Germany

Militarism and Masculinity as Keys to the "Jewish Question" in Germany

Citation:

Caplan, Gregory. 2003. “Militarism and Masculinity as Keys to the ‘Jewish Question’ in Germany.” In Military Masculinities: Identity and the State, edited by Paul Higate, 175–90. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Author: Gregory Caplan

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Genocide, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2003

German Social Democracy and Women’s Suffrage 1891-1918

Citation:

Evans, Richard J. 1980. “German Social Democracy and Women’s Suffrage 1891-1918.” Journal of Contemporary History 15 (3): 533–57.

Author: Richard J. Evans

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 1980

Chastity, Masculinity, and Military Efficiency: The United States Army in Germany, 1918-1923

Citation:

Habib, Douglas F. 2006. “Chastity, Masculinity, and Military Efficiency: The United States Army in Germany, 1918-1923.” International History Review 28 (4): 737-57.

Author: Douglas F. Habib

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany, United States of America

Year: 2006

Gendered Responsibilities for War and Peace: Strategies of Political, Socio-Economic and Psychological Reconstruction in Post-War Germany

Citation:

Zwingel, Susanne. 2004. “Gendered Responsibilities for War and Peace: Strategies of Political, Socio-Economic and Psychological Reconstruction in Post-War Germany.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, September 2-5.

Author: Susanne Zwingel

Abstract:

This paper combines a feminist view on the gendered dynamics fostering and preventing warfare with the experiences of Germans at the end and in the aftermath of World War II. It focusses on the years of 1945 to 1948, as they can be seen as the years or disintegration of the old system and re-emergence of two new post war orders. Both the symbolic construction of gender ideologies and the impact of these constructs on daily life are discussed. The main argument is that the both Nazi Germany and post-war Germany were shaped by different forms of gendered militarization: racist hyper-masculine ware-fare was replaced by the predominantly female face of post-war suffering which lead to a gendered strategy of exculpation by part of many Germans; attempts to establish a more gender equal social order were partly successful, but ultimately absorbed by new forms of militarization as embodied in the block confrontation of the cold war.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Peace Processes Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2004

Complete Access: Women in the Bundeswehr and Male Ambivalence

Citation:

Kümmel, Gerhard. 2002. “Complete Access: Women in the Bundeswehr and Male Ambivalence.” Armed Forces & Society 28 (4): 555-73.

Author: Gerhard Kümmel

Abstract:

The article focuses on the position of women in the armed forces of Germany and the views of men towards it. The rejection of application of Tanja Kreil, an electrician, for voluntary service in the area of maintenance on gender ground in 1986 opened a debate. After a legal battle Kreil won and it opened the way for women in all services in Germany, including the armed forces. But recent studies in the armed forces showed that most of the person think that women are objects to be protected.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2002

Prosecuting Wartime Rape and Other Gender-Related Crimes Under International Law: Extraordinary Advances, Enduring Obstacles

Citation:

Askin, Kelly D. 2003. “Prosecuting Wartime Rape and Other Gender-Related Crimes Under International Law: Extraordinary Advances, Enduring Obstacles.” Berkeley Journal of International Law 21 (2): 288.

Author: Kelly D. Askin

Abstract:

Examines the changes in international law regarding sexual violence against women. Overview of the relevant customary and treaty law norms particularly within humanitarian law; Ways in which war increasingly is waged against the civilian population; Treatment of gender-related crimes in the post-World War II trials held in Nuremberg, Germany and Tokyo, Japan.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against Women Regions: Asia, East Asia, Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany, Japan

Year: 2003

A Question of Silence: The Rape of German Women by Occupation Soldiers

Citation:

Grossmann, Atina. 1995. “A Question of Silence: The Rape of German Women by Occupation Soldiers.” October 72 (Spring): 43–63. doi:10.2307/778926.

Author: Atina Grossmann

Topics: Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Rape, SV against Women Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 1995

Girl Power and Gender Mainstreaming: Looking for Peace in New Places through an EU Lens

Citation:

Mushaben, Joyce Marie. 2003. “Girl Power and Gender Mainstreaming: Looking for Peace in New Places Through an EU Lens.” Paper presented at the 8th Annual Biennial International Conference of the European Union Studies Association (EUSA), Nashville, March 27-29.

Author: Joyce Marie Mushaben

Abstract:

For most EU members, Old Europe died as a consequence of processes linked to French–German reconciliation, détente with the Warsaw Pact states, the decline of ultranationalism, and the onset of nuclear disarmament. They have embraced a concept of peace implying much more than “the absence of war.” The United States still has much to learn about peace, as illustrated by women-driven policies in both the European Union and Germany. Adopted at the UN Beijing Conference as well as by the EU in 1995, gender mainstreaming is reshaping “sustainable peace” policies at the supranational and national levels. The author profiles German efforts to operationalize “Beijing norms” under a Red-Green coalition, driven by a critical mass of female ministers between 1998 and 2002; the activities of Heidi Wieczorek Zeul (Development and Economic Assistance) reveal that the application of gender mainstreaming, officially adopted by the European Union in 1995, creates new opportunities for advancing equality policies at the national level in heretofore impervious domains, for example, in relation to foreign policies, economic development, and immigration policies.

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Peacebuilding Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2003

Male Sexuality and Psychological Trauma: Soldiers and Sexual Disorder in World War I and Weimar Germany

Citation:

Crouthamel, Jason. 2008. "Male Sexuality and Psychological Trauma: Soldiers and Sexual Disorder in World War I and Weimar Germany." Journal of the History of Sexuality 17 (1): 60-84.

Author: Jason Crouthamel

Keywords: masculinity, trauma, mental health, male soldiers

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexuality Regions: Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2008

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