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Israel

Women in Black: Challenging Israel’s Gender and Socio-Political Orders

Citation:

Helman, Sara, and Tamar Rapoport. 1997. “Women in Black: Challenging Israel’s Gender and Socio-Political Orders.” British Journal of Sociology 48 (4): 681-700.

Authors: Sara Helman, Tamar Rapoport

Abstract:

The Israeli protest movement 'Women in Black' is studied by focusing on the movement's mode of protest, which is used as a prism through which to analyse the manner in which the structure, contents and goals of protest challenge the socio-political and gender orders. The article analyses the protest vigil of 'Women in Black' in Jerusalem, and characterizes it, following Handelman (1990), as a minimalist public event. After examining and analysing the sources of minimalism it was concluded that minimalism was the result of two social processes attendantat the formation of 'Women in Black' as a social movement: personal interpretation of the political field, and avoidance of ideological deliberation amongst the participants. The minimalism of the public event preserved the movement for six years and created a collective identity that emphasized the symbolic difference between those within the demonstration and those outside it. This difference was symbolized by a juxtaposition of opposites. The essence of opposites is analysed by means of 'thick description', i.e., by deciphering them in the context of Israeli society. The study concluded that the mode of protest of 'Women in Black' has created a symbolic space in which a new type of political woman is enacted. This identity challenges established socio-cultural categories Israel.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 1997

From Soldiering and Motherhood to Citizenship: A Study of Four Israeli Peace Protest Movements

Citation:

Helman, Sara. 1999. “From Soldiering and Motherhood to Citizenship: A Study of Four Israeli Peace Protest Movements.” Social Politics 6 (3): 292-313.

Author: Sara Helman

Abstract:

This article discusses the paradox of the Israeli peace movement. The Israeli peace movement draws on consensual militaristic symbols— mainly the fighter's role and republican motherhood. However, it has not succeeded in broadening its constituency beyond the Ashkenazi middle classes. It is maintained that this contradiction stems from the ways in which war and conflict management shaped the citizenship regime in Israel. War and routine conflict management have ethnicized and genderized citizenship in Israel. The ethnicization and gendering of citizenship have resulted from the differential incorporation of social categories in national missions as they were conceived in light of the routine management of conflict and of war. This differential incorporation has constituted social identities. These identities in turn are mobilized in collective action frameworks to challenge the war politics of the state. The main two identities mobilized, the fighter's role and motherhood, have not been successful in broadening the constituency of the Israeli peace movement. Moreover, the radicalization of collective action frameworks—signaled by the progressive transition from soldiering and motherhood to citizenship—narrowed the appeal of the peace movement. This radicalization has exposed the cultural, political, and economic interests of the leadership and constituency of the peace movement.

Topics: Combatants, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 1999

Where Have All the Women (and Men) Gone? Reflections on Gender and the Second Palestinian Intifada

Citation:

Johnson, Penny, and Eileen Kuttab. 2001. “Where Have All the Women (and Men) Gone? Reflections on Gender and the Second Palestinian Intifada.” Feminist Review, no. 69, 21–43. doi:10.1080/014177800110070102.

Authors: Penny Johnson, Eileen Kuttab

Abstract:

The authors ground their reflections on gender and the complex realities of the second Palestinian intifada against Israeli occupation in the political processes unleashed by the signing of the Israeli–Palestinian rule, noting that the profound inequalities between Israel and Palestine during the interim period produced inequalities among Palestinians. The apartheid logic of the Oslo period – made explicit in Israel's policies of separation, seige and confinement of the Palestinian population during the intifada and before it – is shown to shape the forms, sites and levels of resistance which are highly restricted by gender and age. In addition, the authors argue that the Palestinian Authority and leadership have solved the contradictions and crisis of Palestinian nationalism in this period through a form of rule that the authors term 'authoritarian populism', that tends to disallow democractic politics and participation. The seeming absence of women and civil society from the highly unequal and violent confrontations is contrasted with the first Palestinian intifada (1987–91), that occurred in a context of more than a decade of democratic activism and the growth of mass-based organizations, including the Palestinian women's movement. The authors explore three linked crises in gender roles emerging from the conditions of the second intifada: a crisis in masculinity, a crisis in paternity and a crisis in maternity.

Keywords: national liberation, nationalism, military occupation, maternity, masculinity

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Occupation, Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nationalism, NGOs Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2001

Iron Breaks, Too: Israeli and Palestinian Women Talk about War, Bereavement, and Peace

Citation:

Flamhaft, Ziva. 2007. “Iron Breaks, Too: Israeli and Palestinian Women Talk about War, Bereavement, and Peace.” In From Patriarchy to Empowerment: Women’s Participation, Movements, and Rights in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia, edited by Valentine M. Moghadam, 311–26. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Author: Ziva Flamhaft

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2007

Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel-Palestine and in the North of Ireland

Citation:

Sharoni, Simona. 2001. “Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel–Palestine and in the North of Ireland.” In Victims, Perpetrators or Actors: Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence, edited by Caroline Moser and Fiona Clark, 85-98. London: Zed Books.

Author: Simona Sharoni

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, United Kingdom

Year: 2001

Gendering Conflict and Peace in Israel/Palestine and the North of Ireland

Citation:

Sharoni, Simona. 1997. “Gendering Conflict and Peace in Israel/Palestine and the North of Ireland.” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 27 (4): 1061-89.

Author: Simona Sharoni

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, United Kingdom

Year: 1997

Between Universal Feminism and Particular Nationalism: Politics, Religion and Gender (In)Equality in Israel

Citation:

Halperin-Kaddari, Ruth, and Yaacov Yadgar. 2010. “Between Universal Feminism and Particular Nationalism: Politics, Religion and Gender (In)Equality in Israel.” Third World Quarterly 31 (6): 905-20. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.502721.

Authors: Ruth Halperin-Kaddari, Yaacov Yadgar

Abstract:

This article argues that one of the many ‘idiosyncrasies’ of the Israeli case, namely Israel’s continuing, violent conflict with its Arab neighbours, is of highly influential relevance to the issue of gender relations. Viewed by many Israeli Jews as a struggle for the very existence of the Jewish state, the Arab–Israeli conflict has overshadowed most other civil and social issues, rendering them ‘secondary’ to the primary concern of securing the safe existence of the state. This has pushed such pressing issues as gender equality and women’s rights aside, thus allowing for the perpetuation of discriminatory, sometimes rather repressive treatment of women in Israel. The most blatant expression of this is the turning of the struggle for civil marriage and divorce into a non-issue. Following a short introduction of the relevant political context, we discuss women’s positivist and legal status, then conclude with an analysis of the women’s movement, highlighting the emergence of religious feminism.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Nationalism, Religion, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2010

Trafficking in Persons for the Purpose of Prostitution: The Israeli Experience

Citation:

Gershuni, Rochelle. 2004. “Trafficking in Persons for the Purpose of Prostitution: The Israeli Experience.” Mediterranean Quarterly 15 (4): 133-46.

Author: Rochelle Gershuni

Topics: Gender, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2004

The Currency of Victimhood in Uncanny Homes: Queer Immigrants’ Claims for Home and Belonging Through Anti-Homophobic Organising

Citation:

Kuntsman, Adi. 2009. “The Currency of Victimhood in Uncanny Homes: Queer Immigrants’ Claims for Home and Belonging Through Anti-Homophobic Organising.” Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies 35 (1): 133–49.

Author: Adi Kuntsman

Abstract:

This paper is based on an ethnographic study of Russian-speaking queer immigrants in Israel and, in particular, on their organising against homophobia. The paper follows the queer immigrants' claims that the homophobic attacks they experience are similar to anti-Semitism and the persecution of Jews by the Nazis. Engaging with Freud's notion of the double as uncanny, I trace the relations of doubleness and substitution between two figures: the humiliated homosexual and the persecuted Jew. What does it mean, I ask, that injuries of homophobia are compared to injuries of anti-Semitism? What does it mean that Jewish immigrants in Israel claim that they are persecuted 'just like the Jews'? Throughout the paper I explore questions of migration and sexuality, as well as issues of Israeli nationalism and the currency of victimhood in claims for national belonging.

Topics: LGBTQ, Nationalism, Religion, Sexuality Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2009

Religious Women Fighters in Israel's War of Independence: A New Gender Perception, or a Passing Episode?

Citation:

Rosenberg-Friedman, Lilach. 2003. "Religious Women Fighters in Israel's War of Independence: A New Gender Perception, or a Passing Episode?" Nashim: A Journal of Jewish Women's Studies & Gender Issuesno.6, 119-47.

Author: Lilach Rosenberg-Friedman

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Religion Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2003

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