Land Resources Management in Southeast Asia: Redefining the Role of Women as Land Managers


Pradipta, Lengga. 2020. “Land Resources Management in Southeast Asia: Redefining the Role of Women as Land Managers.” Komunitas: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture 12 (2): 206-16.

Author: Lengga Pradipta


The global trend to transform land management responsibility from the state to ‘communities’ or local user groups has neglected the implications of intra-community power differences for the effectiveness and equity of land management. Despite the rhetoric about gender equality that has mushroomed in recent years, a review of evidence from several countries in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam, has shown that female participation is very minimal in land management. One basic reason for this is the formal and informal institutional exclusion of women. Moreover, the bargaining power of women within households and communities is categorized as ‘lip-service’ because patriarchy is seen as bonded to culture or tradition. Further detailed and comparative research is required to identify and analyze the major factors that affect women’s access and control over land resources, especially regarding how culture and local wisdom can accommodate this issue and ensure the participation of women in the management of resources.

Keywords: land resources management, patriarchy, women

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Women, Gender Equality/Inequality, Patriarchy, Governance, Indigenous, Land Tenure, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam

Year: 2020

How Gender Differences and Perceptions of Safety Shape Urban Mobility in Southeast Asia


Hidayati, Isti, Wendy Tan, and Claudia Yamu. 2020. “How Gender Differences and Perceptions of Safety Shape Urban Mobility in Southeast Asia.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 73: 155–73.

Authors: Isti Hidayati, Wendy Tan, Claudia Yamu


Despite numerous studies on how gender differences affect transport mobility choices and perception of safety, there has been little emphasis on the influence of spatial and socio-cultural constructs on it, particularly in the Southeast Asian context. This article investigates this relation through (1) an on-street survey involving 383 participants in eight neighbourhoods in Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur, (2) analysing videos taken with the walking with video approach, and (3) a computational analysis of the street network using space syntax. Findings suggest that a large proportion of women ascribed to negative perceptions of safety as compared to men. Negative perceptions of safety were related to wariness towards motorcycles in Jakarta and absence of other pedestrians and the image of the place in Kuala Lumpur. This difference can be attributed to distinctions in spatial configurations and socio-cultural constructs between both cities. Findings provide practical insights – mode segregation or changes to street design – to address gendered mobility for sustainable urban transport in the region.

Keywords: mobility, gender, perceived safety, on-street survey, walking with video, space syntax

Topics: Gender, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia, Malaysia

Year: 2020

Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility and Interventions


Resurrección, Bernadette P., and Rebecca Elmhirst. 2012. Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility and Interventions. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Bernadette P. Resurrección, Rebecca Elmhirst


This book is about the gender dimensions of natural resource exploitation and management, with a focus on Asia. It explores the uneasy negotiations between theory, policy and practice that are often evident within the realm of gender, environment and natural resource management, especially where gender is understood as a political, negotiated and contested element of social relationships. It offers a critical feminist perspective on gender relations and natural resource management in the context of contemporary policy concerns: decentralized governance, the elimination of poverty and the mainstreaming of gender. Through a combination of strong conceptual argument and empirical material from a variety of political economic and ecological contexts (including Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam), the book examines gender-environment linkages within shifting configurations of resource access and control. The book will serve as a core resource for students of gender studies and natural resource management, and as supplementary reading for a wide range of disciplines including geography, environmental studies, sociology and development. It also provides a stimulating collection of ideas for professionals looking to incorporate gender issues within their practice in sustainable development. Published with IDRC. (Summary from Routledge)

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Feminisms, Gender Regions: Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2012

Sustainable Energy Transition, Gender and Modernisation in Rural Sarawak


Shabdin, N. H., and R. Padfield. 2017. “Sustainable Energy Transition, Gender and Modernisation in Rural Sarawak.” Chemical Engineering Transactions 56: 259-64.

Authors: N. H. Shabdin , R. Padfield


In the past two decades policy-makers have highlighted the need for societies to use energy in a more sustainable way. In support of a general trend towards evidence based, policy-making academic research in sustainable energy related fields has gathered pace. In particular, research has concentrated largely on technologies, energy economics and broad concepts of smart energy system. Research focusing on the social sciences of sustainable energy, including topics such as human behaviour change, gender impacts, household scale studies etc. – have tended to receive limited attention from research sponsors and until recently assumed to have limited impact on a transition to a sustainable energy future. Yet recent research in these topics has shown to have great potential in achieving positive social and environmental impact. In line with increasing interest in the social science of sustainable energy transitions, this study examines social behaviour and energy practices of rural communities without access to twenty-four hour electricity in Sarawak, East Malaysia. The research aims to understand the impact of modernity in influencing rural communities’ energy transition with a particular focus on the role women play in energy behaviour at the household level. Five case studies was undertaken in the villages of Kampung Sibu Laut, Mersan, Telaga Air, Boyan and Gersik. Through purposive sampling 25 households in total were selected from these five villages. Consistent with triangulation methodological approaches the fieldwork involved a number of research methods such as a household energy survey, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and ethnographic style methods (i.e. participant observation). Investigating multiple data sources allows a deeper understanding and increased reliability of findings. Initial findings reveals women across the village play a key role in managing the household’s energy needs, and specifically, energy efficiency and energy conservation aspects. Household income also influenced the behaviour of householders with regards to energy saving. For instance, wealthier families owned more electric goods and gadgets as compared with poorer families; thus, energy demand is assumed higher in the former households. Meanwhile, villages without twenty-four hour access to affordable electricity have less energy demand while it is also noted that many of the younger generation have migrated to the town. The research also reveals that besides geographical challenges in rural Sarawak, villages close to protected ecosystems, such as Ramsar sites, have limited development. In this way, electrical appliances were far fewer as compared with villages where there is more consistent electricity supply.

Topics: Environment, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Malaysia

Year: 2017

Gender Justice, Development, and Rights


Molyneux, Maxine, and Shahra Razavi, eds. 2002. Gender Justice, Development, and Rights. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Maxine Molyneux, Shahra Razavi


Gender Justice, Development, and Rights reflects on the significance accorded in international development policy to rights and democracy in the post-Cold War era. Key items on the contemporary policy agenda - neo-liberal economic and social policies, democracy, and multi-culturalism - are addressed here by leading scholars and regional specialists through theoretical reflections and detailed case studies. Together they constitute a collection which casts contemporary liberalism in a distinctive light by applying a gender perspective to the analysis of political and policy processes. Case studies from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, East-Central Europe, South and South-East Asia contribute a cross-cultural dimension to the analysis of contemporary liberalism - the dominant value system in the modern world - by examining how it both exists in and is resisted in developing and post-transition societies. (Summary from WorldCat)
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Maxine Molyneux and Shahra Razavi
Part I: Re-Thinking Liberal Rights And Universalism 
2. Women's Capabilities And Social Justice
Martha Nussbaum
3. Gender Justice, Human Rights And Neo-Liberal Economic Policies
Diane Elson
4. Multiculturalism, Universalism And The Claims Of Democracy
Anne Phillips
Part II: Social Sector Restructuring And Social Rights 
5. Political And Social Citizenship: An Examination Of The Case Of Poland
Jacqueline Heinen and Stephane Portet
6. Engendering The New Social Citizenship In Chile: Ngos And Social Provisioning Under Neo-Liberalism
Veronica Schild
7. Engendering Education: Prospects For A Rights-Based Approach To Female Education Deprivation In India
Ramya Subrahmanian
Part III: Democratisation And The Politics Of Gender 
8. Feminism And Political Reform In The Islamic Republic Of Iran
Parvin Paidar
9. The 'Devil's Deal': Women's Political Participation And Authoritarianism In Peru
Cecilia Blondet M.
10. In And Against The Party: Women's Representation And Constituency-Building In Uganda And South Africa
Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim
PART IV: Multiculturalisms In Practice 
11. The Politics Of Gender, Ethnicity And Democratization In Malaysia: Shifting Interests And Identities
Maznah Mohamad
12. National Law And Indigenous Customary Law: The Struggle For Justice Of Indigenous Women In Chiapas, Mexico Aida
Hernandez Castillo
13. The Politics Of Women's Rights And Cultural Diversity In Uganda
Aili Mari Tripp

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Governance, Indigenous, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Chile, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Uganda

Year: 2002

Personal Journey of Development through the Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB) Project, Penang


Husin, Nur Hazwani. 2016. “Personal Journey of Development through the Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB) Project, Penang.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 22 (2): 174–80.

Author: Nur Hazwani Husin


The main focus of this paper is women’s empowerment in the context of the Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB) Project in Penang, Malaysia. It includes a critical reflection on my own learning process regarding my personal improvement and empowerment in terms of expanding my knowledge and understanding of gender equality. This is then related to my commitment to the community via the GRPB project. Problems, limitations, and challenges in terms of achieving women’s empowerment are also addressed, taking into consideration the experience I gathered through various personal and community contexts.

Keywords: gender equality, Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB), women's empowerment

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Malaysia

Year: 2016

Women Miners in Developing Countries: Pit Women and Others


Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala, and Martha Macintyre, eds. 2006. Women Miners in Developing Countries: Pit Women and Others. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Authors: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt, Martha Macintyre


"Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines" (Abstract from WorldCat).


Table of Contents:
Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered - Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt and Martha Macintyre
1. Reconstructing Gendered Histories of Mines: Women miners here and there, now and then
Gill Burke
2. Japanese Coal Mining: Women Discovered
Sachiko Sone
3. Race, Gender and the Tin-Mining Industry in Malaya, 1900-1950
Amarjit Kaur
4. Patriarchy, Colonialism and Capitalism Unearthing the History of Adivasi Women Miners of Chotanagpur
Shashank S. Sinha
5. Gender and Ethnic Identities in the Mines: Digging through Layers of Class, Gender and Ethnicity: Korean Women Miners in Prewar Japan 
W. Donald Smith
6. Women Working in the Mining Industry in PNG: a Case Study from Lihir Martha Macintyre
7. Traditional Small-Scale Miners: Women Miners of the Philippines
Evelyn J. Caballero
8. Mining Gender at Work in the Indian Collieries: Identity Construction
Kamins and Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt
9. Gender in the Mining Economies: The Place of Women in Mining in the Cordillera Region, Philippines
Minerva Chaloping-March
10. Women in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Africa
Jennifer J. Hinton and Barbara E. Hinton and Marcello M. Veiga
11. Women in the Mining Industry of Contemporary China 
Linqing Yao
12. Women in Small-Scale Gold Mining in Papua New Guinea 
Geoff Crispin
13. The Invisible Work of Women in the Small Mines of Bolivia 
Els Van Hoecke
14. Global Processes, Local Resistances: Gendered Labour in Peripheral Tropical Frontiers: Women, Mining and Capital Accumulation in Post-Development Amazonia 
Jeannette Graulau
15. Women Miners, Human Rights and Poverty 
Ingrid Macdonald
16. Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): Stories of Struggles of Women Workers in Bhowra Colliery, India
Lindsay Barnes
17. Globalization and Women's Work in the Mine Pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt

Topics: Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Bolivia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines

Year: 2006

Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies: Gendered Spaces and Translocal Connections


Lachenmann, Gudrun, and Petra Dannecker. 2008. Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies: Gendered Spaces and Translocal Connections. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Authors: Gudrun Lachenmann, Petra Dannecker


Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies explores the negotiation processes of global development concepts such as poverty alleviation, human rights, and gender equality. It focuses on three countries that are undergoing different Islamisation processes: Senegal, Sudan, and Malaysia. While much has been written about the hegemonic production and discursive struggle of development concepts globally, this book analyzes the negotiation of these development concepts locally and translocally. Lachenmann and Dannecker present empirically grounded research to show that, although women are instrumentalized in different ways for the formation of an Islamic identity of a nation or group, they are at the same time important actors and agents in the processes of negotiating the meaning of development, restructuring of the public sphere, and transforming the societal gender order.

(Lexington Books)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Religion, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Malaysia, Senegal, Sudan

Year: 2008

Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting in Penang: The People-Oriented Model


Kamarudin, Shariza. 2016. “Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting in Penang: The People-Oriented Model.” In Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting, edited by Cecilia Ng, 55–79. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace 22. Springer International Publishing. 

Author: Shariza Kamarudin


This chapter presents the Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB) pilot project in Penang, Malaysia, under the Penang Women’s Development Corporation (PWDC) implemented in collaboration with two municipal councils. It focuses on the component related to community-based projects in two low-cost apartment complexes. The chapter examines the various concepts around participation and their links to the different notions of citizenship; and gender responsive budgeting and participatory budgeting engaging with the community as agents of change. A detailed documentation of the implementation, using the process of dialogical action , then leads to a critical examination of the project’s methodology, challenges and innovations, including its impact on women’s empowerment.

Keywords: Penang, GRPB pilot project, Low-cost apartment complexes, Public expenditure, citizenship, dialogical action

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Budgeting Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Malaysia

Year: 2016

Localizing Gender and Participatory Budgeting: Challenges of Institutionalization in Penang, Malaysia


Bakar, Aloyah A., Patahiyah Binti Ismail, and Maimunah Mohd Sharif. 2016. “Localizing Gender and Participatory Budgeting: Challenges of Institutionalization in Penang, Malaysia.” In Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting, edited by Cecilia Ng, 142–62. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace 22. Springer International Publishing.



Authors: Aloyah A. Bakar, Patahiyah Binti Ismail, Maimunah Mohd Sharif


Institutionalization is the introduction of new practices for sustained change, and it is a complex and difficult process. This chapter analyses the readiness of the two local governments in Penang to institutionalize GRB within their respective organizational milieus. It points out that lobbying with and sensitizing policy makers as change agents in the early stages of its formulation is an important pre-condition of institutionalization. At the same time, local authorities need to create an enabling and supportive environment to make GRPB a reality in their respective bureaucratic contexts although competing priorities might affect actions and commitment. The chapter argues that both a participatory approach and a commitment towards gender integration into budget structures and processes are the way forward.

Keywords: institutionalization, Gender and participatory budgeting, pilot project, municipality, local government

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting, Governance Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Malaysia

Year: 2016


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