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Ethiopia

Gender Differences in the Relationship between Land Ownership and Managerial Rights: Implications for Intrahousehold Farm Labor Allocation

Citation:

Kang, Munsu, Benjamin Schwab, and Jisang Yu. 2020. “Gender Differences in the Relationship between Land Ownership and Managerial Rights: Implications for Intrahousehold Farm Labor Allocation”. World Development 125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104669.

Authors: Munsu Kang, Benjamin Schwab, Jisang Yu

Abstract:

Recent research has increased interest in the intersection of land tenure and gender roles in African agriculture. While formalization of land ownership has been found to have important gender impacts, time use and management remain critical to both the productivity of agricultural operations as well as the welfare of household members. Thus, it is important to understand how gender intersects with the relationship between the ownership and operation of plots. We use plot level data from nationally representative household surveys in Ethiopia and Malawi to characterize the structure (sole male; sole female; or joint) and domain (plot ownership; plot management; or output management) of control over land in each household. We then answer the following research questions: 1) are there any gender gaps in the degrees of the concordance among different domains of controls? and 2) how does the structure of ownership and managerial rights affect labor allocations on plots? We find that for both males and females, sole managerial rights are most likely to occur in plots owned exclusively by either gender. However, on jointly owned plots, instances of sole planting rights are almost exclusively male. We also find that while females supply more of their own labor to plots they control, the pattern of own-gender bias in labor allocation varies with each structure-domain combination. The heterogeneity suggests gender inequality analyses related to land rights are sensitive to the choice of domain of control. 

Keywords: land rights, gender equality, farm labor, LSMS, Ethiopia, Malawi

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Hierarchies, Households, Land Tenure, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Ethiopia, Malawi

Year: 2020

Joint Land Certification Programmes and Women’s Empowerment: Evidence from Ethiopia

Citation:

Melesse, Mequanint B., Adane Dabissa, and Erwin Bulte. 2018. “Joint Land Certification Programmes and Women’s Empowerment: Evidence from Ethiopia.” The Journal of Development Studies 54 (10): 1756–74.

Authors: Mequanint B. Melesse, Adane Dabissa, Erwin Bulte

Abstract:

This paper connects two important development policy issues: women’s empowerment and land certification. We use propensity score matching to study the impact of the Ethiopian joint land registration and certification programme on women’s empowerment. Data are collected using surveys and a field experiment, enabling construction of complementary indices for empowerment. Our main result is that joint land certification has significant effects on women’s empowerment, particularly on dimensions that indicate female participation and roles outside the home. This result is robust to various sensitivity checks and alternative model specifications.

Topics: Gender, Women, Land Tenure, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2018

The Impact of Being of the Female Gender for Household Head on the Prevalence of Food Insecurity in Ethiopia: A Systematic-Review and Meta-Analysis

Citation:

Negesse, Ayenew, Dube Jara, Habtamu Temesgen, Getenet Dessie, Temesgen Getaneh, Henok Mulugeta, Zeleke Abebaw, Tesfahun Taddege, Fasil Wagnew, and Yilkal Negesse. 2020. “The Impact of Being of the Female Gender for Household Head on the Prevalence of Food Insecurity in Ethiopia: A Systematic-Review and Meta-Analysis. Public Health Reviews 41. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40985-020-00131-8.

Authors: Ayenew Negesse, Dube Jara, Habtamu Temesgen, Getenet Dessie, Temesgen Getaneh, Henok Mulugeta, Zeleke Abebaw, Tesfahun Taddege, Fasil Wagnew, Yilkal Negesse

Abstract:

Background: Ethiopia signed both for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) previously and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) currently to improve food security through gender equality and empowerment of women by positioning them as household leader. However, there is no concrete evidence about the impact of being of the female gender for household head on the prevalence of food insecurity at the national level, the authors’ intention being to fill this gap.

Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol (PRISMA-P) guideline was followed. All major databases such as PubMed/ MEDLINE, WHOLIS, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, Web of science, and reference lists were used to identify published articles, whereas shelves, author contact, Google, and Google Scholar were also searched to identify unpublished studies. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistical Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was used for critical appraisal of studies. Meta- analysis was conducted using the STATA software version 14. The random effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of food insecurity at 95% confidence level, while subgroup analysis and meta-regression were employed to identify the possible source of heterogeneity and the associated factors respectively. Moreover, Begg’s test was used to check publication bias.

Results: A total of 143 articles were identified, of which 15 studies were included in the final model with a total sample size of 2084 female-headed households. The pooled estimate of food insecurity among female-headed households was 66.11% (95% confidence level (CL) 54.61, 77.60). Female-headed households had 1.94 (95% CL 1.26, 3.01) times the odds of developing food insecurity as compared with male- headed households in Ethiopia. However, considerable heterogeneity across studies was also exhibited (I2= 92.5%, p value < 0.001).

Conclusion: This review found that severity of food insecurity among female-headed households in Ethiopia was a more pronounced issue as compared with the general national estimate of food insecurity. Food insecurity among them was two-fold increased as compared with their men counterparts. So that, the government of Ethiopia needs to outlook how cultural and social restriction of women’s involvement in every aspect of activity affects their level of household food security. Beyond this, previous success and current gap of food insecurity among female-headed households should be explored in future research to run in accordance with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) specially with goals 2 and 5.

Keywords: Ethiopia, female-headed households, food insecurity, Meta-analysis, systematic review

Topics: Development, Gender, Men, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Security, Food Security, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2020

Women’s Land Rights in Africa: Does Implementation Match Policy?

Citation:

Sulle, Emmanuel, Sue Mbaya, Barbara Codispoti, Josephine Atananga, Bernard Moseti, and Leah Mugehera. 2019. “Women’s Land Rights in Africa: Does Implementation Match Policy?” Paper presented at Conference on Land Policy in Africa, 2019: Winning the fight against Corruption in the Land Sector: Sustainable Pathway for Africa’s Transformation, Abidjan, November 25-29.

Authors: Emmanuel Sulle, Sue Mbaya, Barbara Codispoti, Josephine Atananga, Bernard Moseti, Leah Mugehera

Abstract:

This paper assesses the performance of selected countries in implementing the provisions of women’s land rights instruments such as African Union Framework and Guidelines on Land Policy in Africa and the Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure among others. Field research was carried out in seven African countries whereby, in each country a national researcher in collaboration with the collaborating nongovernmental organisation selected three heterogeneous locations which capture the range of situations under which rural women use land. Based on field research results complemented with desk review, the study finds that while statutory laws to protect women land rights are in place in all studied countries, with some differences and, in some cases with existing loopholes, adherence to these laws at the community level remain inadequate. This is particularly evident in terms of equality of rights to inherit land among men and women. Women experience constant threat from clansmen and relatives of their husbands. As also documented elsewhere, in many African communities (although not all), most land-holding systems are male lineage based, with men playing an important decision-making role. Malawi represents a specific case in this regard, as most land-holdings are based on matrilineal systems, but this still is not an automatic guarantee of women having more decision-making power on land. Based on these findings the paper confirms that while impressive steps to address women’s land rights issues have been taken in recent African policies, law enforceability is yet to receive sufficient political backing, due to widespread patriarchal values, limited financial and human resources and last but not least informal rules of the games that are the same drivers of widespread corruption. Patronage, ‘clientage’, illegality and opacity of land transactions find fertile ground in a patriarchal system. Understanding the status, causes and consequences of the de facto ‘unenforceability’ of constitutional and legal provisions in favour of women might shed a light on much broader challenges like those addressed in this conference. Holistic implementation and reforms that 1) address existing loopholes in land laws and regulation, 2) align other sectoral policies, laws and regulations, and 3) use transformative actions to revert patriarchal values in order to bridge the gender gap in property rights, but also to help creating a fairer environment to contribute combating corruption.

Topics: Corruption, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Land Tenure, Governance, Constitutions, NGOs, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Togo

Year: 2019

Protecting the Land Rights of Women through an Inclusive Land Registration System: The Case of Ethiopia

Citation:

Belay, Abebaw Abebe and Tigistu G/meskel Abza. 2020. “Protecting the Land Rights of Women through an Inclusive Land Registration System: The Case of Ethiopia.” African Journal of Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences 3 (1): 29-40.

Authors: Abebaw Abebe Belay, Tigistu G/meskel Abza

Abstract:

Land is owned by the state and peoples of Ethiopia. Rural farmers and pastoralists have landholding right which contains bundle of rights. Women have equal right to fully use their landholding. Ethiopia has implemented a first level land certification (FLLC). Despite the achievements of the FLLC, gaps were identified especially as regards to local participation throughout the certification process. Ethiopia is currently implementing Second Level Land Certification (SLLC). 15 million parcels have been registered, of which about 80 % are owned by women either privately or jointly with their husbands. This SLLC is implemented in a participatory way. The main objective of this paper is to assess the equity and inclusiveness of the land titling program of Ethiopia in protecting the land rights of women. It is found that the legal frameworks are inclusive for Women, sometimes contain affirmative provisions; the land registration program is inclusive containing procedures for the protection of land rights of women; free legal aid services are being provided for women for their land right protection and there are positions and institutions (Social Development Officers; Women Land Right Task Force and Good Governance Task Team) exclusively responsible for the protection of the rights of women; which are vital for the sustainability of the system. But still there are gaps on legal frameworks; the existence of gender negative customary systems; weak institutional arrangement; registration of land which is under polygamous union; getting certificate does not mean that women have control power over their land. Based on this findings the research recommends for making the process of land registration and titling inclusive; assigning Social Development Officers in the land administration system; conducting repeated follow up after women receive their certificates; and revising legal gaps.

Keywords: inclusiveness, women, registration and certification

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2020

Gender Specific Perspectives among Smallholder Farm Households on Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus Issues in Ethiopia

Citation:

Villamor, Grace B., Dawit Guta, Utkur Djanibekov, and Alisher Mirzabaev. 2018. “Gender Specific Perspectives among Smallholder Farm Households on Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus Issues in Ethiopia.” ZEF-Discussion Papers on Development Policy No. 258, Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung / Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn.

Authors: Grace B. Villamor, Dawit Guta, Utkur Djanibekov, Alisher Mirzabaev

Abstract:

The water-energy-food security nexus concept is a widely recognized analytical approach to consider and achieve sustainable development goals. However, the water-energy-food security nexus concept has mostly been analyzed at higher scales in a top-down manner, while examples of bottom-up and local scale applications remain limited. Breaching this gap, the research presented in this paper describes and assesses the water-energy-food nexus from a smallholder farm household perspective in the context of rural Ethiopia through a gender-specific lens. We adopted the “Actors, Resources, Dynamics and Interactions” participatory approach to co-develop a mental model of this nexus concept. Using this approach, we were able to examine the key elements and interlinkages among major nexus related resources that affect management according to gender. The results indicate that there are four aspects that differentiate between male and female farm household management with respect to the water-energy-food nexus. These differences include gender specific productive roles, perceptions of target resources, access to external actors, and decision making with respect to target resource management and utilization, which may affect the dynamics and governance of important components of the water-energy-food nexus.

Keywords: ARDI method, bottom-up approach, energy-food-land linkages, gender roles, intrahousehold heterogeneity, mental model

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gender Roles, Governance, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2018

Energy 4 All? Investigating Gendered Energy Justice Implications of Community-Based Micro-Hydropower Cooperatives in Ethiopia

Citation:

Wiese, Katharina. 2020. “Energy 4 All? Investigating Gendered Energy Justice Implications of Community-Based Micro-Hydropower Cooperatives in Ethiopia." Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research 33 (2): 194–217.

Author: Katharina Wiese

Abstract:

More than 70% of the population in Ethiopia lack access to electricity and thus rely on conventional sources of energy such as biomass that is associated with negative consequences on health and the environment. Decentralized community-based micro-hydropower plants (MHPs) are being utilized as effective means to transition to modern low-carbon energy systems providing access to electricity to communities in remote areas. However, there exist a knowledge gap regarding energy justice dimensions and gendered impacts related to sustainable energy transitions in the Global South. This research investigates the gendered justice implications of low-carbon energy projects in the case of four community-based micro-hydropower projects in Ethiopia implemented by the German Development Cooperation (GIZ). Although the projects generally achieved positive outcomes for the lives of the villager’s socio-economic impacts on income; productive use, health and education affected men and women differently. The particular energy needs, uses and challenges that women face were insufficiently addressed and hence are limiting the opportunities for women to benefit equally from access to electricity. Generally, procedural justice aspects such as access to information, consultation and participation seemed to be insufficient to create a sense of ownership which in turn can jeopardize the long-term sustainability of the hydropower plants.

Keywords: energy justice, gender, community-based, micro-grid, hydropower, Ethiopia

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Energy, Justice Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2020

Capital, Labor, and Gender: The Consequences of Large-Scale Land Transactions on Household Labor Allocation

Citation:

Hajjar, Reem, Alemayehu N. Ayana, Rebecca Rutt, Omer Hinde, Chuan Liao, Stephanie Keene, Solange Bandiaky-Badji, and Arun Agrawal. 2020. “Capital, Labor, and Gender: The Consequences of Large-Scale Land Transactions on Household Labor Allocation.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 47 (3): 1–23.

Authors: Reem Hajjar, Alemayehu N. Ayana, Rebecca Rutt, Omer Hinde, Chuan Liao, Stephanie Keene, Solange Bandiaky-Badji, Arun Agrawal

Abstract:

Contemporary large-scale land transactions (LSLTs), also called land grabs, are historically unprecedented in their scale and pace. They have provoked robust scholarly debates, yet studies of their gender-differentiated impacts remain more rare, particularly when it comes to how changes in control over land and resources affect women's labor, and thereby their livelihoods and well-being. Our comparative study of four LSLTs in western Ethiopia finds that the transactions led to substantial land use change, including relocation and decrease in size of smallholder parcels, loss of communally-held grazing lands, and loss of forests. These changes had far-reaching impacts on household labor allocation, the gendered division of labor, and household wellbeing. But their effects on women are both more adverse and more severe, expressed in terms of increased wage labor to make up for lost land and livestock, more time spent gathering firewood and water from increasingly distant locations, and an increased intensity of household responsibilities where male members underwent wage labor migration. These burdens led to negative psychological, corporal, and material effects on women living in and near transacted areas compared to their situation prior to transactions. This article both responds to the deficit in studies on the impacts of LSLTs on gendered livelihoods, labor relations, and wellbeing outcomes, and lays the groundwork for future research.

Keywords: tenure changes, gendered impacts, agricultural investments, Ethiopia

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Land Tenure, Health, Mental Health, Households, Land Grabbing, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2020

Irrigation and Equality: An Integrative Gender-Analytical Approach to Water Governance with Examples from Ethiopia and Argentina

Citation:

Imburgia, Laura. 2019. “Irrigation and Equality: An Integrative Gender-Analytical Approach to Water Governance with Examples from Ethiopia and Argentina.” Water Alternatives 12 (2): 571-87.

Author: Laura Imburgia

Abstract:

This paper proposes the use of an integrative framework for better conceptualisation and operationalisation of research geared toward understanding irrigation systems, practices and processes, especially as relates to gender equality in water governance. More specifically, it discusses the importance of developing an integrative gender-analytical approach that enables both researchers and practitioners to analyse the complex interactions between technical and social dimensions of water governance, in order to determine how they contribute to, and thus effect, the overall success and sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Consequently, this paper provides a detailed account of the framework’s key components; including how it is informed by feminist, ecological and sociological theories. There is also an account of the framework’s practical application through a focus on specific outcomes in the dynamic field of water governance. To this end, the paper presents some results derived from an application of the integrative gender-analytical framework on data from a comparative study of small-scale irrigation systems in Ethiopia and Argentina. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to promote a more nuanced and holistic approach to the study of water governance—one that takes both social and technical dimensions into similar account; particularly, if the aim is to promote broader social equality and the sustainability of irrigation systems.

Keywords: small-scale irrigation, gender-analytical framework, water governance, social relations, Ethiopia, Argentina

Topics: Agriculture, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, South America Countries: Argentina, Ethiopia

Year: 2019

Social Capital and Disaster Preparedness in Oromia, Ethiopia: An Evaluation of the "Women Empowered" Approach

Citation:

Story, William T., Halkeno Tura, Jason Rubin, Belaynesh Engidawork, Anwar Ahmed, Feysel Jundi, Teshale Iddosa, and Teweldebrhan Hailu Arbha. 2020. "Social Capital and Disaster Preparedness in Oromia, Ethiopia: An Evaluation of the "Women Empowered" Approach." Social Science & Medicine 257.

Authors: William T. Story, Halkeno Tura, Jason Rubin, Belaynesh Engidawork, Anwar Ahmed, Feysel Jundi, Teshale Iddosa, Teweldebrhan Hailu Abrha

Abstract:

Ethiopia is faced with challenges posed by natural disasters, especially drought. Integrated approaches to disaster risk reduction are necessary to improve the lives and livelihoods of those most vulnerable to disaster. The Women Empowered (WE) approach provides economic and social opportunities for women to build resilience to respond to disasters. This study examines the association between WE group membership and disaster preparedness and whether this relationship is mediated by social capital. We used a multi-stage random cluster sampling strategy to select and interview 589 female respondents from Lage Hidha district (298 from the intervention area and 291 in the comparison area). Using Stata 14.0, we employed Poisson regression analysis to study the mechanisms through which WE groups are associated with disaster preparedness. After controlling for clustering and confounding factors, we found that different components of social capital mediate the relationship between WE group membership and disaster preparedness. Specifically, taking action to prepare for a disaster is primarily mediated by emotional support from the group and perceived preparedness for a disaster is mediated by social network support, emotional support from the group, collective action, and trust. This study suggests that the association between WE groups and disaster preparedness operates through social capital in drought-prone areas of Ethiopia. Future research is needed to determine which forms of social capital have the greatest potential to help families prepare for and respond to a variety of humanitarian crises.

Keywords: Ethiopia, social capital, disaster preparedness, women's empowerment, evaluation

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2020

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