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The Body and State Violence, from the Harrowing to the Mundane: Chilean Women's Oral Histories of the Augusto Pinochet Dictatorship (1973–1990)


Townsend, Brandi. 2019. "The Body and State Violence, from the Harrowing to the Mundane: Chilean Women's Oral Histories of the Augusto Pinochet Dictatorship (19731990)." Journal of Women's History 31 (2): 33-56.

Author: Brandi Townsend


This article analyzes group interviews with three women from Valparaíso, Chile, who were imprisoned together under Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship (1973–1990). Sylvia, Alicia, and Oriana's oral histories reveal that they frequently spoke about their bodies to convey their experiences of state violence. Sylvia and Alicia constructed narratives of rebellion against the regime and challenged long-standing notions of men's domination over women's bodies. Oriana's account, however, uncovers the complexity of learning to live with the enduring effects of sexual torture, while at the same time defying conventional ideas about sex and motherhood. The article also emphasizes how these women spoke about structural and subtler forms of violence, including denying basic hygienic conditions, constraining freedom of movement, and restricting the right to control birth. It demonstrates how these oral histories were mediated by historical discourses of gender, maternity, sexuality, class, and race.

Topics: Class, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Health, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Reproductive Rights, Women's Rights, Torture, Sexual Torture, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, SV against women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 2019

Acceso de mujeres indígenas a la tierra, el território y los recursos naturales em América Latina y el Caribe


Velásquez Nimatuj, Irma A. 2018. Acceso de mujeres indígenas a la tierra, el território y los recursos naturales em América Latina y el Caribe. Guatemala: Oficina Regional de ONU Mujeres para las Américas y el Caribe; La Paz: Fondo para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas de América Latina y el Caribe (FILAC).

Author: Irma A. Velásquez Nimatuj


El “Acceso de las mujeres indígenas a la tierra, el territorio y los recursos naturales en América Latina y el Caribe”, elaborado por la Antropóloga Maya K’ichee’, Doctora y Maestra en Antropología Social Irma A. Velásquez Nimatuj, ofrece una panorámica regional sobre la temática junto con casos de estudio y recomendaciones clave. Su elaboración se enmarca en el trabajo de colaboración entre la Oficina Regional de ONU Mujeres para las Américas y el Caribe, y el Fondo para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas de América Latina y el Caribe (FILAC), para promover el pleno ejercicio de los derechos de las mujeres indígenas.
El documento ofrece, en primer lugar, un análisis sobre los significados que tienen la tierra, el territorio y los recursos naturales para las mujeres indígenas, seguido de una descripción del estado actual y el marco legal internacional y de derechos de las mujeres indígenas. En segundo lugar describe once casos de estudio de acceso a la tierra, territorios y recursos naturales de las mujeres nasa yuwe (páez) de Colombia, las mujeres mapuches de Chile, las mujeres zapatistas de Chiapas, México, las mujeres indígenas de Paraguay, las mujeres maya-q´eqchi´ de Lote Ocho de Guatemala, las mujeres miskitas de la Costa Atlántica de Nicaragua, las mujeres térraba (teribe o broran) de Costa Rica, el proyecto “mujeres indígenas y gobernanza de la tierra” de ONAMIAP de Perú, las mujeres gunas o kuna de Panamá, las mujeres guaraníes del Chaco boliviano, y las mujeres garífunas de la Costa Caribeña de Honduras. Seguidamente ofrece una descripción sobre los retos que enfrentan las mujeres indígenas para gozar de sus derechos de acceso a la tierra, territorios y recursos naturales, así como una serie de buenas prácticas y recomendaciones. 

Topics: Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru

Year: 2018

Remembering Who We Are: Reflections on Latin American Ecofeminist Theology


Ress, Mary Judith. 2008. “Remembering Who We Are: Reflections on Latin American Ecofeminist Theology.” Feminist Theology 16 (3): 383-96.

Author: Mary Judith Ress


Since 1990 I have been deeply involved in the development of Latin American ecofeminist thought and its theological, ethical and spiritual perspectives as a founding member of the Con-spirando Collective, a team of women working in the areas of ecofeminist theology, ethics and spirituality in Santiago, Chile. This article describes the results of a research project I conducted based on interviews with twelve faith-based activist women who had historically aligned themselves with liberation theology and its practice and who now describe themselves as ecofeminists. The aim was to document the shift that took place in their identities and their growing ecofeminist awareness. This is made visible through the ways that these women perceive themselves in relation to the rest of the Earth community and to the Universe as a whole; in the way they re-image/re-name Ultimate Mystery; in their beliefs about death and rebirth; and in their spiritual and ethical practice.

Keywords: ecofeminism, universe, liberation theology, intuition, feminist

Topics: Feminisms, Ecofeminism Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 2008

Gendered Implications of Tax Reform in Latin America: Argentine, Chile, Costa Rica, and Jamaica


Huber, Evelyne. 2006. "Gendered Implications of Tax Reform in Latin America: Argentine, Chile, Costa Rica, and Jamaica." In Gender and Social Policy in a Global Context, edited by Shahra Razavi and Shireen Hassim, 301-21. London: Palgrave Macmillan London.

Author: Evelyne Huber


In Latin American and Caribbean countries, poverty and inequality have been longstanding problems, and the momentous economic and social policy changes over the past two decades have done little to ameliorate them. The most effective means for reducing class- and gender-based poverty and inequality would be citizenship-based entitlements to basic (i.e. allowing basic subsistence) income support, healthcare, and education. In advanced industrial societies, public spending is an extremely important instrument for the alleviation of class- and gender-based poverty and inequality (Moller et al. 2003; Bradley et al. 2003; Huber and Stephens 2001), and it could potentially play a similar role in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, responsible, that is non-inflationary, financing of such programs requires a sound system of taxation, something that is scarce in developing countries, including in Latin America and the Caribbean. Systems of taxation on their part have important implications for class and gender equity. This chapter explores changes in the systems of taxation in four Latin American and Caribbean countries — Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Jamaica — from the point of view of their gendered impact.

Keywords: International Monetary Fund, indirect taxis, direct taxis, gender implication, Jamaica Labour Party

Topics: Citizenship, Class, Development, Economies, Public Finance, Poverty, Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America Countries: Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Jamaica

Year: 2006

Men's Help-Seeking Attitudes in Rural Communities Affected by a Natural Disaster


Labra, Oscar, Robin Wright, Gilles Tremblay, Danielle Maltais, Ray Bustinza, and Gabriel Gingras-Lacroix. 2018. "Men's Help-Seeking Attitudes in Rural Communities Affected by a Natural Disaster." American Journal of Men's Health 13 (1).

Authors: Oscar Labra, Robin Wright, Gilles Tremblay, Danielle Maltais, Ray Bustinza, Gabriel Gingras-Lacroix


The article describes a mixed methods study of help-seeking in men living in the Chilean Central Valley, following exposure to a major earthquake event in 2010. The results identify that, within the sample, positive attitudes toward help-seeking correlated with younger age, higher education levels, above-average incomes, and stable personal relationships. It appears that education plays a significant role in shaping such positive attitudes, particularly by influencing views of gender roles and help-seeking. Conversely, older men’s reticence toward seeking help appeared linked to negative perceptions of available services and the influence of traditional notions of masculinity. The study concludes that adapting interventions and service offers to men’s needs in rural contexts must include an ecosystemic analysis of their reality and incorporate an understanding of masculinity socialization processes.

Keywords: men, help-seeking, rural, masculinity

Topics: Age, Class, Education, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 2018

Partners in Conflict: the Politics of Gender, Sexuality, and Labor in the Chilean Agrarian Reform, 1950-1973


Tinsman, Heidi. 2002. Partners in Conflict: The Politics of Gender, Sexuality, and Labor in the Chilean Agrarian Reform, 1950-1973. Durham: Duke University Press.

Author: Heidi Tinsman


Partners in Conflict examines the importance of sexuality and gender to rural labor and agrarian politics during the last days of Chile’s latifundia system of traditional landed estates and throughout the governments of Eduardo Frei and Salvador Allende. Heidi Tinsman analyzes differences between men’s and women’s participation in Chile’s Agrarian Reform movement and considers how conflicts over gender and sexuality shape the contours of working-class struggles and national politics.
Tinsman restores women to a scholarly narrative that has been almost exclusively about men, recounting the centrality of women’s labor to the pre-Agrarian Reform world of the hacienda  during the 1950s and recovering women’s critical roles in union struggles and land occupations during the Agrarian Reform itself. Providing a theoretical framework for understanding why the Agrarian Reform ultimately empowered men more than women, Tinsman argues that women were marginalized not because the Agrarian Reform ignored women but because, under both the Frei and Allende governments, it promoted the male-headed household as the cornerstone of a new society. Although this emphasis on gender cooperation stressed that men should have more respect for their wives and funneled unprecedented amounts of resources into women’s hands, the reform defined men as its protagonists and affirmed their authority over women.
This is the first monographic social history of Chile’s Agrarian Reform in either English or Spanish, and the first historical work to make sexuality and gender central to the analysis of the reforms. (Summary from Duke University Press)
Table of Contents
1. Patrón and Peón: Labor and Authority on the Great Estates 
2. Binding Ties: Campesino Sexuality and Family Negotiations
3. Making Men: Labor Mobilization and Agrarian Reform
4. Promoting Gender Mutualism: Rural Education, Mothers Centers, and Family Planning
5. Struggling for Land: Worker Bosses and Campesina Militants
6. Revolutionizing Women: Popular Unity and Female Mobilization
7. Coming Apart: Struggle, Sex, and Social Crisis


Topics: Agriculture, Conflict, Resource Conflict, Education, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Analysis, Households, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Sexuality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 2002

Gender Justice, Development, and Rights


Molyneux, Maxine, and Shahra Razavi, eds. 2002. Gender Justice, Development, and Rights. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Maxine Molyneux, Shahra Razavi


Gender Justice, Development, and Rights reflects on the significance accorded in international development policy to rights and democracy in the post-Cold War era. Key items on the contemporary policy agenda - neo-liberal economic and social policies, democracy, and multi-culturalism - are addressed here by leading scholars and regional specialists through theoretical reflections and detailed case studies. Together they constitute a collection which casts contemporary liberalism in a distinctive light by applying a gender perspective to the analysis of political and policy processes. Case studies from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, East-Central Europe, South and South-East Asia contribute a cross-cultural dimension to the analysis of contemporary liberalism - the dominant value system in the modern world - by examining how it both exists in and is resisted in developing and post-transition societies. (Summary from WorldCat)
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Maxine Molyneux and Shahra Razavi
Part I: Re-Thinking Liberal Rights And Universalism 
2. Women's Capabilities And Social Justice
Martha Nussbaum
3. Gender Justice, Human Rights And Neo-Liberal Economic Policies
Diane Elson
4. Multiculturalism, Universalism And The Claims Of Democracy
Anne Phillips
Part II: Social Sector Restructuring And Social Rights 
5. Political And Social Citizenship: An Examination Of The Case Of Poland
Jacqueline Heinen and Stephane Portet
6. Engendering The New Social Citizenship In Chile: Ngos And Social Provisioning Under Neo-Liberalism
Veronica Schild
7. Engendering Education: Prospects For A Rights-Based Approach To Female Education Deprivation In India
Ramya Subrahmanian
Part III: Democratisation And The Politics Of Gender 
8. Feminism And Political Reform In The Islamic Republic Of Iran
Parvin Paidar
9. The 'Devil's Deal': Women's Political Participation And Authoritarianism In Peru
Cecilia Blondet M.
10. In And Against The Party: Women's Representation And Constituency-Building In Uganda And South Africa
Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim
PART IV: Multiculturalisms In Practice 
11. The Politics Of Gender, Ethnicity And Democratization In Malaysia: Shifting Interests And Identities
Maznah Mohamad
12. National Law And Indigenous Customary Law: The Struggle For Justice Of Indigenous Women In Chiapas, Mexico Aida
Hernandez Castillo
13. The Politics Of Women's Rights And Cultural Diversity In Uganda
Aili Mari Tripp

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Governance, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Chile, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Uganda

Year: 2002

Contested Communities: Class, Gender, and Politics in Chile’s El Teniente Copper Mine, 1904-1951


Thomas Miller Klubock. 1998. Contested Communities: Class, Gender, and Politics in Chile’s El Teniente Copper Mine, 1904-1951. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Author: Thomas Miller Klubock


In Contested Communities Thomas Miller Klubock analyzes the experiences of the El Teniente copper miners during the first fifty years of the twentieth century. Describing the everyday life and culture of the mining community, its impact on Chilean politics and national events, and the sense of self and identity working-class men and women developed in the foreign-owned enclave, Klubock provides important insights into the cultural and social history of Chile.
Klubock shows how a militant working-class community was established through the interplay between capitalist development, state formation, and the ideologies of gender. In describing how the North American copper company attempted to reconfigure and reform the work and social-cultural lives of men and women who migrated to the mine, Klubock demonstrates how struggles between labor and capital took place on a gendered field of power and reconstituted social constructions of masculinity and femininity. As a result, Contested Communities describes more accurately than any previous study the nature of grassroots labor militancy, working-class culture, and everyday politics of gender relations during crucial years of the Chilean Popular Front in the 1930s and 1940s. (Summary from Duke University Press)

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Militarism Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 1998

Historical Perspectives on Industrial Development, Mining, and Prostitution


Laite, Julia Ann. 2009. “Historical Perspectives on Industrial Development, Mining, and Prostitution.” The Historical Journal 52 (3): 739–61.

Author: Julia Ann Laite


Prostitution has been linked by many historians and social commentators to the industrial development and capitalism of the modern age, and there is no better example of this than the prostitution that developed in mining regions from the mid-nineteenth century. Using research on mining-related prostitution, and other social histories of mining communities where prostitution inevitably forms apart, large or small, of the historian's analysis of the mining region, this article will review, contrast, and compare prostitution in various mining contexts, in different national and colonial settings. From the American and Canadian gold rushes in the mid-and late nineteenth century, to the more established mining frontiers of the later North American West, to the corporate mining towns of Chile in the interwaryears, to the copper and gold mines of southern Africa and Kenya in the first half of the twentieth century, commercial sex was present and prominent as the mining industry and mining communities developed. Challenging the simplistic images and stereotypes of prostitution that are popularly associated with the American mining frontier, historians have shown that prostitution's place in mining communities, and its connection to industrial development, was as complex as it was pervasive and enduring.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Governance, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, South America Countries: Canada, Chile, Kenya, South Africa, United States of America

Year: 2009

The Power of Money in Gender Relations from a Chilean Mining Culture


Silva-Segovia, Jimena, and Siu Lay-Lisboa. 2017. “The Power of Money in Gender Relations from a Chilean Mining Culture.” Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 32 (3): 344-58.  doi:10.1177/0886109916689784.

Authors: Jimena Silva-Segovia, Siu Lay-Lisboa


This article addresses the role of money in power relations among mining and nonmining couples. The research performed in the region of Antofagasta, Chile, is based on an interpretive paradigm, with discursive analysis. Twenty-eight people were interviewed based on the category of conflicts and tensions in money negotiations. Findings include that among older women and men, money appears to be masculinized and associated with an illusion of empowerment of women, exacerbating the androcentric sex/gender model. In their discourses, some women express their progress toward relationships of greater equity. Couples must deal with gender conflicts when negotiating money. Even though women manage the family’s money, it’s not considered their money; therefore, they don’t feel free to use it and must account to the man. In this power game and in negotiating, the model of romantic love prevails, the couple’s public and private position, and a neoliberal culture that promotes high levels of consumption.

Keywords: Chile, couple, gender, mining, money, power

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Households Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 2017


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