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Guatemala

The Hillary Doctrine: Sex and American Foreign Policy

Citation:

Hudson, Valerie M., and Patricia Leidl. 2015. The Hillary Doctrine: Sex and American Foreign Policy. New York: Columbia University Press. 

Authors: Valerie M. Hudson, Patricia Leidl

Annotation:

Summary:
Hillary Rodham Clinton was the first Secretary of State to declare the subjugation of women worldwide a serious threat to U.S. national security. Known as the Hillary Doctrine, her stance was the impetus behind the 2010 Quadrennial Diplomatic and Development Review of U.S. foreign policy, formally committing America to the proposition that the empowerment of women is a stabilizing force for domestic and international peace.
 
Blending history, fieldwork, theory, and policy analysis while incorporating perspectives from officials and activists on the front lines of implementation, this book is the first to thoroughly investigate the Hillary Doctrine in principle and practice. Does the insecurity of women make nations less secure? How has the doctrine changed the foreign policy of the United States and altered its relationship with other countries such as China and Saudi Arabia? With studies focusing on Guatemala, Afghanistan, and Yemen, this invaluable policy text closes the gap between rhetoric and reality, confronting head-on what the future of fighting such an entrenched enemy entails. The research reports directly on the work being done by U.S. government agencies, including the Office of Global Women's Issues, established by Clinton during her tenure at the State Department, and explores the complexity and pitfalls of attempting to improve the lives of women while safeguarding the national interest. (Summary from Columbia University Press) 
 
Table of Contents:
1. How Sex Came to Matter in U.S. Foreign Policy
2. Should Sex Matter in U.S. Foreign Policy?
3. Guatemala: A Case Study
4. A Conspicuous Silence: U.S. Foreign Policy, Women, and Saudi Arabia
5. The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly of Implementing the Hillary Doctrine
6. Afghanistan: The Litmus Test for the Hillary Doctrine
7. The Future of the Hillary Doctrine: Realpolitik and Fempolitik

Topics: Gender, Governance, Security Regions: MENA, Americas, Central America, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Guatemala, Saudi Arabia, United States of America

Year: 2015

Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala

Citation:

Crystal, Valerie, Shin Imai, and Bernadette Maheandiran. 2014. “Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue Canadienne D’Études Du Développement 35 (2): 285–303.

Authors: Shin Imai, Bernadette Maheandiran, Valerie Crystal

Abstract:

This case study looks at the avenues open for addressing serious allegations of murder, rape and assault brought by indigenous Guatemalans against a Canadian mining company, HudBay Minerals. While first-generation legal and development policy reforms have facilitated foreign mining in Guatemala, second-generation reforms have failed to address effectively conflicts arising from the development projects. The judicial mechanisms available in Guatemala are difficult to access and suffer from problems of corruption and intimidation. Relevant corporate social responsibility policies and mechanisms lack the necessary enforcement powers. Canadian courts have been reluctant to permit lawsuits against Canadian parent companies; however, in Choc v. HudBay and Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation, Ontario judges have allowed cases to proceed on the merits of the case, providing an important, if limited, avenue toward corporate accountability.

Keywords: mining, Latin America, Chevron, HudBay, corporate social responsibility

Topics: Corruption, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, Justice, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, North America Countries: Canada, Guatemala

Year: 2014

Women, Resistance, and Extractive Development: The Case Study of the Marlin Mine

Citation:

Tatham, Rebecca. 2016. “Women, Resistance, and Extractive Development: The Case Study of the Marlin Mine.” Master's thesis, Department of Political Studies, University of Saskatchewan.

Author: Rebecca Tatham

Abstract:

Women’s activism in response to large-scale mining is a topic largely unexplored in the existing social movement literature. This oversight is significant for the Global South, particularly in Latin American where mining expansion has been occurring since the 1990’s and is leading to increasing numbers of conflicts between mining companies and the communities hosting them. The strategies that anti-mining activists employ and the responses of their opponents (i.e., community members, mining and state authorities) are influenced by a wide range of factors, and one of these is gender. Using a case study analysis of Goldcorp’s Marlin mine in Western Guatemala and drawing on extensive field work conducted in the communities near the mine, this thesis examines women’s resistance strategies (categorized here as blockades and protests, legal complaints, and everyday activisms) and counterstrategies (violence, criminalization and cooptation) employed by the mine and its supporters against them. The thesis demonstrates that in both the strategies and counterstrategies, gender is a salient component in the tactics of both groups.

Topics: Civil Society, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Conflict, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2016

Development or Devastation?: Epistemologies of Mayan Women’s Resistance to an Open-Pit Goldmine in Guatemala

Citation:

Macleod, Morna. 2016. “Development or Devastation?: Epistemologies of Mayan Women’s Resistance to an Open-Pit Goldmine in Guatemala.” AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples 12 (1): 86–100. 

Author: Morna Macleod

Abstract:

The Canadian corporation Goldcorp’s Marlin Mine in San Miguel Ixtahuacán is the first open-pit goldmine in Guatemala. While Goldcorp depicts Marlin as a showcase for development and good business, many Mayan women express extreme distress at the multilayered destruction caused by the corporation. Under the guidance of the indigenous women’s movement Tz’ununija’, in May–June 2011 and July 2012, I held in-depth interviews with five Maya-Mam leaders and two workshops in San Miguel with more than 30 women opposing the mine. Analysing their visions and Goldcorp’s public development discourse, I argue that the mine is decimating San Miguel’s social fabric and environment. Although Goldcorp has created employment, infrastructure and injected money into the local economy, gains are short term in comparison with the long-term impacts of the mining venture on land and community. At heart, two fundamentally opposed visions are at stake: Western “development” versus tb’anil qchwinqlal, or quality of life.

 

Keywords: Mayan women, goldmining, development, indigenous worldviews, Guatemala

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Infrastructure Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2016

Rebuilding With or Without Women?

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2012. “Rebuilding With or Without Women?: Gendered Violence in Postconflict Peace and Reconstruction” In The Political Economy of Violence Against Women. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

Chapter 8 examines the spike of sexual and gender-based violence in postconflict and peace-building environments. Despite recent UN Security Council resolutions, the invisibility of this violence against women during and after conflict marginalizes women in postconflict state-building and economic reconstruction processes. This economic and political marginalization of women exacerbates violence after conflict and hinders these peace-building efforts. The first part of the chapter applies the political economy approach of the book to reveal how gendered peacekeeping economies exacerbate violence against women. It critiques the prioritization of law and order over social and economic opportunities. The second part examines the role of women in peace-building decision making and economic reconstruction in places as diverse as East Timor; Aceh, Indonesia; Mindanao province in the Philippines; Iraq; Afghanistan; Colombia; Guatemala; the Congo; and Darfur. The chapter concludes by critically assessing two approaches to postconflict prevention of violence against women: the “good practice” of placing women peacekeepers in postconflict zones and the role of reparations in ensuring women's equal access to postconflict development.

 

Keywords: post conflict, peacekeeping economies, reparations, peacebuilding, economic reconstruction

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Afghanistan, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Indonesia, Iraq, Philippines, Sudan, Timor-Leste

Year: 2012

"Subjects of Change": Feminist Geopolitics and Gendered Truth-Telling in Guatemala

Citation:

Patterson-Markowitz, Rebecca, Elizabeth Oglesby, and Sallie Marston. 2012. “‘ Subjects of Change’: Feminist Geopolitics and Gendered Truth-Telling in Guatemala.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 13 (4): 82.

Authors: Rebecca Patterson-Markowitz, Elizabeth Oglesby, Sallie Marston

Abstract:

This paper explores the often-undervalued role of gender in transitional justice mechanisms and the importance of women's struggles and agency in that regard. We focus on the efforts of the women's movement in Guatemala to address questions of justice and healing for survivors of gendered violence during Guatemala's 36-year internal armed conflict. We discuss how the initial transitional justice measures of documenting gendered war crimes in the context of a genocide were subsequently taken up by the women's movement and how their endeavors to further expose sexual violence have resulted in notable interventions. Interviews with key organizational activists as well as testimonies given by victims of sexual violence during the conflict suggest that transitional justice mechanisms, extended by women's movements' efforts, are creating conditions for the emergence of new practices and spaces that support the fragile cultivation of new subjectivities. Sujetas de cambio (subjects of change) are premised not on victimhood but survivorhood. The emergence of these new subjectivities and new claims, including greater personal security and freedom from everyday violence, must be approached with caution, however, as they are not born automatically out of the deeply emotional struggles that play out around historical memory. Still, their emergence suggests new ways for women to cope not only with the sexual violence of the past but also to work against the normative violence that is part of their present.

Keywords: gendered violence, historical memory, transitional justice

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Genocide, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2012

Telling Stories—Rethreading Lives: Community Education, Women’s Development and Social Change Among the Maya Ixil

Citation:

Lykes, M. Brinton, Ana Caba Mateo, Jacinta Chávez Anay, Ana Laynez Caba, Ubaldo Ruiz, and Joan W. Williams. 1999. “Telling Stories—Rethreading Lives: Community Education, Women’s Development and Social Change Among the Maya Ixil.” International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory and Practice 2 (3): 207–27.

Authors: M. Brinton Lykes, Ana Caba Mateo, Jacinta Chávez Anay, Ana Laynez Caba, Ubaldo Ruiz, Joan W. Williams

Abstract:

Peace negotiations culminating in accords signed between the Guatemalan government and guerrilla forces (URNG) on 29 December 1996 have ‘ended’ nearly 36 years of war in Guatemala and afforded new spaces in which survivors testify to horrific violence including massacres, military occupation, internal displacement, extreme poverty and exile. In this paper we describe the development of a women's organization in rural Guatemala that was created to respond to some of the psychological, economic and educational consequences of this war. The Association's genesis and current work reflect collaborative processes of interethnic and transnational non-formal education, community organizing and leadership development. While responding directly to social injustices—including centuries of discrimination and marginalization of indigenous peoples—and the multiple effects of war, the Association provides a context wherein rural Maya women are enhancing self- and community-confidence to act on their own behalf in the development of action plans for change within their local community. In this paper we discuss some of our experiences as insiders in a rural area deeply impacted by war, state violence and poverty, and as outsiders who seek to accompany them in constructing peace with justice at a local level. We document some of the challenges experienced in collaborations across multiple differences as well as their contributions to women's development and to their creation of more just and equitable educational programmes for themselves and children in their communities.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Development, Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 1999

Possible Contributions of a Psychology of Liberation: Whither Health and Human Rights?

Citation:

Lykes, M. Brinton. 2000. “Possible Contributions of a Psychology of Liberation: Whither Health and Human Rights?” Journal of Health Psychology 5 (3): 383–97.

Author: M. Brinton Lykes

Abstract:

This article explores the possible contributions of a psychology of liberation for the practice of health psychology. It explores alternative psychological 'practices', for example participatory action research, with groups historically marginalized from access to power and resources. Selected lenses for crafting a liberatory psychology include: discourse of human rights and mental health; cultural and constructivist psychological theory; and reflexivity. Specific examples from the author's work with Mayan women in rural Guatemala in the context of ongoing war and subsequent efforts at peace building are discussed to clarify possible contributions of psychologists committed to accompanying local communities in creating more just futures. Selected challenges and contradictions encountered in this work are discussed.

Keywords: health, human rights, liberatory psychology

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Peacebuilding, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2000

The Quiet Revolutionaries: Seeking Justice in Guatemala

Citation:

Afflitto, Frank M, and Paul Jesilow. 2007. The Quiet Revolutionaries: Seeking Justice in Guatemala. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Authors: Frank M. Afflitto, Paul Jesilow

Abstract:

The last three decades of the twentieth century brought relentless waves of death squads, political kidnappings, and other traumas to the people of Guatemala. Many people fled the country to escape the violence. Yet, at the same moment, a popular movement for justice brought together unlikely bands of behind-the-scenes heroes, blurring ethnic, geographic, and even class lines. The Quiet Revolutionaries is drawn from interviews conducted by Frank Afflitto in the early 1990s with more than eighty survivors of the state-sanctioned violence. Gathered under frequently life-threatening circumstances, the observations and recollections of these inspiring men and women form a unique perspective on collective efforts to produce change in politics, law, and public consciousness. Examined from a variety of perspectives, from sociological to historical, their stories form a rich ethnography. While it is still too soon to tell whether stable, long-term democracy will prevail in Guatemala, the successes of these fascinating individuals provide a unique understanding of revolutionary resistance. (WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

Acknowledgments ix

Introduction 1

Chapter one: Some Background 11

Chapter two: Access Was Not Easy 31

Chapter three: Chronic Ambiguity 54

Chapter four: Seeking Justice 76

Chapter five: The Social Movement to End Impunity 100

Chapter six: The Movement Is Fragmented by the Peace Accords 129

Chapter seven: Identity, Rule of Law, and Democracy 149

Appendix 159

Notes 167

References 181

Index 203

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2007

Pages

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