Contents:

Working 'in' and working 'on' violent conflict
The evolution of gender policy
Development research and its place in operational development practice
Aims and structure of the present volume


The historical background to the war in Uganda
Gender and ethnic identity in Acholiland
The impact of the war on the Acholi community
Ethnic and gender norms as contributory factors in the dynamics of conflict

The historical background to the war in the Sudan
Impact of conflict on Juba and the surrounding area
Impacts on individual men and women
Impact of the war on gender relations
Gender identity and its contribution to conflict

The historical background to the conflict in Somalia
The impact of the war on the Lower Shabelle region
The impact on individual men and women
Impact on different clan groups
Impact on gender relations

Historical background to the conflict in Angola
A sketch of the research area
The impact of the war on Km 9
The impact of the conflict on gender relations in Km 9
Gender identity and its contributions to the conflict situation

Historical background to the rebellion in northern Mali
Impact of conflict on the Timbuktu area
The impact of the rebellion on gender relations



Economic impacts: livelihoods and the division of labour
The personal dimensions of social change in war: marriage and sexuality
Discussion on war and the nature of social change: Do gender relations change?
Gender roles
Gender identities
Gender institutions/power structures
Gender ideologies
Analysing gender relations: a framework
Lessons and challenges
Livelihoods, vulnerability and autonomy
Gender and social justice
Rebuilding institutions


Power and patriarchy: conceptual resources for conflict analysis
Complexity and conflict
Gender, power, identity and violence
Patriarchy and the structures of oppressive power
Evidence from the case studies
Patriarchy and violent struggles for identity and control
Gender identity and its impact on cycles of violence
Gender impact flowchart: 'how gender identity can contribute to cycles of violence'
The complexity of conflict causes and impacts
Ways out: strategies for conflict transformation


The research process
The strengths and weaknesses of oral testimony as a research method
Open-ended and participatory research as a tool for development


Annex 1: Social exclusion analysis
Annex 2: Summary of conflict impacts in northern Mali
Annex 3: Timbuktu Guidelines on Oral Testimony

Full Report:

Book Reviews of Cycles of Violence:

By Susan McKay:

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Angola, Mali, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2005


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