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Indonesia

Causal Relations Between Knowledge, Norms, and Tax: A Study of Gender Differences on Taxpayers

Citation:

Natasha, Irina and Andi Inia Yustina. 2020. “Causal Relations Between Knowledge, Norms, and Tax: A Study of Gender Differences on Taxpayers.” Ekuilibrium: Jurnal Ilmiah Bidang Ilmu Ekonomi 15 (1): 14-26. 

Authors: Irina Natasha, Andi Inia Yustina

Abstract:

This research analyzes whether tax knowledge and social norms positively influence tax compliance and whether gender differences will moderate their relation. A web-based survey used to spread questionnaires to 145 taxpayers that domiciled in Cikarang. The results revealed that tax knowledge significantly affects tax compliance, but there are no gender differences between tax knowledge and tax compliance. In contrast, social norms positively affect tax compliance, and gender differences also exist between social norms and tax compliance. As there are no gender differences in tax knowledge and tax compliance, socialization can be done with the same approach towards both males and females. However, gender differences in social norms lead to a difference between males and females in their point of view regarding tax. As most of the female internalized norms more than males, therefore a group with the majority of females more efficient in socialization. On the other hand, providing detail information and fact in socialization is more suitable for a male. 

Keywords: tax knowledge, social norms, tax compliance, gender, taxpayer

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gender Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2020

When Wetlands Dry: Feminist Political Ecology Study on Peat Ecosystem Degradation in South and Central Kalimantan

Citation:

Indirastuti, Catharina, and Andi Misbahul Pratiwi. 2019. “When Wetlands Dry: Feminist Political Ecology Study on Peat Ecosystem Degradation in South and Central Kalimantan.” Jurnal Perempuan 24 (4): 335-49.

Authors: Catharine Indirastuti, Andi Misbahul

Abstract:

INDONESIAN ABSTRACT: 

Indonesia memiliki 47 persen lahan gambut tropis dari total lahan gambut dunia. Namun sayangnya tata kelola lahan gambut yang berkelanjutan belum banyak diterapkan dalam pemanfaatan lahan gambut, alih-alih menjadi rumah bagi keanekaragaman hayati, lahan gambut di Indonesia justru berakhir kering, terbakar, dan beralih menjadi perkebunan monokultur. Persoalan degradasi ekosistem gambut adalah akibat dari politik tata kelola lingkungan yang tidak berkelanjutan--yang menyejarah. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan kompleksitas politik tata kelola kawasan gambut dan dampaknya terhadap perempuan dengan lensa ekologi politik feminis. Penelitian ini dilakukan di beberapa desa di Kalimantan Tengah dan Selatan, kawasan gambut tropis terbesar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa 1) Ada persoalan salah tata kelola lahan gambut yang disadari perempuan desa baik secara praktis maupun politis; 2) perempuan dan anak perempuan mendapatkan dampak berlapis dari degradasi ekosistem gambut yakni, perempuan tercerabut dari ruang hidup, perempuan sulit mendapatkan sumber air dan pangan, perempuan mengambil alih peran kepala keluarga karena laki-laki bermigrasi namun tidak selalu diakui perannya sebagai kepala keluarga, dan perempuan dimiskinkan karena kehilangan kemandiriannya dan harus bekerja sebagai buruh sawit. Penelitian ini menggunakan kajian ekologi politik feminis sebagai alat analisis untuk melihat ketertindasan berlapis yang dialami perempuan pedesaan akibat degradasi ekosistem gambut. 

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 
Indonesia tropical peatlands area is 47 percent of out of the total global peatlands. But unfortunately, sustainable peatland governance has not been widely applied in the management of peatlands, instead of being home to biodiversity, peatlands in Indonesia have ended up dry, burning and turned into monoculture plantations. The problem of peat ecosystem degradation is the result of unsustainable - historical environmental governance politics. This study shows the political complexity of peatland governance and its impact on women with a feminist political ecology lens. This research was conducted in several villages in Central and South Kalimantan, the largest tropical peat areas in Indonesia. This study found that 1) Rural women were realized that there are problems with peatland governance, both practically and politically; 2) women and girls have multiple impacts from peat ecosystem degradation ie, women are deprived of living space, women find it difficult to get water and food sources, women take over the role of the head of the family because men migrate but are not always recognized as the head of the family, and women are impoverished because they lose their independence and must work as oil palm workers. This study uses a feminist political ecology study as an analytical tool to see the multi-layered oppression experienced by rural women due to peat ecosystem degradation. 

Keywords: rural women, peatland village, peat ecosystem, feminist political ecology, resource governance, perempuan desa, desa gambut, ekosistem gambut, ekologi politik feminis, tata kelola sumber daya

Topics: Agriculture, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2019

Water Worries: an Intersectional Feminist Political Ecology of Tourism and Water in Labuan Bajo, Indonesia

Citation:

Cole, Stroma. 2017. “Water Worries: an Intersectional Feminist Political Ecology of Tourism and Water in Labuan Bajo, Indonesia.” Annals of Tourism Research 67: 14-24.

Author: Stroma Cole

Abstract:

Framed in feminist political ecology, this paper presents an intersectional analysis of the gender-water-tourism nexus. Based in an emergent tourism destination, Labuan Bajo, Indonesia, it goes beyond an analysis of how women bear the brunt of burdens related to water scarcity, and examines which women and why and how it affects their daily lives. Based on ethnographic research and speaking to over 100 respondents, the analysis unpicks how patriarchal cultural norms, ethnicity, socio-economic status, life-stage and proximity to water sources are intertwined to (re)produce gendered power relations. While there is heterogeneity of lived experiences, in the most part tourism is out competing locals for access to water leading to women suffering in multiple ways.

Keywords: gender, water, Indonesia, intersectionality, patriarchy

Topics: Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Intersectionality, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2017

Gender and Generation in Engagements with Oil Palm in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Insights from Feminist Political Ecology

Citation:

Elmhirst, Rebecca, Mia Siscawati, Bimbika Sijapati Basnett, and Dian Ekowati. 2017. “Gender and Generation in Engagements with Oil Palm in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Insights from Feminist Political Ecology.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 44 (6): 1135-57.

Authors: Rebecca Elmhirst, Mia Siscawati, Bimbika Sijapati Basnett, Dian Ekowati

Abstract:

Across many parts of Indonesia, investment in oil palm has brought accelerated forms of land acquisition and market engagement for communities, signalling far-reaching implications for equity and well-being of current and future generations. This paper uses a conjunctural feminist political ecology approach to explore gendered and generational engagements with oil palm in Indonesia. The paper compares four communities in East Kalimantan that form part of an ongoing study of the gendered impacts of large-scale and independent smallholder investments in oil palm in the context of corporate zero deforestation commitments in West and East Kalimantan. We show how different pathways of engagement with oil palm – adverse or otherwise – reflect the interplay between modes of incorporation into oil palm systems with landscape history, gender, life stage and ethnic identity. Whilst our findings complicate singular ‘victim’ narratives, they also challenge the ‘cruel optimism’ that is accompanying the current oil palm boom.

Keywords: oil palm, gender, youth, Indonesia, forests, feminist political ecology

Topics: Age, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2017

Gender Differences and the Correlates of Violent Behaviors among High School Students in a Post-Conflict Area in Indonesia

Citation:

Fausiah, Fitri, Sherly Saragih Turnip, and Edvard Hauff. 2020. "Gender Differences and the Correlates of Violent Behaviors among High School Students in a Post-Conflict Area in Indonesia." Asia-Pacific Psychiatry. doi:10.1111/appy.12383.

Authors: Fitri Fausiah, Sherly Saragih Turnip, Edvard Hauff

Abstract:

Introduction: Adolescent violence is a public health problem worldwide. Studies show that challenging environments, such as poverty and war, increase the risk of adolescent violence. This paper aims to assess gender differences in violent behaviors among adolescents in a post‐conflict area in Indonesia. The other aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of adolescents' violent behaviors using the socio‐ecological framework.

 
Methods: This is a school‐based study involving 511 students from six randomly selected high schools in Kotamadya Ambon. Active and verbal violent behaviors and the potential correlates were measured and assessed using backward linear regression analyses.
 
Results: Boys were involved in more violent behaviors than girls. However, some of the boys and girls reported being involved in all types of violent behaviors. The most significant correlates of violent behaviors across genders were community violence exposure and some types of behavioral problems.
 
Discussion: This study highlighted the interconnectedness between community violence exposure and violent behaviors among adolescents living in a post‐conflict area. The study also emphasizes the association between problem behaviors and violent behaviors. The results demonstrate the importance of both reducing community violence exposure and identifying adolescents with behavioral problems in the prevention of violent behaviors.

Keywords: adolescent, gender, Indonesia, post-conflict, violence

Topics: Age, Youth, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2020

Gender Issues in Large Scale Land Acquisition: Insights from Oil Palm in Indonesia

Citation:

Elmhirst, Rebecca, Bimbika Sijapati Basnett, Mia Siscawati, and Dian Ekowati. 2013. Gender Issues in Large Scale Land Acquisition: Insights from Oil Palm in Indonesia.  Washington, DC: Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI).

Authors: Rebecca Elmhirst, Bimbika Sijapati Basnett, Mia Siscawati, Dian Ekowati

Annotation:

Summary:
"This report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 provides a brief background to the issues globally and describes the methodology. Chapter 3 comprises the main body of the case study, drawing on information gathered in the key informant interviews and focus group discussions, as well as on relevant secondary materials. It situates the case in Laos and explores the policy context and key gender and governance issues around land-related agricultural investments. It also presents from the fieldwork some primary data on agricultural investments and examples of good practices from companies and for an enabling environment for smallholders. Chapter 4 then ends the report with overall conclusions and policy recommendations for land-related investments in agriculture in Laos" (Elmhirst et al 2013, 3).

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Land grabbing Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2013

Lingu, Bomba Talu and Naombo: Triple Disaster in Central Sulawesi: A Gender Analysis

Citation:

Fatimah, Dati, and Fiona Roberts. 2019. Lingu, Bomba Talu and Naombo: Triple Disaster in Central Sulawesi: A Gender Analysis. Oxfam.

Authors: Dati Fatimah, Fiona Roberts

Annotation:

Summary:
On 28 September 2018, a major earthquake (lingu in the local language) with a magnitude of 7.4 struck Central Sulawesi in Indonesia, triggering a near-field tsunami (bomba talu), large-scale soil liquefaction (naombo) and landslides. As part of the subsequent humanitarian response, Oxfam and humanitarian networking partners JMK, including local organizations LBH APIK Palu and PKBI Palu, conducted research in camps for internally displaced persons in affected areas. The aim was to find out how the impacts of the disaster differed for women, men, boys and girls, as well as the variations in their roles and their access to and control of resources. As part of the assessment, the researchers carried out a rapid analysis of care work and also made efforts to identify how different groups might participate in the humanitarian response. This gender analysis is based on those research findings. It makes recommendations on how to respond to immediate and life-saving practical and strategic needs, with a focus on gender. It can also be used to inform and improve future responses to similar disasters in the same geographical area. (Summary from Oxfam)

 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, IDPs, Refugee/IDP Camps, Economies, Care Economies, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2019

Climate Shocks Constrain Human Fertility in Indonesia

Citation:

Sellers, Samuel, and Clark Gray. 2019. "Climate Shocks Constrain Human Fertility in Indonesia." World Development 117: 357-69.

Authors: Samuel Sellers, Clark Gray

Abstract:

Climate change is likely to induce a large range of household- and individual-level responses, including changes in human fertility behaviors and outcomes. These responses may have important implications for human and economic development and women's empowerment. Drawing on the literature linking climate conditions to rice cultivation in Indonesia, we use longitudinal household survey and high-resolution climate data to explore changes in childbearing intentions, family planning use, and births following community-level climate shocks from 1993 to 2015. We find that fertility intentions increase and family planning use declines in response to delays in monsoon onset occurring within the previous year, particularly for wealthier populations. However, women on farms are significantly more likely to use family planning and less likely to give birth following abnormally high temperatures during the previous five years. We also measure parallel shifts in household well-being as measured by rice, food, and non-food consumption expenditures. Our findings advance the environmental fertility literature by showing that longer duration environmental shocks can have impacts on fertility behaviors and outcomes. Collectively, our results illustrate human fertility responses to climate change in a country vulnerable to its effects, and demonstrate that in some cases, climate shocks can constrain human fertility.

Keywords: family planning, reproductive health, environmental shock, Indonesia, Southeast Asia

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, Households Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2019

Men, Women, and Environmental Change in Indonesia: the Gendered Face of Development Among the Dayak Benuaq

Citation:

Haug, Michaela. 2017. "Men, Women, and Environmental Change in Indonesia: the Gendered Face of Development Among the Dayak Benuaq." Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies 10 (1): 29-46.

Author: Michaela Haug

Abstract:

The increasing penetration of global capitalism, ambitious development efforts, and related environmental change have significantly transformed Kalimantan and its indigenous population, commonly referred to as Dayak, during the last decades. This article analyzes these processes from a gendered perspective and explores how gender relations among the Dayak, who generally are characterized by well-balanced gender relations, have been influenced by what is commonly referred to as 'development'. A review of the existing literature shows that new asymmetries between men and women are emerging mainly due to different ways of inclusion in new economic systems. Based on research among the Dayak Benuaq, the article shows that far-reaching gender equality has been so far upheld within Benuaq society while gender gets interwoven with an increasing variety of inequalities. I argue that in order to capture this complexity, research on the gendered impacts of development should a) aim for a better understanding of the intertwinement of gender with other aspects, such as ethnicity, class, age, or education, b) pay more attention to how these aspects play out in different contexts, and c) differentiate more clearly between gender ideals, norms, and actual practice.

Topics: Age, Class, Development, Economies, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2017

Journey of Researches on Gender and Disaster in Indonesia

Citation:

Fajarwati, A., A. G. Wardhani, and M. P. Sintesa. 2020. "Journey of Researches on Gender and Disaster in Indonesia." IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/451/1/012048.

Authors: A. Fajarwati, A. G. Wardhani, M. P. Sintesa

Abstract:

A disaster that has a different impact on each individual / community that experiences it. This is caused by different conditions of vulnerability. The vulnerability of a person / group of people is caused by various factors, one of which is gender. This paper aims to explore the journey of gender and disaster in Indonesia with the literature review method. The results of the study show: 1) the journey of gender and disaster studies in Indonesia began with the publication of research in 2011 and then develop fluctuatively; 2) research with this theme is mostly carried out in Java Island; 3) most research used qualitative methods; 4) most studies with the theme Gender and Disaster still interpret 'Gender' as ‘Female; 5) most of researchers were women or men and women in one team; 6) the focus of the discussion from those studies mostly about ‘Women participation in disaster management'.

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2020

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