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Gender Dimensions of Climate Change Adaptation Practices: The Experiences of Smallholder Crop Farmers in the Transition Zone of Ghana

Citation:

Wrigley-Asante, Charlotte, Kwadwo Owusu, Irene S. Egyir, and Tom Mboya Owiyo. 2019. "Gender Dimensions of Climate Change Adaptation Practices: The Experiences of Smallholder Crop Farmers in the Transition Zone of Ghana." African Geographical Review 38 (2): 126-39.

Authors: Charlotte Wrigley-Asante, Kwadwo Owusu, Irene S. Egyir, Tom Mboya Owiyo

Abstract:

This paper discusses the gender dimensions of climate change adaptation strategies among small holder crop farmers in the transition zone of Ghana. A total of 612 farmers (328 females and 284 males) were interviewed using purposive sampling technique. Our results indicate that adaptation strategies are gendered with men mostly resorting to on-farm agronomic practices such as the use of artificial fertilizers and also moving into new cash crops. Female farmers also use similar on-farm agronomic practices particularly artificial fertilizers to boost crop production but most importantly resorted to petty trading in agricultural and consumable goods, an off-farm strategy. This shows women’s resilience which has also subsequently improved their decision-making role at the household level, which is an indicator of empowerment. We recommend that institutions that support climate change adaptation initiatives at the local level must take gender differences into consideration and support particularly women to strengthen their resilience and consolidate their empowerment.

Keywords: gender, climate change, adaptation, Ghana, women, men

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

Gendered Perception and Vulnerability to Climate Change in Urban Slum Communities in Accra, Ghana

Citation:

Owusu, Mensah, Melissa Nursey-Bray, and Diane Rudd. 2019. "Gendered Perception and Vulnerability to Climate Change in Urban Slum Communities in Accra, Ghana." Regional Environmental Change 19: 13-25.

Authors: Mensah Owusu, Melissa Nursey-Bray, Diane Rudd

Abstract:

Climate change is known to have differential impacts in the Global South, with gender and poverty being determining factors. In Ghana, both these factors come into play as women living in slums bear the brunt of the impacts. In spite of this, the majority of research in gender and climate change adaptation has focused on rural communities to the detriment of their poor urban counterparts. Using a critical feminist intersectional approach, this study investigates how the interplay between gender, socio-economic, institutional and place-based factors shapes vulnerability to climate change in three slums in urban Accra, Ghana. The results demonstrate that while climate change poses serious environmental hazards to all residents of slums, their perceptions and knowledge regarding the causes and impacts of these hazards are differentiated by gender, age, educational status and place-based variables, with women generally showing a lower level of awareness about climate change than their male counterparts. The results indicate further that irrespective of age, educational attainment and where people live, women were found to be overall more vulnerable, despite experiencing similar levels of exposure as the men, by virtue of their limited access to productive resources, poor conditions of housing, low participation in adaptation decision-making, as well as the heavy domestic responsibilities placed on them. We conclude that it is imperative for adaptation policy makers to formulate and implement appropriate adaptive measures in a gender-sensitive and context-specific manner to respond to the different vulnerabilities faced by different categories of social groups and communities in cities of the Global South.

Topics: Age, Economies, Poverty, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Intersectionality Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

Gender and Climate Risk Management: Evidence of Climate Information Use in Ghana

Citation:

Partey, Samuel T., Angela D. Dakorah, Robert B Zougmoré, Mathieu Ouédraogo, Mary Nyasimi, Gordon K. Nikoi, and Sophia Huyer. 2020. "Gender and Climate Risk Management: Evidence of Climate Information Use in Ghana." Climate Change 158: 61-75.

Authors: Samuel T. Partey, Angela D. Dakorah, Robert B. Zougmoré, Mathieu Ouédraogo, Mary Nyasimi, Gordon K. Nikoi, Sophia Huyer

Abstract:

The gender perspective of climate information use is not well studied although necessary for developing gender-responsive climate information services (CIS). This study determined how CIS use by men and women farmers may be influenced by their perceptions about climate change (CC), farm activities, and demography. The study was carried out at the Lawra-Jirapa Districts of the Upper West Region of Ghana where downscaled seasonal forecast information through mobile phone technologies (Esoko platform) had been disseminated to farmers since 2011. Data was collected from semi-structured questionnaire interviews involving 900 farmers (50.2% women and 49.8% men) and four 20-member focus group discussions. The study confirmed 85.2% (representing 767) farmers were aware of climate change and its implications for their agriculture and other livelihood activities. Men and women had similar perceptions about climate change, perceived by the majority as increased strong winds, higher temperatures, increased frequency of drought, increased rainfall variability and increased flooding. Among other factors, it was evident that use of CIS may be influenced by gender. Men were found to be particularly responsive in adopting CIS use for climate risk mitigation. This was attributed to their ability to easily access and use telephone devices compared with women. The study revealed that unlike women, men were able to access more financial resources and had control of household income which allowed them to purchase mobile phones. Women generally accessed their husbands’ mobile phones. Despite differences in access to CIS, the study showed both men and women found it beneficial for strategic farm decision-making such as when to begin land preparation, when to plant, and which crop to select. In addition, both men and women were found to face similar constrains (such as poor network connectivity and limited of training), to accessing and using CIS through the Esoko platform. The study recommends the need to explore different CIS dissemination channels and design CIS that meet gender-specific needs.

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2020

Dealing with Climate Change in Semi-Arid Ghana: Understanding Intersectional Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies of Women Farmers

Citation:

Lawson, Elaine T., Rahinatu Sidiki Alare, Abdul Rauf Zanya Salifu, and Mary Thompson-Hall. 2020. "Dealing with Climate Change in Semi-Arid Ghana: Understanding Intersectional Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies of Women Farmers." GeoJournal 85: 439-52.

Authors: Elaine T. Lawson, Rahinatu Sidiki Alare, Abdul Rauf Zanya Salifu, Mary Thompson-Hall

Abstract:

Climate change has diverse physical and socio-economic implications for communities in semi-arid areas. While several studies have sought to understand the underlying power relations that shape adaptive capacities of rural farmers, fewer studies have focused on unpacking the differences within the different social groups. In this paper, we present a case study based on women smallholder farmers from semi-arid Ghana. It explores their nuanced perceptions of climate variability and highlights how gender intersects with other identities, roles and responsibilities to influence adaptation strategies and barriers to adaptation in the semi-arid context. Farm-level data was collected from 103 women farmers using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Rainfall patterns were perceived by the women farmers to be increasingly erratic and perceptions of average temperatures were that they are increasing. Adoption of adaptation strategies were influenced by socio-demographic factors such as age, marital and residential status, which also influenced decision-making and power dynamics within the household. The paper highlighted the complex relationships that mediate women farmers’ access to resources and influence their vulnerability to climate variability and change. Highlighting the intra-gender differences that shaped the adaptation options and adaptive capacity is a prerequisite for proper adaptation policy planning and targeting.

Keywords: adaptation, adaptive capacity, climate variability and change, farmers, Ghana, perceptions

Topics: Age, Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Households, Intersectionality, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2020

Vulnerability of Ghanian Women Cocoa Farmers to Climate Change: A Typology

Citation:

Friedman, Rachel, Mark A. Hirons, and Emily Boyd. 2019. "Vulnerability of Ghanian Women Cocoa Farmers to Climate Change: A Typology." Climate and Development 11 (5): 446-58.

Authors: Rachel Friedman, Mark A. Hirons, Emily Boyd

Abstract:

Climate change, increasingly recognized as a hurdle to achieving sustainable development goals, has already begun impacting the lives and livelihoods of people around the world, including on the African continent. Vulnerability is a concept often employed in the context of climate change to identify risks and develop policy and adaptation measures that address current and projected impacts. However, it is situated in a broader social context, driven by factors such as land tenure and access, livelihood diversification, and empowerment, which single out historically marginalized groups like women. This paper applies a vulnerability framework to a case study of cocoa farming in the Central Region of Ghana, depicting not only the variety of factors contributing to climate change vulnerability but also different narratives on vulnerability that emerge based on a woman’s relation to cocoa production itself. The paper conveys how homogeneous representations of women farmers and the technical focus of climate-orientated policy interventions may threaten to further marginalize the most vulnerable and exacerbate existing inequalities. This has implications for both climate change policy design and implementation, as well as the broader social development agenda that has bearing on vulnerability.

Keywords: gender, vulnerability, agriculture, climate change, Africa

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Land Tenure, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

Gender Disparities in Rural Accessibility and Mobility in Ghana

Citation:

Adom-Asamoah, Gifty, Clifford Amoako, and Kwasi Kwafo Adarkwa. 2020. "Gender Disparities in Rural Accessibility and Mobility in Ghana." Case Studies on Transport Policy 8 (1): 49-58.

Authors: Gifty Adom-Asamoah , Clifford Amoako, Kwasi Kwafo Adarkwa

Abstract:

Many African governments claim that substantial proportions of development budgets are spent on transport infrastructure. However, physical access and mobility continue to be a challenge for rural dwellers. Several studies have attempted to establish the impact of such investments, using quantitative approaches, which are largely impersonal and have little or no direct personal impacts expressed by households. This paper explores household impacts of rural road investments under the Road Sector Development Project (RSDP) implemented by the Government of Ghana between 2002 and 2008. Based on a quasi-experimental design under the “withand-without” framework together with qualitative and participatory methods, the gendered impacts of the RSDP were assessed in selected communities along both “experimental” and “control” road corridors. The study reveals that transport needs and travel patterns in the selected communities are gendered; because they were differentiated for men and women. The paper also reveals the embedded social and economic benefits rural men and women derive from improved access. For sustained impacts of rural road investments on residents; the issue of gender must be re-negotiated and properly understood.

Keywords: gender, rural development, Ghana, Rural transport, accessibility

Topics: Development, Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2020

Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana through an Intersectional Framework

Citation:

Wood, Alexa L., Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III, and Arika Ligmann-Zielinska. 2019. “Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana through an Intersectional Framework.” The Journal of Peasant Studies. doi:10.1080/03066150.2019.1655639.

Authors: Alexa L. Wood, Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III, Arika Ligmann-Zielinska

Abstract:

As the effects of climate change intensify, subsistence farmers in Ghana are expected to face increased food insecurity, due to their reliance on rainfed agriculture. Within households, young women are expected to support all aspects of household food security, and will experience a more burdensome load of labor, as a dwindling stock of natural resources will make daily tasks more time consuming. The intersection of age, gender, and location inhibits young women's decision-making responsibilities and wage-earning potential. Climate change exacerbates this dynamic, which restricts opportunities to acquire sufficient food and places increased stress on household food systems.

Keywords: climate change, food security, intersectionality, Ghana, farming

Topics: Age, Youth, Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

Food Security in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the Nexus between Gender, Geography and Off-Farm Employment

Citation:

Dzanku, Fred Mawunyo. 2019. “Food Security in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the Nexus between Gender, Geography and Off-Farm Employment.” World Development 113: 26–43.

Author: Fred Mawunyo Dzanku

Abstract:

How to eradicate hunger and achieve food security remains a key developmental issue, particular in countries south of the Sahara. Most of the empirical literature focuses on agriculture-based interventions although it is well known that rural households have a gamut of income generating activities that constitute their livelihood. This article uses panel data for six African countries to examine the association between off-farm income and household food security and tests key hypotheses that have not been previously explored. We hypothesize that the association between food security and off-farm income is neither gender-neutral nor the same for households living in low and high agroecological potential areas. Because a nontrivial number of households do not earn off-farm income, we also hypothesize that the food security effect of nonparticipation differs by gender and geography. The results show that although off-farm income has a strong statistically significant association with food security the correlation magnitudes are not as strong. However, off-farm income has a significantly stronger association with food security among female-headed and poor region households than it has among male-headed and rich region households in most countries. The gender-related result supports the notion that households tend to benefit more from women's greater control over resources than when such resources are controlled by men. We also show that nonparticipation in off-farm income is more costly, food security wise, for female-headed households and households who live in low agroecological potential regions than it is for male-headed households and those who live in high potential regions. The rural nonfarm sector in high agroecological potential areas tends to be associated with greater poverty reduction among female-headed households than among male-headed households. From a policy and development practice perspective, the results suggest that focusing rural development policies on factors that raise farm productivity alone (e.g., input subsidies) may not lead to gender-neutral welfare outcomes. This means that interventions such as rural nonfarm microcredit schemes that targets female-headed households or women in general could help achieve gender-equitable poverty reduction, as others have shown.

Keywords: Sub- Saharan Africa, off-farm employment, gender, geography, food security, panel data

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia

Year: 2019

In the Aftermath of Reparations: The Experiences of Female Beneficiaries of Ghana's Reparations Programme

Citation:

Baiden, Regina Akosua Dede. 2019. "In the Aftermath of Reparations: The Experiences of Female Beneficiaries of Ghana's Reparations Programme." Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 14 (1): 22-35.

Author: Regina Akosua Dede Baiden

Abstract:

With increased attention to the needs of women in conflict and post-conflict situations, a multitude of resolutions on Women, Peace and Security have been adopted at the international level. Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820, and 2122 all reflect an increased recognition of the need to engage, monitor, and increase women’s participation in post-conflict recovery process. Although scholars on reparations have focused on the benefits that a gendered perspective brings to reparations programmes, scare research exists on the experiences of women years after the acquisition of reparation. This article investigates the lived experiences of female beneficiaries of Ghana’s reparations programme 8 years after completion of the programme. It highlights the violence experienced by four female beneficiaries of the programme, showing the long-term impacts of violence on their lives. The article reveals the reparations programme’s inability to adequately address the effect of violence on the lives of female beneficiaries.

Keywords: gender-based violence, women's rights, reparations, transitional justice, economic violence, resilience

Topics: Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations, Post-Conflict, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 2122, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

The Influences of Gendered Customary Land Tenure System on Food Security in Nandom District, Ghana

Citation:

Doghle, Kizito, Justice Owusu-Ansah, and Paul Boniface Akaabre. 2019. "The Influences of Gendered Customary Land Tenure System on Food Security in Nandom District, Ghana." African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences 2 (1): 71-88. 

Authors: Kizito Doghle, Justice Owusu-Ansah, Paul Boniface Akaabre

Abstract:

Food insecurity has been a major global development concern. Hence, SDG Two seeks to achieve Zero Hunger by 2030. The situation is severe in sub-Saharan Africa, where customary practices deprive women of land ownership and limit their access rights. This paper explores the influences of a gendered land tenure system on food security in Nandom District, adapting conditional assessment modules defined by USDA and FAO. With a list of households categorized under headship, 30 respondents were proportionally selected from each of the four study communities. The results from the survey of 120 households show that female headed households experienced extreme and severe conditions of food insecurity while male and co-headed households experienced less, resulting from differences in land ownership and access rights. Further analysis of the situation underscores the need to promote equal ownership and access rights for all gender groups to fight food insecurity and poverty in Africa. 

Keywords: Customary land tenure system, gender, households, food security/insecurity, Nandom District, North-Western Ghana

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Land Tenure, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

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