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Liberia

Gender Equality and the Rule of Law in Liberia: Statutory Law, Customary Law, and the Status of Women

Citation:

Coleman, Felicia V. 2009. “Gender Equality and the Rule of Law in Liberia: Statutory Law, Customary Law, and the Status of Women.” In Constituting Equality: Gender Equality and Comparative Constitutional Law, edited by Susan H. Williams, 195–212. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Author: Felicia V. Coleman

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2009

Liberia Is Not Just a Man Thing: Transitional Justice Lessons for Women, Peace and Security

Citation:

Campbell-Nelson, Karen. 2008. Liberia Is Not Just a Man Thing: Transitional Justice Lessons for Women, Peace and Security. London: International Center for Transitional Justice.

Author: Karen Campbell-Nelson

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Justice, Transitional Justice, Peacebuilding, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2008

Association of Combatant Status and Sexual Violence with Health and Mental Health Outcomes in Postconflict Liberia

Citation:

Johnson, Kirsten, Jana Asher, Stephanie Rosborough, Amisha Raja, Rajesh Panjabi, Charles Beadling, and Lynn Lawry. 2008. “Association of Combatant Status and Sexual Violence with Health and Mental Health Outcomes in Postconflict Liberia.” JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 300 (6): 676–90.

Authors: Kirsten Johnson, Jana Asher, Stephanie Rosborough, Amisha Raja, Rajesh Panjabi, Charles Beadling, Lynn Lawry

Abstract:

The article reports on the results of research which was conducted in an effort to assess the prevalence and impact of war related psychosocial trauma, including information on participation in the Liberian civil wars, exposure to sexual violence, social functioning and mental health. Researchers surveyed 1,666 adults over a three week period. They found that both female and male former combatants who experienced sexual violence had worse mental health outcomes than noncombatants and other former combatants who did not experience exposure to sexual violence.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2008

Gender Ironies of Nationalism: Sexing the Nation

Citation:

Mayer, Tamar, ed. 2000. Gender Ironies of Nationalism: Sexing the Nation. New York: Routlege.

Author: Tamar Mayer

Abstract:

This book provides a unique social science reading on the construction of nation, gender and sexuality and on the interactions among them. It includes international case studies from Indonesia, Ireland, former Yugoslavia, Liberia, Sri Lanka, Australia, the USA, Turkey, China, India and the Caribbean. The contributors offer both the masculine and feminine perspective, exposing how nations are comprised of sexed bodies, and exploring the gender ironies of nationalism and how sexuality plays a key role in nation building and in sustaining national identity.

The contributors conclude that control over access to the benefits of belonging to the nation is invariably gendered; nationalism becomes the language through which sexual control and repression is justified masculine prowess is expressed and exercised. Whilst it is men who claim the prerogatives of nation and nation building it is, for the most part, women who actually accept the obligation of nation and nation building. (Amazon)

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Nationalism, Sexuality Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Caribbean countries, North America, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Liberia, Sri Lanka, Turkey, United States of America, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2000

Peacekeepers as New Men? Security and Masculinity in the United Nations Mission in Liberia

Citation:

Sanghera, Gurchaten, Marsha Henry, and Paul Higate. 2008. “Peacekeepers as New Men? Security and Masculinity in the United Nations Mission in Liberia.” SPAIS Working paper 02-08, School of Sociology, Politics, and International Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Authors: Gurchaten Sanghera , Marsha Henry, Paul Higate

Abstract:

Drawing on a small scale qualitative study of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), this paper provides an insight into the ways in which those who work and live in this post- conflict site made sense of the styles of security provided by male peacekeepers. Interview material was subject to analyses through the gendered lens in ways that sought to examine the extent to which male peacekeepers were seen as derivatives of the ‘New Man’ on account of their dominant representation as ‘soft warrior’ in UN and other imagery. A three stage typology was developed from the data including the ‘hard (traditional) warrior’, the ‘soft warrior/humanitarian’ and the ‘peacekeeper as New Man’. Our findings suggested that national contingent identity shaped participant understandings of the gendered styles of peacekeepers security practices to which they were subject. Here, Nigerian troops of the previous ECOMOG presence were seen as ‘hard men’, Bangladeshi troops were considered as somewhat ‘weak’ or ‘soft’ and Swedish and Irish contingent personnel were framed as ‘fair’ and ‘professional’. In conclusion we argue that different styles of peacekeeping articulated at a national level find expression ‘on-the-ground’, as they converge with national stereotypes held by participants. In this way perceptions of national identity arose at the interface of (1) national-domestic approaches to peacekeeping (2) observable security practice and (3) imaginings of particular peacekeeper masculinities. In turn these gave rise to the content and form of national stereotypes through which male peacekeepers masculinised identities were perceived to shape the provision of a variety of securities.

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2008

Widespread Rape Does Not Directly Appear to Increase the Overall HIV Prevalence in Conflict-affected Countries: So Now What?

Citation:

Anema, Aranka, Michel R Joffres, Edward Mills, and Paul B. Spiegel. 2008. “Widespread Rape Does Not Directly Appear to Increase the Overall HIV Prevalence in Conflict-Affected Countries: So Now What?” Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 5 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1186/1742-7622-5-11.

Authors: Aranka Anema, Michel R Joffres, Edward Mills, Paul B. Spiegel

Abstract:

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by combatants has been documented in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan and Uganda. To examine the assertion that widespread rape may not directly increase HIV prevalence at the population level, we built a model to determine the potential impact of varying scenarios of widespread rape on HIV prevalence in the above seven African countries.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Health, HIV/AIDS, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2008

The Reintegration of Teenage Girls and Young Women

Citation:

Specht, Irma, and Larry Attree. 2006. “The Reintegration of Teenage Girls and Young Women.” Intervention 4 (3): 219–28. doi:10.1097/WTF.0b013e3280118167.

Authors: Irma Specht, Larry Attree

Abstract:

Women combatants are not a homogeneous group. The current approach of many Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programmes is inappropriate for girls between 14 and 25 years of age. In order to provide reintegration assistance that has a significant long-term impact, it is essential first to understand why girls the join armed forces. Before DDR programme plans are finalized and programmes started, time and resources need to be invested firstly to locate the girls and then begin the process of understanding their potentials, vulnerabilities, dreams and ambitions.

Keywords: child soldiers, girl soldiers, reintegration, Liberia

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Girls, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2006

If We Could Read and Hear Their Stories…Protection Strategies Employed by Victims of Sexual Violence: A Comparative Study of Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo

Citation:

Birch, Kathryn. 2008. “If We Could Read and Hear Their Stories…Protection Strategies Employed by Victims of Sexual Violence: A Comparative Study of Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.” The Fletcher Journal of Human Security 23: 47-66.

Author: Kathryn Birch

Abstract:

Sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict societies is a security, public health, human rights issue, and "an act of aggression against a nation or community." The prevalence and severity of sexual violence as well as its subsequent health and socioeconomic consequences fundamentally change societies. Legal and social dimensions, such as women's second class status in the Congo and Liberia, actually support the use of rape and perpetuate its ruthless effects. While rape has been recognized as a war crime and a crime against humanity, very little is known about the protection strategies adopted by victims and their communities' and how these strategies impact society. The context in which the violence occurs and the protection strategies employed by different communities must be better understood in order to develop holistic and effective solutions for bringing justice to the perpetrators of sexual violence and the care of victims.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health, Trauma, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia

Year: 2008

The ‘Basket Case’ and the ‘Poster Child’: Explaining the End of Civil Conflicts in Liberia and Mozambique

Citation:

Moran, Mary H., and M. Anne Pitcher. 2004. “The ‘Basket Case’ and the ‘Poster Child’: Explaining the End of Civil Conflicts in Liberia and Mozambique.” Third World Quarterly 25 (3): 501-19.

Authors: Mary H. Moran, M. Anne Pitcher

Abstract:

Through a comparison of protracted domestic conflicts in Liberia and Mozambique this paper evaluates several standard explanations regarding the roles of leaders, third parties and domestic social forces in resolving or continuing civil wars in Africa. The paper finds that no single account of how peace is achieved is sufficient to explain the continuance of violence in Liberia and the successful attainment of peace in Mozambique. Rather, an explanation that can accommodate the divergent outcomes of conflict in the two countries must combine insights from elite, structuralist and agency-based approaches. Furthermore, the paper addresses the ways in which the construction of social organisations, particularly women's groups, during wartime affects the direction of donor funding and the shape of reconstruction efforts after the peace is signed. We illustrate our argument by examining the efforts of leaders, third parties and local actors, particularly women, to perpetuate violence or to bring about peace in Liberia and Mozambique, and the gendered contexts in which donor aid is distributed in the postwar period.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia, Mozambique

Year: 2004

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