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Gender Justice, Development, and Rights


Molyneux, Maxine, and Shahra Razavi, eds. 2002. Gender Justice, Development, and Rights. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Maxine Molyneux, Shahra Razavi


Gender Justice, Development, and Rights reflects on the significance accorded in international development policy to rights and democracy in the post-Cold War era. Key items on the contemporary policy agenda - neo-liberal economic and social policies, democracy, and multi-culturalism - are addressed here by leading scholars and regional specialists through theoretical reflections and detailed case studies. Together they constitute a collection which casts contemporary liberalism in a distinctive light by applying a gender perspective to the analysis of political and policy processes. Case studies from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, East-Central Europe, South and South-East Asia contribute a cross-cultural dimension to the analysis of contemporary liberalism - the dominant value system in the modern world - by examining how it both exists in and is resisted in developing and post-transition societies. (Summary from WorldCat)
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Maxine Molyneux and Shahra Razavi
Part I: Re-Thinking Liberal Rights And Universalism 
2. Women's Capabilities And Social Justice
Martha Nussbaum
3. Gender Justice, Human Rights And Neo-Liberal Economic Policies
Diane Elson
4. Multiculturalism, Universalism And The Claims Of Democracy
Anne Phillips
Part II: Social Sector Restructuring And Social Rights 
5. Political And Social Citizenship: An Examination Of The Case Of Poland
Jacqueline Heinen and Stephane Portet
6. Engendering The New Social Citizenship In Chile: Ngos And Social Provisioning Under Neo-Liberalism
Veronica Schild
7. Engendering Education: Prospects For A Rights-Based Approach To Female Education Deprivation In India
Ramya Subrahmanian
Part III: Democratisation And The Politics Of Gender 
8. Feminism And Political Reform In The Islamic Republic Of Iran
Parvin Paidar
9. The 'Devil's Deal': Women's Political Participation And Authoritarianism In Peru
Cecilia Blondet M.
10. In And Against The Party: Women's Representation And Constituency-Building In Uganda And South Africa
Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim
PART IV: Multiculturalisms In Practice 
11. The Politics Of Gender, Ethnicity And Democratization In Malaysia: Shifting Interests And Identities
Maznah Mohamad
12. National Law And Indigenous Customary Law: The Struggle For Justice Of Indigenous Women In Chiapas, Mexico Aida
Hernandez Castillo
13. The Politics Of Women's Rights And Cultural Diversity In Uganda
Aili Mari Tripp

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Governance, Indigenous, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Chile, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Uganda

Year: 2002

Personal Journey of Development through the Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB) Project, Penang


Husin, Nur Hazwani. 2016. “Personal Journey of Development through the Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB) Project, Penang.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 22 (2): 174–80.

Author: Nur Hazwani Husin


The main focus of this paper is women’s empowerment in the context of the Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB) Project in Penang, Malaysia. It includes a critical reflection on my own learning process regarding my personal improvement and empowerment in terms of expanding my knowledge and understanding of gender equality. This is then related to my commitment to the community via the GRPB project. Problems, limitations, and challenges in terms of achieving women’s empowerment are also addressed, taking into consideration the experience I gathered through various personal and community contexts.

Keywords: gender equality, Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB), women's empowerment

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Malaysia

Year: 2016

Women Miners in Developing Countries: Pit Women and Others


Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala, and Martha Macintyre, eds. 2006. Women Miners in Developing Countries: Pit Women and Others. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Authors: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt, Martha Macintyre


"Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines" (Abstract from WorldCat).


Table of Contents:
Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered - Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt and Martha Macintyre
1. Reconstructing Gendered Histories of Mines: Women miners here and there, now and then
Gill Burke
2. Japanese Coal Mining: Women Discovered
Sachiko Sone
3. Race, Gender and the Tin-Mining Industry in Malaya, 1900-1950
Amarjit Kaur
4. Patriarchy, Colonialism and Capitalism Unearthing the History of Adivasi Women Miners of Chotanagpur
Shashank S. Sinha
5. Gender and Ethnic Identities in the Mines: Digging through Layers of Class, Gender and Ethnicity: Korean Women Miners in Prewar Japan 
W. Donald Smith
6. Women Working in the Mining Industry in PNG: a Case Study from Lihir Martha Macintyre
7. Traditional Small-Scale Miners: Women Miners of the Philippines
Evelyn J. Caballero
8. Mining Gender at Work in the Indian Collieries: Identity Construction
Kamins and Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt
9. Gender in the Mining Economies: The Place of Women in Mining in the Cordillera Region, Philippines
Minerva Chaloping-March
10. Women in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Africa
Jennifer J. Hinton and Barbara E. Hinton and Marcello M. Veiga
11. Women in the Mining Industry of Contemporary China 
Linqing Yao
12. Women in Small-Scale Gold Mining in Papua New Guinea 
Geoff Crispin
13. The Invisible Work of Women in the Small Mines of Bolivia 
Els Van Hoecke
14. Global Processes, Local Resistances: Gendered Labour in Peripheral Tropical Frontiers: Women, Mining and Capital Accumulation in Post-Development Amazonia 
Jeannette Graulau
15. Women Miners, Human Rights and Poverty 
Ingrid Macdonald
16. Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): Stories of Struggles of Women Workers in Bhowra Colliery, India
Lindsay Barnes
17. Globalization and Women's Work in the Mine Pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt

Topics: Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Bolivia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines

Year: 2006

Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies: Gendered Spaces and Translocal Connections


Lachenmann, Gudrun, and Petra Dannecker. 2008. Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies: Gendered Spaces and Translocal Connections. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Authors: Gudrun Lachenmann, Petra Dannecker


Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies explores the negotiation processes of global development concepts such as poverty alleviation, human rights, and gender equality. It focuses on three countries that are undergoing different Islamisation processes: Senegal, Sudan, and Malaysia. While much has been written about the hegemonic production and discursive struggle of development concepts globally, this book analyzes the negotiation of these development concepts locally and translocally. Lachenmann and Dannecker present empirically grounded research to show that, although women are instrumentalized in different ways for the formation of an Islamic identity of a nation or group, they are at the same time important actors and agents in the processes of negotiating the meaning of development, restructuring of the public sphere, and transforming the societal gender order.

(Lexington Books)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Religion, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Malaysia, Senegal, Sudan

Year: 2008

Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting in Penang: The People-Oriented Model


Kamarudin, Shariza. 2016. “Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting in Penang: The People-Oriented Model.” In Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting, edited by Cecilia Ng, 55–79. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace 22. Springer International Publishing. 

Author: Shariza Kamarudin


This chapter presents the Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting (GRPB) pilot project in Penang, Malaysia, under the Penang Women’s Development Corporation (PWDC) implemented in collaboration with two municipal councils. It focuses on the component related to community-based projects in two low-cost apartment complexes. The chapter examines the various concepts around participation and their links to the different notions of citizenship; and gender responsive budgeting and participatory budgeting engaging with the community as agents of change. A detailed documentation of the implementation, using the process of dialogical action , then leads to a critical examination of the project’s methodology, challenges and innovations, including its impact on women’s empowerment.

Keywords: Penang, GRPB pilot project, Low-cost apartment complexes, Public expenditure, citizenship, dialogical action

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Budgeting Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Malaysia

Year: 2016

Localizing Gender and Participatory Budgeting: Challenges of Institutionalization in Penang, Malaysia


Bakar, Aloyah A., Patahiyah Binti Ismail, and Maimunah Mohd Sharif. 2016. “Localizing Gender and Participatory Budgeting: Challenges of Institutionalization in Penang, Malaysia.” In Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting, edited by Cecilia Ng, 142–62. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace 22. Springer International Publishing.



Authors: Aloyah A. Bakar, Patahiyah Binti Ismail, Maimunah Mohd Sharif


Institutionalization is the introduction of new practices for sustained change, and it is a complex and difficult process. This chapter analyses the readiness of the two local governments in Penang to institutionalize GRB within their respective organizational milieus. It points out that lobbying with and sensitizing policy makers as change agents in the early stages of its formulation is an important pre-condition of institutionalization. At the same time, local authorities need to create an enabling and supportive environment to make GRPB a reality in their respective bureaucratic contexts although competing priorities might affect actions and commitment. The chapter argues that both a participatory approach and a commitment towards gender integration into budget structures and processes are the way forward.

Keywords: institutionalization, Gender and participatory budgeting, pilot project, municipality, local government

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting, Governance Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Malaysia

Year: 2016

Cultural Norms and Gender Inequality in Malaysia


Hutchings, Katherine. 2000. “Cultural Norms and Gender Inequality in Malaysia.” Race, Gender & Class 7 (2): 122–48.

Author: Katherine Hutchings


This paper presents the findings of research conducted in Malaysia which examines the equity practices of Australian and Japanese Multinational Corporations (MNCs). These organizations make human resource management (HRM) policy decisions that are influenced by a combination of the cultural and social environments in which they operate and their own company policies (and associated corporate citizenship responsibilities). Against a background of social closure/inequality and corporate citizenship theories, this paper discusses cultural and social factors and their influence on current equity responses in the workplaces of selected MNCs in Malaysia. Importantly, it also draws attention to the underlying dynamic between ethnicity, class and gender in this country and how it may be used by MNCs as justification for not utilizing the practices observed in the developed world. It concludes that the companies are "taking the line of least resistance" in their decisions with national cultural and social inequality on gender (and racial and class) lines being upheld and reinforced at the workplace level.

Keywords: multinational corporation, social inequality, gender, race, class

Topics: Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Multi-National Corporations, Race Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Malaysia

Year: 2000

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study


Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London


There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

Transnational Migration and the Transformation of Gender Relations: the Case of Bangladeshi Labour Migrants


Dannecker, Petra. 2005. “Transnational Migration and the Transformation of Gender Relations: the Case of Bangladeshi Labour Migrants.” Current Sociology 53 (4): 655-74.

Author: Petra Dannecker


The article discusses the transformations of gender relations due to transnational migration between Bangladesh and Malaysia. It is shown that the uneven economic development in Asia during the last decades has not only initiated new migration movements and patterns but has also led to a feminization of migration, which has resulted in transformations of gender relations. It is argued that the increased migration of Bangladeshi women as temporary labour migrants to Malaysia and the transnational discourses and practices these movements have initiated are leading to renegotiations and transformations of the existing gender order. Networks and transnational activities of Bangladeshi male migrants are analysed in order to show, first, that transnational spaces are gendered and, second, how transnational influences are changing power and gender relations. The successful exploitation of global markets by female migrants has not only resulted in new migration patterns and new gendered labour markets but has become an important agent for transformations of gender relations.

Keywords: gender relations, labor migration, networking, social transformations, transnational activities, transnationalism

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, Malaysia

Year: 2005

War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia


Beyrer, Chris. 1998. War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia. London: Zed Books.

Author: Chris Beyrer


This engaging and vivid book investigates the course of the HIV epidemic in seven countries of South East Asia: Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Vietnam and China’s Yunnan Province. Emphasising the impact of the cultural and political landscapes of these countries on the progress of the disease, the book is the product of both working and travelling in the area. Not merely a commentary on obfuscating government statistics, the author draws upon his encounters with people dealing with the effects of the epidemic and opponents of the regimes of the countries he describes. The epidemic is seen as being vitally linked to the general condition of human rights in the societies.

In the first part of the book the author travels to each country in turn chronicling the different approaches adopted to the epidemic. The second part covers issues involving specific groups at risk - among other topics, women and contraception, prostitution and the traffic in women, HIV and the US military, the Heroin trade, gay sex workers, prisoners, and the work of local activists. The third part of the book looks at policy and the general effect of culture on public health care, stressing the need for local empowerment of populations, and in particular women, to effect social changes that would go hand in hand with improvements in the handling of the HIV epidemic. Both passionate and well-informed, this book is a labour of love that discusses the HIV epidemic while giving an intimate, and ultimately celebratory account of South East Asia and asserting the real possiblity for affirmative action. (Amazon)

Topics: Governance, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Human Rights, Sexuality, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 1998

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