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Labour Force Participation of Women: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Policy and other Determinants in OCED Countries

Citation:

Jaumotte, Florence. 2003. “Labour Force Participation of Women: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Policy and other Determinants in OCED Countries.” OECD Economic Studies 2 (37): 51- 108.

Author: Florence Jaumotte

Annotation:

Summary:
“Female labour force participation has increased strongly in most OECD countries over the last few decades (Figure 1). The timing of the increase has varied across countries, with some countries starting earlier (e.g. the Nordics and the United States), and in the last two decades the largest increases have been observed in lower income countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as well as in some northern European countries (Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands). However, large cross-country differences in the levels of female participation persist. Focusing on prime-age women (aged 25-54), their participation rate ranges from values close to or below 60 per cent in Turkey, Korea, Mexico, and southern European countries (with the exception of Portugal) to values well above 80 per cent in the Nordic countries and some eastern European countries. Female labour force participation is the most important factor in explaining increases in aggregate participation rates as well as the current cross-country variation of aggregate participation rates…
 
 
 
“This paper assesses the role of various factors in determining the pattern of female participation rates in OECD countries. The main focus of the policy analysis is on married women with children, for whom actual participation is well below preferences. A number of policy instruments are included in the analysis, such as the tax treatment of second earners (relative to single individuals), childcare subsidies, child benefits, paid parental leave, and tax incentives to share market work between spouses. The role of other determinants, such as female education and labour market conditions, is also considered. The originality of the econometric study lies in the broad country coverage (17 OECD countries over the period 1985- 1999), in contrast with the single-country focus of most studies. OECD countries present a wide range of policies and experiences in the area of female participation, thereby providing a valuable source of information on the relative effectiveness of various policies. The analysis is based on macroeconomic data which allows estimating the aggregate impact of policy instruments rather than the responsiveness of individuals to microeconomic incentives. One other advantage of the use of macro- economic data is that the estimated coefficients incorporate to some extent general equilibrium effects (at least those on women themselves)” (Jaumotte 2003, 52-3).

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Countries: Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, United States of America

Year: 2003

The Role of Women in the Green Economy: The Issue of Mobility

Citation:

Lodovici, Manuela Samek, Flavia Pesce, Patrizia Malgieri, Silvia Maffi, and Caterina Rosa. 2012. The Role of Women in the Green Economy: The Issue of Mobility. Brussels: European Parliament.

Authors: Manuela Samek Lodovici, Flavia Pesce, Patrizia Malgieri, Silvia Maffi, Caterina Rosa

Abstract:

This note highlights the characteristics and determinants of gender differences in mobility patterns emerging from the literature and presents an overview of how transport policies have been adapted to support women’s mobility needs, focusing on examples of practices implemented in four European countries. The results show significant, albeit declining, gender differences related to gender roles within households and the labour market as well as demographic trends. The policy recommendations underline the need to consider gender and environment mainstreaming in transport policies.

 

Topics: Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, Infrastructure, Transportation, Livelihoods Regions: Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom

Year: 2012

Women and Peace Operations: The Achievement of the Italian Mission in Herat

Citation:

Sartori, Paola, and Alessandra Scalia. 2017. "Women and Peace Operations: The Achievement of the Italian Mission in Herat." IAI Working Papers, Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), Rome. 

Authors: Paola Sartori, Alessandra Scalia

Abstract:

The research that forms the basis of this study aims to address women’s roles within peace operations, as well as their contribution to security and peace-building. Based on Italy’s contribution to the NATO-led missions – the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and, currently, Resolute Support (RS) – the subject of the analysis is Afghanistan, and particularly Herat Province. The research effort is specifically aimed at assessing the impact of the civil–military cooperation (CIMIC) initiatives implemented by Italian troops in Herat, with a specific focus on gender and Afghan women. The first part of this paper addresses the theoretical framework on women’s participation in stabilization and reconstruction efforts. It introduces concepts such as gender analysis and gender mainstreaming, and, consequently, the benefits of focusing on gender when carrying out CIMIC initiatives within peace operations. The second part focuses on the CIMIC activities implemented by the Italian contingent in Herat Province. The concluding section of the paper provides some “food for thought”, aimed at contributing to further enhancing the effectiveness of the CIMIC projects carried out by the Italian military and their related effects.

Keywords: Afghanistan, security, education, economy, military missions, NATO, civil-military cooperation, Italy

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Peacebuilding Regions: Asia, South Asia, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Afghanistan, Italy

Year: 2017

Mare Nostrum

"The young Margo calls to mind her painful past, her arrival in Italy on rubber boat, the violence and deprivation she suffered since she was a child, the dear ones she lost in her faraway native land, but also the occasions of renaissance and love in her new country. An evocative play of visual pictures that surfaces from the same water and the same beach that a long time ago welcomed her bringing hope

Gender Budgeting in G7 Countries

Citation:

International Monetary Fund. 2017. “Gender Budgeting in G7 Countries.” Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund

Author: International Monetary Fund

Annotation:

"Executive Summary:
At the request of the Italian Presidency of the G7, the IMF has prepared a paper on gender-budgeting as a contribution to the G7 initiative on equality. The paper provides an overview of gender-responsive budgeting concepts and practices in the G7 countries. It summarizes recent trends in gender equality in G7 and advanced countries, noting that while equality has improved overall, exceptions and gaps remain.
 
Recognizing that many fiscal policies have gender-related implications, this paper:
Sets out the main fiscal policy instruments, both expenditure and tax, that have a significant impact on gender equality.
Provides a conceptual framework for the public financial management (PFM) institutions that play an enabling role in implementing gender-responsive fiscal policies. These instruments include gender budget statements, gender impact assessments, performance-related budget frameworks, and gender audits. Ministries of finance have an especially important role in promoting and coordinating gender budgeting, and associated analytical tools.
Provides an assessment of the status of gender budgeting in the G7 countries. In preparing the paper, the IMF carried out a survey of PFM institutions and practices in the G7, as well as in three comparator countries that are relatively strong performers in developing gender-responsive budgeting (Austria, Belgium, and Spain). This information was complemented by other sources, including recent studies by the OECD and the World Bank.
 
The main policy implications and conclusions of the paper include:
Well-structured fiscal policies and sound PFM systems have the potential to contribute to gender equality, furthering the substantial progress already made by the G7 countries.
While G7 countries have made effective use of a wide range of fiscal and non-fiscal policies to reduce gender inequalities, there has generally been less progress in developing effective gender-specific PFM institutions; embedding a gender dimension in the normal budgeting and policy-making routines varies across G7 countries and is not done systematically.
Fiscal policy instruments of relevance to increasing gender equality include the use of tax and tax benefits to increase the supply of female labor, improved family benefits, subsidized child-care, other social benefits that increase the net return to women’s work, and incentives for businesses to encourage the hiring of women" (IMF)

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, East Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, United States of America

Year: 2017

Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?

Citation:

Anderson, Bridget, and Julia O’Connell Davidson. 2003. Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?. 15. IOM Migration Research Series. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Bridget Anderson, Julia O’Connell Davidson

Abstract:

The 2001 ASEM Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children stressed the need to encourage research on the demand for the most common forms of exploitation of trafficked women and children, in particular for commercial sex services, and recommended a multi-country study into the demand side of trafficking as one of its follow-up actions.

In response to this recommendation, the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, SLDA and Save the Children Sweden, commissioned this pilot research study on the demand underlying two sectors where labour/services of trafficked persons are known to be subject to exploitation: prostitution and domestic work. This report sets out some of the findings of the pilot study and ongoing research concerning employer demand for domestic workers in private households, and consumer demand for commercial sexual services in selected European and Asian countries.

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Households, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: India, Italy, Sweden, Thailand

Year: 2003

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT

Citation:

Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita J. Simon. 2013. HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT. New York: Columbia University Press.

Authors: Stephanie Hepburn, Rita J. Simon

Abstract:

An examination of human trafficking around the world including the following countries: United States, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Colombia, Iraq, Syria, Canada, Italy, France, Iran, India, Niger, China, South Africa, Australia, United Kingdom, Chile, Germany, Poland, Mexico, Russia, and Brazil. (WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Part I: Work Visa Loopholes for Traffickers
1) United States
2) Japan
3) United Arab Emirates

Part II: Stateless Persons
4) Thailand
5) Israel & The Occupied Palestinian Territories

Part III: Unrest, displacement, and Who is in charge
6) Colombia
7) Iraq
8) Syria

Part IV: Conflation
9) Canada

Part V: Conflicting Agendas
10) Italy
11) France

Part VI: Gender Apartheid
12) Iran

Part VII: Social Hierarchy
13) India
14) Niger
15) China

Part VIII: Muti Murder
16) South Africa

Part IX: Hard-to-Prove Criterion and a slap on the wrist
17) Australia
18) United Kingdom
19) Chile
20) Germany

Part X: Transparent borders
21) Poland

Part XI: Fear Factor
22) Mexico

Part XII: Poverty and Economic Boom
23) Russia
24) Brazil

Conclusion

*Each Chapter follows the following format with some variations:

Introduction
As a destination
Internal trafficking
Trafficking abroad
What happens to victims after trafficking
What happens to traffickers
Internal efforts to decrease trafficking

 

Quotes:

"Devestation from a natural disaster...creates a sudden high demand for low-wage and largely unskilled labor. Disruption of the traditional labor supply leaves room for illicit contractors to move in, and new workers can be brought in unnoticed." (19)

"There continue to be more criminal convictions of sex traffickers than of forced-labor traffickers [However, this number of individuals victimized by forced labor may be increasing]." (32)

"Many experts state that the yakuza (organized crime) networks play a significant role in the smuggling and subsequent debt bondage of women--particularly women from China, Thailand, and Colombia--for forced prostitution in Japan. Determining the exact extent of yakuza involvement is difficult because of the covert nature of the sex industry. Consequently, the yakuza are able to minimize people's direct knowledge of their involvement...The yakuza networks work with organized crime groups from other nations, such as China, Russia, and Colombia." (49-50)

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, International Law, International Human Rights, Multi-national Corporations, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Niger, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2013

Trafficking of Women in Nigeria: Causes, Consequences and the Way Forward

Citation:

Akor, Linus. 2011. “Trafficking of Women in Nigeria: Causes, Consequences and the Way Forward.” Corvinus Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 2 (2): 89-110.

Author: Linus Akor

Abstract:

The phenomenon of the trafficking of women, especially of young girls and women into exploitative sexual and commercial labor, has recently begun to attract local, national and international attention from world leaders, academics, the mass media, advocacy groups, the clergy and humanity in general. This is against the back drop of the fact that the trafficking of women has a number of far-reaching socio-economic, health and political consequences. Several factors, among them poverty, unemployment, ignorance and family size have been implicated as being reasons why women fall easy preys to the antics of traffickers. From available statistics, we can say that about 500,000 women are brought into the United States of America and Europe yearly for sexual and domestic servitude. Of the over 70,000 African victims of women trafficking, Nigerian women account for 70 percent of those trafficked to Italy alone. Fighting the menace requires a coordinated and concerted push from all stakeholders. This paper presents the causes and consequences of the trafficking of women from Nigeria to America and Europe. Empirical evidence indicates that the activities of traffickers, corrupt embassy officials, the country’s porous borders, poverty, refusal of victims to expose traffickers, delay in prosecuting apprehended culprits and biting youth unemployment have “conspired” to undermine the battle against the illicit trade. The paper makes far-reaching recommendations about how to mitigate the identified obstacles.

Keywords: trafficking of women, poverty, prostitution, traffickers, Italo, madam

Topics: Corruption, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Girls, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Italy, Nigeria

Year: 2011

Gender and Transitional Justice: Reflections on Conversations in Bellagio

Citation:

Nesiah, Vasuki. 2006. “Gender and Transitional Justice: Reflections on Conversations in Bellagio.” Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 15 (Spring): 799–812.

Author: Vasuki Nesiah

Topics: Gender, Justice, Transitional Justice Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Italy

Year: 2006

Armed with a Yellow Mimosa: Women’s Defence and Assistance Groups in Italy, 1943-45

Citation:

Alano, Jomarie. 2003. “Armed with a Yellow Mimosa: Women’s Defence and Assistance Groups in Italy, 1943-45.” Journal of Contemporary History 38 (4): 615-31.

Author: Jomarie Alano

Abstract:

During the Italian Resistance of 1943-45, over 70,000 Italian women participated in Women's Defence and Assistance Groups, begun by women activists in Milan in November 1943. While they aided the partisans and assisted families in need, these women also planned a role for women in postwar Italian society. Based on oral and written information from Group leaders Ada Gobetti, Bianca Guidetti Serra and Frida Malan, unpublished sources from archives in Italy and in the USA, and articles from clandestine women's newspapers printed during the Resistance, this article argues that the Women's Defence and Assistance Groups had a significant impact on individual and collective women's consciousness and their perceptions of gender, and set the stage for postwar advances regarding women.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Italy

Year: 2003

Pages

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