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Ghana

"Why Don’t They Change?" Law Reform, Tradition and Widows’ Rights in Ghana

Citation:

Akoto, Augustina. 2013. “‘Why Don’t They Change?’ Law Reform, Tradition and Widows’ Rights in Ghana.” Feminist Legal Studies 21 (3): 263–79. doi:10.1007/s10691-013-9252-y.

Author: Augustina Akoto

Abstract:

Widows form a sub-set of an already beleaguered gendered minority in societies where law is but one of a competing number of social orders. This can render widows vulnerable and often outside the protection of State law and at the behest of (discriminatory) customary laws. Ghana enacted the Intestate Succession Law 1985 (P.N.D.C.L.111) to grant widows the right to inherit from the estate of the deceased. However, the law has had little impact. Personal narrative analysis was used to ascertain the reasons for this through interviews conducted with widows. Proposals are then made as to how law reform can promote and effect gender equality.

Keywords: gender equality, Ghana, law reform, legal pluralism, Intestacy, Personal narrative analysis

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Equality/Inequality, Post-Conflict, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2013

Gendered Patterns of IMT Adoption and Use: Learning from Action Research

Citation:

Porter, Gina, Kathrin Blaufuss, and Frank Owusu Acheampong. 2012. “Gendered Patterns of IMT Adoption and Use: Learning from Action Research.” Research in Transportation Economics 34 (1): 11–15. doi:10.1016/j.retrec.2011.12.005.

Authors: Gina Porter, Kathrin Blaufuss, Frank Owusu Acheampong

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the value of using an action research methodology to improve understanding of gendered patterns of adoption and non-adoption of Intermediate Means of Transport (IMTs) and similar gender-related transport issues. It presents results from a novel action research project undertaken in five farming villages in southern Ghana, a region where IMT usage is currently low. The participatory action research study not only revealed important issues around differences between stated preferences and actual gendered patterns of adoption and non-adoption in the particular context of southern Ghana, but offers a methodology which may have value in many other gender and transport contexts across sub-Saharan Africa and beyond.

Keywords: action research, gender, women, transport, IMT, Ghana

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2012

‘I Think a Woman Who Travels a Lot Is Befriending Other Men and That’s Why She Travels’: Mobility Constraints and Their Implications for Rural Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Porter, Gina. 2011. “‘I Think a Woman Who Travels a Lot Is Befriending Other Men and That’s Why She Travels’: Mobility Constraints and Their Implications for Rural Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Gender, Place & Culture 18 (1): 65–81. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2011.535304.

Author: GIna Porter

Abstract:

This article is concerned with the implications of practices, politics and meanings of mobility for women and girl children in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Women and girls commonly face severe mobility constraints which affect their livelihoods and their life chances. The article reflects on their experiences in rural areas where patriarchal institutions (including the gender division of labour, which places great emphasis on female labour contributions to household production and reproduction), and a patriarchal discourse concerning linkages between women's mobility, vulnerability and sexual appetite, shape everyday social practices and material inequalities. This compounds the physical constraints imposed by poor accessibility (to services and markets) associated with poor roads and inadequate transport in both direct and more complex ways. The article draws on field research conducted in diverse socio-cultural and agro-ecological contexts in western and southern Africa (principally southern Ghana, southern Malawi and northern and central Nigeria) to explore the impacts of relative immobility and poor service access on women and girls. Three (interconnected) issues are examined in some detail: access to markets, access to education and access to health services. Possible interventions to initiate positive change are considered. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: gender, mobility, markets, education, health, promiscuity, transport

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Infrastructure, Transportation, Sexuality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria

Year: 2011

Comfort Women During WWII: Are U.S. Courts a Final Resort for Justice?

Citation:

Park, Byoungwook. 2002. “Comfort Women During WWII: Are U.S. Courts a Final Resort for Justice?” American University International Law Review 17 (2). http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/auilr/vol17/iss2/4.

Author: Byoungwook Park

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, International Organizations, Peacekeeping Regions: Africa Countries: Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Uganda

Year: 2002

The Impact of Oil and Gas Discovery and Exploration on Communities with Emphasis on Women

Citation:

Darkwah, Akosua K. 2010. “The Impact of Oil and Gas Discovery and Exploration on Communities with Emphasis on Women.” Department of Sociology, University of Ghana

Author: Akosua K Darkwah

Topics: Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2010

Black Gold in Ghana: Changing Livelihoods for Women in Communities Affected by Oil Production

Citation:

Adusah-Karikari, Augustina. 2015. “Black Gold in Ghana: Changing Livelihoods for Women in Communities Affected by Oil Production.” The Extractive Industries and Society 2 (1): 24–32.

Author: Augustina Adusah-Karikari

Abstract:

This paper explores women’s diverse situations in the oil-producing coastal communities of Western Ghana, and the institutions that frame those situations. It examines how women’s private and public spaces have been reformulated by the production of oil in their community. The study engaged in different forms of qualitative inquiry: focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and participant observation. Findings reveal the oil exploration and production in Ghana has spawned a new social order in which women’s activities and livelihoods are invisible, thereby increasing their vulnerabilities. The case provides valuable insight for understanding the potential gender imbalances the oil industry may produce, and aims to assist government officials with framing policies to preempt or mitigate some of the adverse community-level impacts that may arise.

Keywords: oil, women's livelihoods, developing countries, oil communities

Topics: Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2015

Factors Influencing the Participation of Women in Rural Water Supply Projects in the Asante Akim South District

Citation:

Boateng, J. D., and S. B. Kendie. 2015. “Factors Influencing the Participation of Women in Rural Water Supply Projects in the Asante Akim South District.” Journal of Arts and Social Sciences 3 (1): 220-42.

Authors: J. D. Boateng, S. B. Kendie

Abstract:

This article discusses factors influencing the participation of women in Asante Akim South District in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, eight communities from four out of seven clustered circuits operating under Phase III of the Rural Water Supply Project (RWSP) were selected. Data were collected from 256 household respondents in the communities under study. Two factors were found to influence the participation of women in decision-making in RWSP project in the district. These were, male domineering and socio-cultural norms which inhibit women to participate actively in decision-making fora in the district. The study suggests that to ensure active participation of women in the district, there is the need to develop a gender awareness system whereby the different interests and knowledge of men and women are included in the design and management of water supply systems. Precisely, there is the need to promote the involvement and inclusion of all members of the community in such development projects.

Keywords: gender, rural, water supply, water management, participation, community

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2015

Gender and Public Social Spending: Disaggregating Benefit Incidence

Citation:

Demery, Lionel. 1996. "Gender and Public Social Spending: Disaggregating Benefit Incidence." Poverty and Social Policy Department Discussion Paper, Washington DC: World Bank.

Author: Lionel Demery

Abstract:

This note describes how the gender dimension of public spending on health and education can be captured in part through benefit incidence analysis. It contains two basic messages. First, gender disaggregations are important in their own right, since they highlight gender differences in benefit incidence which are of policy concern. Second, these gender differences are also important in understanding other matters of policy concern. The example taken here is poverty, or more specifically, the targeting of government spending to the poor. The paper begins, in section II, with a brief review of the benefit incidence approach and establishes how gender disaggregations can be readily incorporated in the methodology. Illustrations are then provided (in section III) from estimates of benefit incidence of social spending in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. But the benefit incidence of government spending is only part of the story. In order to gain access to government-funded services, households generally have to incur out-of-pocket expenditures. These may also be subject to gender differences. Section IV considers these using household survey data in Ghana. Section V makes some concluding observations.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Gender Budgeting, Health Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Ghana

Year: 1996

Gender Equity Concerns in Public Expenditure: Methodologies and Country Summaries

Citation:

Esim, Simel. 1996. Gender Equity Concerns in Public Expenditure: Methodologies and Country Summaries. Washington DC: International Center for Research on Women.

Author: Simel Esim

Abstract:

This note consists of two main parts: First part is primarily based on a review of methodologies used for public expenditure analysis with poverty and gender equity concerns. The second part summarizes the results of studies looking into social sector allocations using public expenditure incidence in Ghana, Ivory Coast and South Africa.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Ghana, South Africa

Year: 1996

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study

Citation:

Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London

Abstract:

There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

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