Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Canada

Gender, Political Ideology, and Climate Change Beliefs in an Extractive Industry Community

Citation:

Davidson, Debra J., and Michael Haan. 2012. “Gender, Political Ideology, and Climate Change Beliefs in an Extractive Industry Community.” Population and Environment 34 (2): 217–34.

Authors: Debra J. Davidson, Michael Haan

Abstract:

This paper presents results from a survey on attitudes toward climate change in Alberta, Canada, home to just 10% of Canada's population, but the source of 35% of the country's greenhouse-gas emissions (Environment Canada 2011). Results show high levels of awareness, but much lower levels of perceived climate change impacts for one's self or region. Women expressed significantly greater awareness and sense of perceived impacts about climate change than men; however, gender differences appear predominantly associated with socioeconomic factors. Indeed, in all, political ideology had the strongest predictive value, with individuals voting for the conservative party significantly less likely to anticipate significant societal climate change impacts. This finding, in turn, is strongly associated with beliefs regarding whether climate change is human induced. Particularly notable is the finding that the gender gap in climate change beliefs and perceived impacts is not attributed to gendered social roles, as indicated by occupational and familial status. Instead, gender distinctions appear to be related to the lower tendency for women to ascribe to a conservative political ideology relative to men.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2012

A Narrative Study of Refugee Women Who Have Experienced Violence in the Context of War

Citation:

Berman, Helene, Estrella Rosa Irías Girón, and Antonia Ponce Marroquin. 2006. “A Narrative Study of Refugee Women Who Have Experienced Violence in the Context of War.” Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 38 (4): 32-53.

Authors: Helene Berman, Estrella Rosa Irías Girón, Antonia Ponce Marroquin

Abstract:

Although women are rarely on the frontlines of battle, as in many other realms of contemporary life they bear a disproportionate burden of the consequences of war. Many have experienced torture firsthand or been witnesses to the torture or killing of family, friends, and loved ones. The use of rape and other forms of sexual torture has been well documented. For those who are forced to flee their homes and countries, separation from spouses, children, and other family members is common. Because of the sheer magnitude of global conflict, the number of refugees and displaced persons throughout the world has risen exponentially. It has been estimated that women constitute more than half of the world’s refugee population. The purpose of this narrative study was to examine the experiences of refugee women who experienced violence in the context of war. Data analysis revealed 8 themes: lives forever changed, new notions of normality, a pervasive sense of fear, selves obscured, living among and between cultures, a woman’s place in Canada, bearing heavy burdens – the centrality of children, and an uncaring system of care. Implications for research and practice, including limitations associated with individualized Western approaches, are discussed.

Keywords: refugees, women, war, violence, trauma, narrative, health

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women, Torture, Sexual Torture, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Canada, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala

Year: 2006

Explaining Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal Inequalities in Postseparation Violence Against Canadian Women: Application of a Structural Violence Approach

Citation:

Pedersen, Jeannette Somlak, Lorraine Halinka Malcoe, and Jane Pulkingham. 2013. “Explaining Aboriginal /Non-Aboriginal Inequalities in Postseparation Violence Against Canadian Women: Application of a Structural Violence Approach.” Violence Against Women 19 (8): 1034-58.

Authors: Jeannette Somlak Pedersen, Lorraine Halinka Malcoe, Jane Pulkingham

Abstract:

Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p < .001). Coercive control and age explained most of this inequality. The final model included Aboriginal status, age, a seven-item coercive control index, and stalking, which reduced the odds ratio for Aboriginal status to 1.92 (p = .085) and explained 70.5% of the Aboriginal/ non-Aboriginal inequality in postseparation IPV. Research and action are needed that challenge structural violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous, Race, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2013

The Contribution of Socio-Economic Position to the Excesses of Violence and Intimate Partner Violence Among Aboriginal Versus Non-Aboriginal Women in Canada

Citation:

Daoud, Nihaya, Janet Smylie, Marcelo Urquia, Billie Allan, and Patricia O’Campo. 2013. “The Contribution of Socio-Economic Position to the Excesses of Violence and Intimate Partner Violence Among Aboriginal Versus Non-Aboriginal Women in Canada.” Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique 104 (4): 278-83.

Authors: Nihaya Daoud, Janet Smylie, Marcelo Urquia, Billie Allan, Patricia O’Campo

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To examine the contribution of socio-economic position (SEP) in explaining the excess of any abuse and inlimate partner violence (IPY) among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal women in Canada. This comparison has not been studied before.

METHODS: We conducted logistic regression analysis, using nationwide data from a weighted sample of 57,318 Canadian-born mothers of singletons who participated in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey 2006-7.

RESULTS: The unacjusted odds of any abuse and IPV were almost four times higher among Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal mothers; OR 3.91 (95% CI 3.12-4.89) and OR 3.78 (2.87-4.97), respectively, Adjustmem for SEP red uced the unadjusted OR of any abuse and fPVby almost 40%. However, even with this adjustment, the odds of any abuse and IPV for Aboriginal mothers remained twice that of non-Aboriginal mothers; OR 2.34 (1 .82 -2.99) and OR 2.19 (1.60-3.00), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: SEP is a predominant contributor to the excess of abuse against Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginalwomen in Canada. Reducing violence against Aboriginal women can be achieved mostly by improving their SEP, and simultaneously be informed by social processes and services that can mitigate abuse . The fact that SEP did not fully explain the excess of abuse among the Aboriginal women might lend support to "colonization or postcolonial theories," and related contextual factors such as differences in community social resources (e.q., social capital) and services. The effect of these factors on the excess of abuse warrants future research.

Topics: Class, Economies, Poverty, Domestic Violence, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous, Race, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2013

Gender and Resource Co-Management in Northern Canada

Citation:

Natcher, David C. 2013. “Gender and Resource Co-Management in Northern Canada.” Arctic 66 (2): 218-21.

Author: David C. Natcher

Abstract:

An inventory of the nominal representation of men and women on northern co-management boards in the Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut identified a total of 34 co-management boards. Of their total of 210 members, 176 (84%) were males and 34 (16%) were females. Nine boards were composed exclusively of men, and 18 boards had only a single female representative. The land and resource management regimes created through the settlement of comprehensive land claims have afforded Aboriginal governments equitable representation in co-management but have not promoted gender equity in board membership.

Topics: Development, Environment, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Energy, Water & Sanitation, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2013

Women in the Canadian Forces: Between Legal and Social Integration

Citation:

Winslow, Donna, and Jason Dunn. 2002. “Women in the Canadian Forces: Between Legal and Social Integration.” Current Sociology 50 (5): 641–67. doi:10.1177/0011392102050005003.

Authors: Donna Winslow, Jason Dunn

Abstract:

In this article the authors examine the integration of women into the Canadian armed forces. The definition of integration has two parts. The first is a legal standard where women and men are incorporated as equals into the military. The second is of a social nature. Here, integration is defined as the full acceptance of women as equals. The authors argue that the combat forces are far removed from civilian society. As a result they emphasize the values and attitudes of the traditionally male-oriented military organization and, in particular, masculine models of the warrior, thus resisting female integration. This article is based primarily upon documentary research on gender integration in the Canadian armed forces. The authors also examine how scholars have addressed change within military organizations; in particular, how certain sectors of the military react differently to change. In addition, informal interviews were conducted with forces personnel.

Topics: Civil Society, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2002

Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law

Citation:

Dauvergne, Catherine, and Jenni Millbank. 2010. “Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law.” The Modern Law Review 73 (1): 57–88.

Authors: Catherine Dauvergne, Jenni Millbank

Abstract:

This article reports on our analysis of 120 refugee cases from Australia, Canada, and Britain where an actual or threatened forced marriage was part of the claim for protection. We found that forced marriage was rarely considered by refugee decision makers to be a harm in and of itself. This finding contributes to understanding how gender and sexuality are analysed within refugee law, because the harm of forced marriage is experienced differently by lesbians, gay men and heterosexual women. We contrast our findings in the refugee case law with domestic initiatives in Europe aimed at protecting nationals from forced marriages both within Europe and elsewhere. We pay particular attention to British initiatives because they are in many ways the most far-reaching and innovative, and thus the contrast with the response of British refugee law is all the more stark.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, International Law, Sexual Violence, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada, United Kingdom

Year: 2010

Women’s Absence, Women’s Power: Indigenous Women and Negotiations with Mining Companies in Australia and Canada

Citation:

O’Faircheallaigh, Ciaran. 2013. “Women’s Absence, Women’s Power: Indigenous Women and Negotiations with Mining Companies in Australia and Canada.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 36 (11): 1789–807.

Author: Ciaran O'Faircheallaigh

Abstract:

This article documents the agency of indigenous women in negotiations surrounding major resource projects on indigenous lands. The dominant view in the academic and activist literature is that indigenous women are excluded from negotiations, which helps explain their failure to share in project benefits. The author’s experience as a negotiator for indigenous communities in Australia and his research in Canada reveals a different picture, indicating that indigenous women often play a central role in negotiations. The article seeks to explain the inconsistency between the findings reported here and much of the literature, in terms of a broader tendency in the latter to downplay the agency of women in relation to mining; and its failure to adequately recognize the multiple and complex ways in which indigenous women can influence negotiations, and the role of specific cultural, institutional and political contexts in shaping women’s participation.

Keywords: indigenous peoples, aboriginal, power, land rights, mining

Topics: Economies, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Indigenous, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, North America, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada

Year: 2013

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT

Citation:

Hepburn, Stephanie, and Rita J. Simon. 2013. HUMAN TRAFFICKING AROUND THE WORLD: HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT. New York: Columbia University Press.

Authors: Stephanie Hepburn, Rita J. Simon

Abstract:

An examination of human trafficking around the world including the following countries: United States, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Colombia, Iraq, Syria, Canada, Italy, France, Iran, India, Niger, China, South Africa, Australia, United Kingdom, Chile, Germany, Poland, Mexico, Russia, and Brazil. (WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Part I: Work Visa Loopholes for Traffickers
1) United States
2) Japan
3) United Arab Emirates

Part II: Stateless Persons
4) Thailand
5) Israel & The Occupied Palestinian Territories

Part III: Unrest, displacement, and Who is in charge
6) Colombia
7) Iraq
8) Syria

Part IV: Conflation
9) Canada

Part V: Conflicting Agendas
10) Italy
11) France

Part VI: Gender Apartheid
12) Iran

Part VII: Social Hierarchy
13) India
14) Niger
15) China

Part VIII: Muti Murder
16) South Africa

Part IX: Hard-to-Prove Criterion and a slap on the wrist
17) Australia
18) United Kingdom
19) Chile
20) Germany

Part X: Transparent borders
21) Poland

Part XI: Fear Factor
22) Mexico

Part XII: Poverty and Economic Boom
23) Russia
24) Brazil

Conclusion

*Each Chapter follows the following format with some variations:

Introduction
As a destination
Internal trafficking
Trafficking abroad
What happens to victims after trafficking
What happens to traffickers
Internal efforts to decrease trafficking

 

Quotes:

"Devestation from a natural disaster...creates a sudden high demand for low-wage and largely unskilled labor. Disruption of the traditional labor supply leaves room for illicit contractors to move in, and new workers can be brought in unnoticed." (19)

"There continue to be more criminal convictions of sex traffickers than of forced-labor traffickers [However, this number of individuals victimized by forced labor may be increasing]." (32)

"Many experts state that the yakuza (organized crime) networks play a significant role in the smuggling and subsequent debt bondage of women--particularly women from China, Thailand, and Colombia--for forced prostitution in Japan. Determining the exact extent of yakuza involvement is difficult because of the covert nature of the sex industry. Consequently, the yakuza are able to minimize people's direct knowledge of their involvement...The yakuza networks work with organized crime groups from other nations, such as China, Russia, and Colombia." (49-50)

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, International Law, International Human Rights, Multi-National Corporations, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Niger, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2013

Democratization/ Governmentalization of Foreign Policy: The Case of the Canadian Committee on Women, Peace and Security

Citation:

Wada, Kenji. 2008. “Democratization/ Governmentalization of Foreign Policy: The Case of the Canadian Committee on Women, Peace and Security.” Paper presented at the International Studies Association’s 49th Annual Convention, San Francisco, CA, March 26-29.

Author: Kenji Wada

Abstract:

The Canadian government established the Canadian Committee on Women, Peace and Security (CCWPS) to mobilize three types of actors, civil society representatives, government officials and parliamentarians, toward the full implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325 at the domestic level. The aim of this essay is to examine the politico-economic implications of CCWPS by analyzing “the democratization of foreign policy,” which encouraged the Canadian government to incorporate civil society actors into foreign policy-making processes, in the framework of the administrative-financial reform implemented in the mid-1990s. In this respect, the employment of Foucauldian perspective allows us to consider the aspect of CCWPS as a “government,” and the shift in the rationality of government from “excessive government” to “frugal government” urges civil society actors to incorporate in “a whole variety of complex assemblages.” In this view, this essay will argue that CCWPS was a space where the state transferred authority and responsibility for parts of its tasks in order to achieve more efficient and effective government rather than to enhance democracy.

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Governance, Peace Processes, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2008

Pages

© 2021 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Canada