Of "Manly Valor" and "German Honor": Nation, War, and Masculinity in the Age of the Prussian Uprising against Napoleon


Hagemann, Karen. 1997. “Of ‘Manly Valor’ and ‘German Honor’: Nation War and Masculinity in the Age of the Prussian Uprising Against Napoleon.” Central European History 30 (2): 187–220.

Author: Karen Hagemann

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Nationalism, Violence Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: France, Germany

Year: 1997

Gender in the Middle East

PDF icon Marteu_-_Gender_in_the_Middle_East.pdf136.66 KB
Year course was taught: 

The Quest for Masculinity in a Defeated France, 1940-1945


Capdevila, Luc. 2001. "The Quest for Masculinity in a Defeated France, 1940-1945." Contemporary European History 10 (3, Theme Issue: Gender and War in Europe c. 1918-1949): 423-45.

Author: Luc Capdevila


This article provides a detailed analysis of the individuals who enrolled in Vichy fighting units at the end of the German occupation. Those groups were mostly created in late 1943 and early 1944, and acted as effective subsidiaries to German troops, treating civilians and partisans with extreme violence. The enrolment of those men was a consequence of their political beliefs, notably strong anti-communism. But the fact that their behaviour seems born of desperation (some were recruited after D-Day) is a hint that it was shaped according to other cultural patterns, especially an image of masculinity rooted in the memory of the First World War and developed, among others, according to fascist and Nazi ideologies: a manhood based on strength, the violence of warfare and the image of the soldier. This article provides an analysis based on judiciary documents from the time of the purge, with a careful reconstruction of personal trajectories and self discourse in order to understand the masculine identity these sometimes very young men tried to realise through political engagement in the guise of warriors. (Cambridge Journals)




Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups, Violence Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: France

Year: 2001



Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita J. Simon. 2013. HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT. New York: Columbia University Press.

Authors: Stephanie Hepburn, Rita J. Simon


An examination of human trafficking around the world including the following countries: United States, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Colombia, Iraq, Syria, Canada, Italy, France, Iran, India, Niger, China, South Africa, Australia, United Kingdom, Chile, Germany, Poland, Mexico, Russia, and Brazil. (WorldCat)


Table of Contents:


Part I: Work Visa Loopholes for Traffickers
1) United States
2) Japan
3) United Arab Emirates

Part II: Stateless Persons
4) Thailand
5) Israel & The Occupied Palestinian Territories

Part III: Unrest, displacement, and Who is in charge
6) Colombia
7) Iraq
8) Syria

Part IV: Conflation
9) Canada

Part V: Conflicting Agendas
10) Italy
11) France

Part VI: Gender Apartheid
12) Iran

Part VII: Social Hierarchy
13) India
14) Niger
15) China

Part VIII: Muti Murder
16) South Africa

Part IX: Hard-to-Prove Criterion and a slap on the wrist
17) Australia
18) United Kingdom
19) Chile
20) Germany

Part X: Transparent borders
21) Poland

Part XI: Fear Factor
22) Mexico

Part XII: Poverty and Economic Boom
23) Russia
24) Brazil


*Each Chapter follows the following format with some variations:

As a destination
Internal trafficking
Trafficking abroad
What happens to victims after trafficking
What happens to traffickers
Internal efforts to decrease trafficking



"Devestation from a natural disaster...creates a sudden high demand for low-wage and largely unskilled labor. Disruption of the traditional labor supply leaves room for illicit contractors to move in, and new workers can be brought in unnoticed." (19)

"There continue to be more criminal convictions of sex traffickers than of forced-labor traffickers [However, this number of individuals victimized by forced labor may be increasing]." (32)

"Many experts state that the yakuza (organized crime) networks play a significant role in the smuggling and subsequent debt bondage of women--particularly women from China, Thailand, and Colombia--for forced prostitution in Japan. Determining the exact extent of yakuza involvement is difficult because of the covert nature of the sex industry. Consequently, the yakuza are able to minimize people's direct knowledge of their involvement...The yakuza networks work with organized crime groups from other nations, such as China, Russia, and Colombia." (49-50)

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, International Law, International Human Rights, Multi-National Corporations, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Niger, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2013

Spectre And/or Ideal: Representations of Revolutionary Women in the German Press, 1789–1794


Koser, Julie. 2010. “Spectre and/or Ideal: Representations of Revolutionary Women in the German Press, 1789–1794.” German Life and Letters 63 (2): 105-21.

Author: Julie Koser


As a harbinger of the modern political era, the French Revolution altered the social and political landscape of Western Europe. One such alteration was the destabilisation of borders: the geo-political border between French and German territories was under attack as was the gendered boundary between public and private spheres of activity. This instability that threatened to undermine social order in France also endangered the gender norms within German-speaking territories. German newspapers and journals played a decisive role in shaping public opinion about the Revolution by targeting revolutionary women's presence and participation in matters of politics and war. In an attempt to defend and reinforce reactionary political ideologies and social norms against revolutionary fervour that threatened to engulf German regions, the German press mobilised diametrically-opposed representations of female participants in the public sphere: ‘violent’ armed women and ‘well-mannered’ patriotic ladies. The press depicted armed women's presence in the political realm as ‘unnatural’ and ‘dangerous’ while at the same time it privileged images of the patriotic mother and wife whose support of the political cause was depicted as ‘natural’ and ‘non-threatening’. These competing images of revolutionary women, as either spectre or ideal, served as expressions of the hopes and fears Germans felt toward the events unfolding in neighbouring France and border regions of Germany.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Germany

Year: 2010

Depopulation, Nationalism, and Feminism in Fin-de-Siecle France


Offen, Karen. 1984. “Depopulation, Nationalism, and Feminism in Fin-de-Siecle France.” The American Historical Review 89 (3): 648-76. doi:10.2307/1856120.

Author: Karen Offen

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: France

Year: 1984

Young Muslim Women in France: Cultural and Psychological Adjustments


de Wenden, Catherine Wihtol. 1998. "Young Muslim Women in France: Cultural and Psychological Adjustments." Political Psychology 19 (1): 133-46.

Author: Catherine Wihtol de Wenden


Even though France has experienced increasing and inevitable feminization in its immigrant population since 1974, research has tended to ignore the role of immigrant women, especially Muslim women, in the migration process. Public attention has been diverted by concern over such relatively marginal issues as the headscarf affair, and insufficient attention has been paid to the important role Muslim women play in France, especially those coming from Algeria. These women function as cultural mediators between the traditional culture of the sending country and the modern one of the host country. They see themselves as both tradition-bearers and integration proponents. The demands of immigration have given rise to the growth and development of different leaders, among them cultural mediators seeking a bridge between Islam and modernity, economic mediators seeking to establish women in the media and as entrepreneurs, and political mediators who seek access to power at the local level for the immigrants. These new mediators will eventually shape a new generation of female actors very far from the traditional countries of origin, although for the time being they still suffer from the inequality of rights for women and chances in their overall social life.


  • In her article, Wihtol studies the role of Muslim women who have emigrated to France, arguing that they serve as mediators between traditional culture of their homelands and the modern culture of their new environment. She explains that while many Muslim women face racism and discrimination in France, all in all, the migration to Western society affords them greater autonomy and gender equality.

  • Wihtol uses her sample of Muslim women who migrated to France between 1990 and 1996 to illustrate the fact that the majority of migrants to France are women. Due to this, the percent of women participating in the labor force in France has increased. In addition to this, women have also begun to play larger roles in French civic society. Many of these associations have focused on advocating rights for Muslims, which has allowed these women to integrate their former identities into their desire to conform to French society.

  • While Muslim women in France strive to find employment and embrace the modern elements of French society, they struggle to reconcile this with the traditional demands of their family lives. For example, while the headscarf is valued as a religious and cultural emblem within the family, it is condemned by French society and even outlawed in public schools.

  • Wihtol concludes that Muslim women who migrate to France are confronted by the need to compromise some aspects of their former identities in order to fully integrate themselves into French society. She predicts that the growth of multiculturalism in France may lead to the ability for these women to identify as “French otherwise,” which would allow them to uphold their identities as Muslims while also embracing new French identities.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Religion Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: France

Year: 1998

Depression and Anxiety among Cambodian Refugee Women in France and the United States


D'Avanzo, Carolyn E., and Sasha A. Barab. 1998. Depression and Anxiety among Cambodian Refugee Women in France and the United States. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 19 (6): 541-556.

Authors: Carolyn E. D'Avanzo, Sasha A. Barab


This study reports on Cambodian refugee data related to signs symptomatic of depression and anxiety, the tendency to worry or ruminate over past events (a culture-bound syndrome called ''Khoucherang''), and differences that might be influenced by social system and cultural practice. A sample consisting of 155 women of Cambodian national origin were interviewed in their homes in the USA and France. Answers to the research questions were collected by a focused interview to elicit demographic information, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) in the Cambodian language to elicit depression and anxiety scores. Women residing in France (87%) were significantly more likely to show signs symptomatic of depression than women residing in the USA (65%). Women in the study reported about three times as much depression as the average American woman. Large numbers of women residing in both countries were symptomatic of anxiety (82% on average). Both groups experienced extreme symptoms of the culture-bound syndrome, “Khoucherang,” and appeared to be strongly influenced by the different social systems of the two countries.

Keywords: depression, anxiety, mental health, female refugees

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe Countries: Cambodia, France, United States of America

Year: 1998


© 2024 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - France