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Costa Rica

Not Necessarily Solidarity: Dilemmas of Transnational Advocacy Networks Addressing Violence against Women

Citation:

Walsh, Shannon Drysdale. 2016. “Not Necessarily Solidarity: Dilemmas of Transnational Advocacy Networks Addressing Violence against Women.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 18 (2): 248–69. doi:10.1080/14616742.2015.1008246.

Author: Shannon Drysdale Walsh

Abstract:

Since the idea of “women's rights as human rights” emerged, there has been a wave of international donors, organizations and transnational feminist activists successfully delivering pressure and resources in the struggle to mitigate violence against women worldwide. Through these transnational networks, decisions regarding which local problems to address and how to manage them are often made at the international level. Most scholarship has rightly celebrated the advances for women's rights that have been made possible due to the impact of international organizations and transnational advocacy networks. However, there are many dilemmas that arise from this North-centric approach to assigning and managing priorities – especially among development aid organizations. Coordination with international donors is often necessary and has been a major source of advances. However, there are still some potentially harmful impacts of having to engage in these networks in order to address violence against women – including a disproportionate focus on short-term results while neglecting long-term goals. This article articulates these dilemmas and explains how international feminist human rights norms can be more successfully translated into a stronger sense of solidarity across borders and more sustainable advances for women. Examples are drawn from the Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua.

Keywords: transnational advocacy networks, Violence against women, Central America, women's rights, human rights

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Globalization, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, NGOs, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua

Year: 2016

Towards a (re)Conceptualisation of the "Feminisation of Poverty": Reflections on Gender-Differentiated Poverty from The Gambia, Philippines and Costa Rica

Citation:

Chant, Sylvia. 2010. “Towards a (re)Conceptualisation of the ‘Feminisation of Poverty’: Reflections on Gender-Differentiated Poverty from The Gambia, Philippines and Costa Rica.” In The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Resarch, Policy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Author: Sylvia Chant

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Costa Rica, Gambia, Philippines

Year: 2010

The Unbearable Heaviness of Being: Reflections on Female Altruism in Cambodia, Philippines, The Gambia and Costa Rica

Citation:

Chant, Sylvia. 2010. “The Unbearable Heaviness of Being: Reflections on Female Altruism in Cambodia, Philippines, The Gambia and Costa Rica.” Progress and Development Studies 10 (2): 145–59.

Author: Sylvia Chant

Abstract:

Reviewing existing scholarship and drawing on our own experience of microlevel qualitative research on gender in countries in three regions of the Global South (Cambodia, the Philippines, Costa Rica and The Gambia), this article examines patterns of women’s altruistic behaviour within poor family-based households. As a quality and practice labeled as ‘feminine’, the article illuminates the motives, dimensions and dynamics that characterise this apparently enduring female trait. It also makes some tentative suggestions as to how the links between women and altruism might be more systematically examined, problematized and addressed in development, and gender and development (GAD) analysis and policy.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Households, Political Economies, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Costa Rica, Gambia, Philippines

Year: 2010

Gender and Media

Syllabus: 
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PDF icon Harmat_-_Gender_and_Media.pdf575.33 KB
Year course was taught: 
2016

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study

Citation:

Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London

Abstract:

There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

Mujeres, Derechos a la Tierra y Contrarreformas en América Latina

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana and Magdalena León. 1997. "Mujeres, Derechos a la Tierra y Contrarreformas en América Latina." Paper presented at the XX Congreso Latinoamericano de la Asociación de Estudios Latinoamericanos (LASA), Mexico City, April,  129-53.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Magdalena León

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua

Year: 1997

Género, propriedad y empoderamiento: tierra, Estado y mercado en América Latina.

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, and Magdalena León. 2000. Género, propiedad y empoderamiento: tierra, Estado y mercado en América Latina. Bogotá, Colombia: TM Editores: UN, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Magdalena León

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru

Year: 2000

Feminist Media Coverage of Women in War: 'You Are Our Eyes and Ears to the World'

Citation:

Thompson, Margaret E, María Suárez Toro, and Katerina Anfossi Gómez. 2007. “Feminist Media Coverage of Women in War: ‘You Are Our Eyes and Ears to the World.’” Gender & Development 15 (3): 435–50.

Authors: Margaret E. Thompson, María Suárez Toro, Katerina Anfossi Gómez

Abstract:

Mainstream media coverage of war often distorts or ignores women's perspectives and experiences in armed conflict, and also their efforts to build peace. This article focuses on the work of FIRE (Feminist International Radio Endeavour/Radio Internacional Feminista), a women's international Internet radio initiative produced by Latin American and Caribbean women in Costa Rica, which "uses technologies, voices, and actions" to amplify the voices of women worldwide as they recount their experiences and perspectives of armed conflict. In doing so, FIRE helps promote an alternative vision of human existence that is based on social justice and human rights, and which serves to strengthen women's and other social and political movements that are based on these values.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, International Organizations, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Costa Rica

Year: 2007

Gender, Migration and Urban Development in Costa Rica: The Case of Guanacaste

Citation:

Chant, Sylvia H. 1991. “Gender, Migration and Urban Development in Costa Rica: The Case of Guanacaste.” Geoforum 22 (3): 237-53.

Author: Sylvia H. Chant

Abstract:

This paper explores the reasons for urban growth in a peripheral region of Central America: Guanacaste province, north-west Costa Rica. While one of the major factors responsible for urbanisation in other parts of Latin America has been the expansion of economic activities in urban areas, the continued dominance of rural employment among the poor in Guanacasteco towns and high rates of seasonal out-migration to labour markets elsewhere in the country suggest that other factors may be more important. On the basis of an in-depth survey of 350 low-income households in three towns in the province, Liberia, Canas, and Santa Cruz, this paper finds that rural-urban movement in Guanacaste is much more strongly linked to the reproductive (e.g. housing, welfare) needs of household survival, than productive (e.g. employment, income) imperatives. The spatial divisions of labour which arise between household members in these different aspects of survival closely correspond with gender divisions of labour: men form the bulk of seasonal labour migrants, while women tend to remain behind in the towns to manage domestic work and child-care. This paper is concerned to explore the reasons for these associations, and their implications for women. In highlighting the importance of taking gender into account to explain the increasingly differentiated nature of urban growth in Latin America, this paper also stresses the need to examine in greater depth the factors contributing to current patterns of gender-selective migration in the continent.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Costa Rica

Year: 1991

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