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Energy Consumption by Gender in Some European Countries

Citation:

Räty, R., and A. Carlsson-Kanyama. 2010. “Energy Consumption by Gender in Some European Countries.” Energy Policy 38 (1): 646–9. 

Authors: R. Räty, A. Carlsson-Kanyama

Abstract:

Household total energy use has been estimated in numerous studies in recent decades and differences have mainly been explained by levels of income/expenditure. Studies of gender consumption patterns show that men eat more meat than women and drive longer distances, potentially leading to higher total energy use by men. In this study we calculated the total energy use for male and female consumption patterns in four European countries (Germany, Norway, Greece and Sweden) by studying single households. Significant differences in total energy use were found in two countries, Greece and Sweden. The largest differences found between men and women were for travel and eating out, alcohol and tobacco, where men used much more energy than women. We suggest that these findings are policy relevant for the EU, which aims to mainstream gender issues into all activities and to lower its total energy use.

Keywords: energy, gender, consumption

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Germany, Greece, Norway, Sweden

Year: 2010

Gender and Energy: Domestic Inequities Reconsidered

Citation:

Petrova, Saska, and Neil Simcock. 2019. “Gender and Energy: Domestic Inequities Reconsidered.” Social & Cultural Geography. doi:10.1080/14649365.2019.1645200.

Authors: Saska Petrova, Neil Simcock

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Energy poverty is widely recognized as a problem that affects millions of households globally. Particularly in the ‘Global North’ context, research into this phenomenon has tended to treat households as monolithic units, with little investigation into whether and how energy poverty is differentially experienced within homes. We address this research lacuna by scrutinizing the gender dimensions of domestic energy use and deprivation. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Poland, Greece and Czechia, we identify two ways in which energy poverty is differentially experienced along gender lines: household practices of responding to and resisting energy poverty, and the emotional labour of living with energy poverty. We also demonstrate how the negotiation of domestic energy deprivation can unveil not only gendered vulnerabilities, but also agency and emancipatory mechanisms. The paper thus provides insights that set an agenda for further research on gendered energy injustices beyond a simplistic, dichotomized victimization discourse.

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
La pobreza energética es ampliamente reconocida como un problema que afecta a millones de hogares en todo el mundo. Particularmente en el contexto del ‘Norte Global’, la investigación sobre este fenómeno ha tendido a tratar a los hogares como unidades monolíticas, con poca investigación sobre cómo la pobreza energética se experimenta de manera diferente dentro de los hogares. Nos dirigimos a ese vacío en la investigación para analizar las dimensiones de género del uso y la privación de energía doméstica. Basándonos en una extensa investigación cualitativa en Polonia, Grecia y la República Checa, identificamos dos formas en que la pobreza energética se experimenta de manera diferente a lo largo del género: las prácticas domésticas de respuesta y resistencia a la pobreza energética, y el trabajo emocional de vivir con la pobreza energética. También demostramos cómo la negociación de la privación de energía doméstica puede revelar no solo vulnerabilidades de género, sino también agencia y mecanismos emancipadores. Por lo tanto, el documento proporciona información que establece una agenda para futuras investigaciones sobre las injusticias energéticas de género más allá de un discurso simplista y dicotomizado de victimización.

FRENCH ABSTRACT:
La pauvreté énergétique est largement reconnue comme un fléau qui impacte des millions de foyers dans le monde. Dans le contexte du ‘Nord global’ en particulier, les recherches sur ce phénomène ont tendance à aborder les foyers comme des unités monolithiques, avec peu d’attention portée aux différentes expériences de la pauvreté énergétique à l’intérieur des foyers. Afin de combler cette lacune, nous examinons ici la dimension du genre au sein de la consommation et de la précarité énergétique domestique. À partir d’études qualitatives approfondies en Pologne, en Grèce et en République Tchèque, nous identifions deux expériences distinctes de la pauvreté énergétique selon le genre : les pratiques domestiques en réponse et en résistance à la pauvreté énergétique, et le travail émotionnel de la vie quotidienne face à la pauvreté énergétique. Nous démontrons également comment la négociation de la précarité énergétique domestique peut certes révéler des vulnérabilités de genre, mais aussi des mécanismes d’action et d’émancipation. Les résultats de cet article ouvrent ainsi un programme de recherche sur les injustices énergétiques de genre par-delà le discours simpliste et dichotomique de la victimisation.

Keywords: gender, energy poverty, infrastructure, home, inequity, gênero, pobreza energética, infraestructura, hogar, inequidad, genre, pauvreté, énergétique, chez-soi, inégalité

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Czech Republic, Greece, Poland

Year: 2019

Labour Force Participation of Women: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Policy and other Determinants in OCED Countries

Citation:

Jaumotte, Florence. 2003. “Labour Force Participation of Women: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Policy and other Determinants in OCED Countries.” OECD Economic Studies 2 (37): 51- 108.

Author: Florence Jaumotte

Annotation:

Summary:
“Female labour force participation has increased strongly in most OECD countries over the last few decades (Figure 1). The timing of the increase has varied across countries, with some countries starting earlier (e.g. the Nordics and the United States), and in the last two decades the largest increases have been observed in lower income countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as well as in some northern European countries (Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands). However, large cross-country differences in the levels of female participation persist. Focusing on prime-age women (aged 25-54), their participation rate ranges from values close to or below 60 per cent in Turkey, Korea, Mexico, and southern European countries (with the exception of Portugal) to values well above 80 per cent in the Nordic countries and some eastern European countries. Female labour force participation is the most important factor in explaining increases in aggregate participation rates as well as the current cross-country variation of aggregate participation rates…
 
 
 
“This paper assesses the role of various factors in determining the pattern of female participation rates in OECD countries. The main focus of the policy analysis is on married women with children, for whom actual participation is well below preferences. A number of policy instruments are included in the analysis, such as the tax treatment of second earners (relative to single individuals), childcare subsidies, child benefits, paid parental leave, and tax incentives to share market work between spouses. The role of other determinants, such as female education and labour market conditions, is also considered. The originality of the econometric study lies in the broad country coverage (17 OECD countries over the period 1985- 1999), in contrast with the single-country focus of most studies. OECD countries present a wide range of policies and experiences in the area of female participation, thereby providing a valuable source of information on the relative effectiveness of various policies. The analysis is based on macroeconomic data which allows estimating the aggregate impact of policy instruments rather than the responsiveness of individuals to microeconomic incentives. One other advantage of the use of macro- economic data is that the estimated coefficients incorporate to some extent general equilibrium effects (at least those on women themselves)” (Jaumotte 2003, 52-3).

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Countries: Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, United States of America

Year: 2003

Engendering Cities: Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for All

Citation:

Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés, and Michael Neuman, eds. 2020. Engendering Cities: Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for All. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, Michael Neuman

Annotation:

Summary: 
Engendering Cities examines the contemporary research, policy, and practice of designing for gender in urban spaces. Gender matters in city design, yet despite legislative mandates across the globe to provide equal access to services for men and women alike, these issues are still often overlooked or inadequately addressed. This book looks at critical aspects of contemporary cities regarding gender, including topics such as transport, housing, public health, education, caring, infrastructure, as well as issues which are rarely addressed in planning, design, and policy, such as the importance of toilets for education and clothes washers for freeing-up time. In the first section, a number of chapters in the book assess past, current, and projected conditions in cities vis-à-vis gender issues and needs. In the second section, the book assesses existing policy, planning, and design efforts to improve women’s and men’s concerns in urban living. Finally, the book proposes changes to existing policies and practices in urban planning and design, including its thinking (theory) and norms (ethics).
 
The book applies the current scholarship on theory and practice related to gender in a planning context, elaborating on some critical community-focused reflections on gender and design. It will be key reading for scholars and students of planning, architecture, design, gender studies, sociology, anthropology, geography, and political science. It will also be of interest to practitioners and policy makers, providing discussion of emerging topics in the field. (Summary from Routledge)

Table of Contents:
1.Planning the Gendered City
Inés Sánchez de Madariaga and Michael Neuman

2.A Gendered View of Mobility and Transport: Next Steps and Future Directions
Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris

3.Gendered Mobility Patterns of Carers in Austria
Bente Knoll and Teresa Schwaninge

4.Violence Against Women in Moving Transportation in Indian Cities: Reconceptualising Gendered Transport Policy
Yamini Narayanan

5.Planning Mobility in Portugal with a Gender Perspective
Margarida Queirós and Nuno Marques da Costa

6.Implementation of Gender and Diversity Perspectives in Transport Development Plans in Germany
Elena von den Driesch, Linda Steuer, Tobias Berg, and Carmen Leicht-Scholten

7.Why Low-Income Women in the U.S. Need Automobiles
Evelyn Blumenberg

8.Public Toilets: The Missing Component in Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for Women
Clara Greed

9.Are Safe Cities Just Cities? A Perspective from France
Lucile Biarrotte and Claire Hancock

10.Everyday Life Experiences of Afghan Immigrant Women as Representation of their Place of Belonging in Auckland
Roja Tafaroji

11.Gender Mainstreaming in the Regional Discourse over the Future of the Ruhr Metropolitan Area: Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming in Planning Processes
Jeanette Sebrantke, Mechtild Stiewe, Sibylle Kelp-Siekmann, and Gudrun Kemmler-Lehr

12.An Analysis of EU Urban Policy from the Perspective of Gender
Sonia De Gregorio Hurtado

13.Gender Mainstreaming Urban Planning and Design Processes in Greece
Charis Christodoulou

14.Gendering the Design of Cities in Aotearoa New Zealand: Are We There Yet?
Dory Reeves, Julie Fairey, Jade Kake, Emma McInnes, and Eva Zombori

15.Gender Impact Assessments, a Tool for the Implementation of the New Urban Agenda: The Case of Madrid Nuevo Norte
Ines Novella Abril

16.Gender and the Urban in the 21st Century: Paving Way to ‘Another’ Gender Mainstreaming
Camilla Perrone

17.Epilogue: Unifying Difference and Equality Concepts to Buttress Policy
Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Urban Displacement, Development, Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Water & Sanitation Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Austria, Germany, Greece, India, New Zealand, Portugal, Spain, United States of America

Year: 2020

Politicizing the Body in the Anti-Mining Protest in Greece

Citation:

Fotaki, Marianna and Maria Daskalaki. 2020. "Politicizing the Body in the Anti-Mining Protest in Greece." Organization Studies, 1 –26. doi: 10.1177/0170840619882955.
 

Authors: Marianna Fotaki, Maria Daskalaki

Abstract:

Although organization and management scholars are beginning to research opposition and dissent emerging in response to the global financial crisis, there are few accounts or feminist analyses of social movements and women’s mobilizations as an important part of these movements. We address this gap by considering a case of women activists opposing extractivist mining in Chalkidiki, Greece, to demonstrate their crucial role in initiating and organizing resistance within their communities. Drawing theoretical inspiration from social reproduction theory and the literature on embodied protest as a form of political action, we argue that women use diverse means to promote the politics of visibility, erasing public and private distinctions as they defend their communities’ right to live in unpolluted environments. By way of contribution, we enhance understanding of the role of affective embodiment as a foundation for activist feminist practices; develop a theory of the protesting body altering spatial relations as a means to oppose the neoliberal assault on life and environment; and suggest how this might prefigure new political practices in the context of social movements. We identify the implications of this theorization and call for academics’ deeper sustained engagement in activism.

Keywords: activist resistance, Federici, precarity, protesting body, reproductive labor, Butler, Crisis

Topics: Civil Society, Environment, Feminisms, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Greece

Year: 2020

Gender and Struggles for Equality in Mining Resistance Movements: Performing Critique against Neoliberal Capitalism in Sweden and Greece

Citation:

Sjöstedt Landén, Angelika, and Marianna Fotaki. 2018. "Gender and Struggles for Equality in Mining Resistance Movements: Performing Critique against Neoliberal Capitalism in Sweden and Greece." Social Inclusion 6 (4): 25-35.

Authors: Angelika Sjöstedt Landén, Marianna Fotaki

Abstract:

This article explores the intersections of gender and centre–periphery relations and calls for theoretical and political involvement in gendered struggles against colonial and capitalist forces across different national contexts. The article raises questions about the possibility of resisting inequality and exploitation arising from capitalist expansion and extraction of natural resources in Sweden and Greece, outside of urban contexts. It does so by highlighting women’s role in protest movements in peripheral places and questioning power relations between centre and periphery. The article also argues that making visible women’s struggles and contributions to protest movements brings about vital knowledge for realizing democratic worlds that do not thrive on the destruction of natural resources and the institutionalization of inequalities.

Keywords: activism, capitalism, extractivism, gender, Greece, mining, neoliberalism, protest, women, sweden

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Intersectionality Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Greece, Sweden

Year: 2018

Contemporary Greek Male Homosexualities: Greek Gay Men's Experiences of the Family, the Military and the LGBT Movement

Citation:

Dendrinos, Panayis. 2008. "Contemporary Greek Male Homosexualities: Greek Gay Men's Experiences of the Family, the Military and the LGBT Movement." PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.

Author: Panayis Dendrinos

Abstract:

This thesis provides an ethnographic analysis of how Greek gay men experience the ways in which their sexuality is subject to ‘negotiation’ in the family and the military, how these ‘negotiations’ influence and sometimes even inhibit the creation of an LGBT movement. The experiences of my ethnographic informants produced little material for generalisations but the diversity of their voices suggests that they are constantly fighting between the desire to belong and the wish to remain different. I argue that the theoretical framework of timi and dropi (honour and shame) can still be a valuable explanatory tool for an understanding of Modern Greek homosexualities. Yet, this thesis offers a critique of this paradigm for its neglect to account for the possible ways in which the sexual contact of the men in a family may occasionally be seen as a threat to the family’s honour. As a result, silence becomes a defence mechanism that many of my gay interlocutors and their families employ to deal with homosexuality. This varied silence often inhibits the sense of pride in the man’s homosexuality and in turn prevents him from joining the movement that would require him to be vocal about his sexual self. The military experiences of my interlocutors, on the other hand, challenge the assumption that the military is a strictly heterosexual space. What they often describe as the ‘homo-social’ environment of the military acted as a catalyst for several of them to come to terms with their homosexuality. The thesis also explores the history of Greek LGBT activism from its inception in 1976 to today and examines the reasons behind its limited success in capturing the hearts and minds of my interlocutors.

Topics: Gender, Men, Households, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexuality Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Greece

Year: 2008

Teachers’ Perceptions of National Identity and Its Intersection with Gender: A Phenomenological Study in a Conflict Society

Citation:

Panteli, Yolanda, and Michalinos Zembylas. 2013. “Teachers’ Perceptions of National Identity and Its Intersection with Gender: A Phenomenological Study in a Conflict Society.” Gender & Education 25 (4): 379–95. doi:10.1080/09540253.2012.746648.

Authors: Yolanda Panteli, Zembylas Michalinos

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate Greek-Cypriot teachers’ perceptions regarding the role that national identity and its intersection with gender play in representations of the past. Drawing on data deriving from forty individual interviews and analysed through the lens of intersectionality theory, it is shown that: although all teachers were able to recognise the role of national identity in representations of the past in the Cyprus conflict, the majority of these teachers were not equally aware of the gender politics in representations of the past. The participants seemed to be willing to take responsibility for the ways in which they represented the national identity, but they were not willing to assume responsibility for their gendered representations; instead, these representations were deemed ‘unconscious’ or a ‘product of tradition’ or the ‘natural order’ and, thus, not within their control. The paper ends with a discussion of how this study informs educational research and teacher professional development, concerning the intersection of national identity and gender in relation to issues of collective memory.

Keywords: identities, qualitative interviews, conflict and post-conflict studies, primary (elementary) education

Topics: Education, Gender, Gender Roles, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Cyprus, Greece

Year: 2013

From Heroines to Hyenas: Women Partisans during the Greek Civil War

Citation:

Anagnostopoulou, Margaret Poulos. 2001. “From Heroines to Hyenas: Women Partisans during the Greek Civil War.” Contemporary European History 10 (3): 481-501. doi:10.1017/S0960777301003083.

Author: Margaret Poulos Anagnostopoulou

Abstract:

The participation of women in armed combat was arguably the most striking feature of the Greek Civil War (1946–9). The advent of civil conflict marked a shift in the gendered division of military labour, as the female ‘novelty’ soldier of the earlier Resistance period (1941–4) gave way to the fully integrated female combatant. This article seeks to examine the circumstances which lead to such high levels of female representation within the ranks of the partisan army (the Greek Democratic Army), but also to explore the symbolic functions of this volatile imagery in the context of intense struggles to define Greek national culture and identity.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Greece

Year: 2001

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